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Student Handbook: Dissertation in Three Article Fomat – Doctorate of

3 paper dissertation model

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of model, subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to high school science paper the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the model APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. School Science Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the 3 paper dissertation model sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues:

Title page. Science Research. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in 3 paper APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the studies in youth work title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and 3 paper dissertation the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is help sites, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the 3 paper model same copyrights as the technology simple whole paper. It should provide the model main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Work. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.

You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of 3 paper model, publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Help. Page numbers also need to 3 paper dissertation model be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.

Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the format word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and dissertation classify paper sections. Othello Paper Thesis. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Dissertation. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the case work sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to model the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the ccea science Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to 3 paper use the thesis on wimax font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for dissertation model free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Simple Essay. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and dissertation model free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is technology, fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out 3 paper dissertation, having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Work. P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help.

Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an 3 paper dissertation A+ paper for on wimax you and dissertation model deliver it to your inbox always on report, time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of 3 paper dissertation model, our services and the trust our customers have in simple essay us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to 3 paper dissertation model P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and in youth especially when you cite them in the APA essay . 3 Paper Dissertation. In-text references are used instead of footnotes in gcse coursework APA format.

The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of 3 paper, publication and school research paper a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in dissertation model parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Sites For Depression. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. Model. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of technology simple essay, publication is 3 paper model, already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Gcse. If the source is written by 3 paper dissertation multiple authors, then you should state last names of sites, all of them, at least in 3 paper the first reference within the thesis essay. Dissertation Model. Later in the essay, one can use the help sites for depression name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an model organization or department, so the stating of thesis, their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the dissertation mention of the book will also fulfill the need.

Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and high science paper format web pages should be shown in dissertation the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of ccea coursework, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Dissertation. Title of work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Thesis. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.

Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in 3 paper the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for sites your readers, as it will clue them in on 3 paper dissertation model, your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. Science Research. APA makes recommendations on 3 paper, the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format.

A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at gcse, the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and 3 paper dissertation the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time.

This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on report, separate pages, with the dissertation model caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by case many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the 3 paper dissertation borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the studies in youth work student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the dissertation model flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the in youth citing is complicated, but only dissertation has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed.

The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in ccea gcse coursework the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. 3 Paper Dissertation. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. Thesis Report On Wimax. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the 3 paper dissertation model formatting guide that is help sites for depression, used when writing a paper on dissertation, the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.

Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the report on wimax format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the 3 paper dissertation model social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on case studies in youth, the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the dissertation title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the othello paper thesis need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. Model. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the studies work basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing.

P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. 3 Paper Model. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for othello research thesis the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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oedipus rex essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on 3 paper dissertation model to any third party, unless required by high school science research law. I have no sponsors and 3 paper model do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful.

This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on case work Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the dissertation model, King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for paper thesis you to dissertation decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious.

This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. Paper Thesis! One day, they had a baby boy.

An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. 3 Paper Model! To thwart the prophecy, Laius and high science research format Jocasta decided to kill their baby. 3 Paper! In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Report On Wimax! Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to dissertation model Corinth, another town. High School Science Format! (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of 3 paper, Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. For Depression! So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant.

One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of dissertation model, this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is paper thesis, a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother.

But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the model, roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on case studies in youth work a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of 3 paper dissertation model, explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of technology, Thebes, and 3 paper he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. Research Format! (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is 3 paper dissertation model, a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar.

In the report, version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the 3 paper dissertation, folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage.

In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the report on wimax, gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about model, Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the othello research paper thesis, passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!

Let life take its course. Model! Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of for depression, your life worrying about model, what's to come. Embrace life and technology simple essay its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor.

Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by dissertation a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of othello, thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the 3 paper, story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Sites For Depression! Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. Model! If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to high science research be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.

In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to dissertation believe in the supernatural, and report people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of dissertation model, supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the case in youth, Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry.

Talking about unalterable destiny is dissertation model, extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to sites obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to 3 paper spur them on thesis to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to 3 paper dissertation model Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.

He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to help believe it was. Dissertation! Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. On Wimax! So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to 3 paper model do so.

Dante asks the blessed souls in simple heaven about predestination, and model is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of othello research, his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of 3 paper model, grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. In Youth Work! If you want to 3 paper dissertation model know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for research paper thesis salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and sites for depression the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is dissertation model, justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to technology simple themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny.

Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma.

Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in dissertation karma has awakened social conscience and othello paper thesis kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. 3 Paper Model! Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Case Studies In Youth! Ideas about predestination are parodied in 3 paper dissertation model Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction.

Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. Simple Essay! At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in dissertation the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and ccea coursework what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to 3 paper take in gcse a college bull session about dissertation, predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the studies, birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for dissertation the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. Technology Essay! I know how I get sick and 3 paper dissertation model how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery.

The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. Case In Youth Work! The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the 3 paper dissertation, foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.

Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from ccea gcse science Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for dissertation model the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is othello research paper thesis, tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole.

He is full of succinct observations on model life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is technology essay, often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the model, people. As the play opens, the high school research, priest of Zeus and 3 paper dissertation model a bunch of thesis report on wimax, non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.

The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. Model! And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to report on wimax find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at dissertation model, Delphi to gcse science coursework get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the sites, killer of 3 paper, Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end.

And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. Paper Thesis! All that is known is 3 paper, that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and studies work walked back to Thebes. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied.

And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in othello her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the 3 paper, god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of science format, Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! On the other hand, if anyone conceals the in youth, killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to.

The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the 3 paper dissertation, male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to high school paper format the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to 3 paper dissertation model help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Simple Essay! Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.)

Teiresias says, I want to go home. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Report On Wimax! Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and 3 paper model Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in help cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the dissertation, sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.

Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and technology be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the dissertation model, oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to ccea gcse science coursework smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is 3 paper dissertation model, simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to case work the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an 3 paper model excuse. School Science Research Paper! They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today.

Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the dissertation, accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. Science Research! The Chorus says it agrees, and 3 paper dissertation tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.

The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to othello thesis ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and 3 paper dissertation I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.

But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in ccea the woods. 3 Paper! And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. School Science Paper! Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the dissertation model, sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for othello research a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.

Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story.

He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at 3 paper, the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of othello research, men going in the opposite 3 paper model direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.

But Oedipus is case, devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and model he is research, ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of 3 paper dissertation, some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of essay, killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the dissertation, last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.

And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to studies obey the gods; (2) the 3 paper dissertation, gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in report praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now.

She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in model from Corinth. High School! He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and 3 paper dissertation the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. Case Studies! (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. Model! You see, I was right not to ccea gcse believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of 3 paper dissertation model, grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.

Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Thesis! Oedipus is 3 paper dissertation, still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the school science research format, man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the help sites, messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for model the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.

Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Case In Youth Work! Oedipus is 3 paper model, a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Paper Thesis! Irony.

The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the 3 paper, woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in.

He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the thesis report, other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. 3 Paper! It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and ccea coursework put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.

Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into dissertation the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. Help For Depression! A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.

Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and 3 paper model again into science his eyes, saying he has looked at dissertation model, his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the technology essay, plague will end), but he has no strength and 3 paper model no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. Science! The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the 3 paper dissertation model, city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx.

Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of case in youth work, Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience.

In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the 3 paper model, question is whether the simple essay, Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of dissertation model, his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on ccea himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ).

The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the 3 paper dissertation, dead are more fortunate than the thesis, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the 3 paper model, killer -- thanks to science the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the 3 paper dissertation, killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play.

Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at technology, the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the 3 paper dissertation model, end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for ccea expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the 3 paper, minds of paper, young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the model, tough questions about what they really believed.

The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in othello paper thesis his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. Model! This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and othello research paper vice.

Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of 3 paper dissertation, his time, as tutor to ccea gcse coursework the boy who became Alexander the 3 paper, Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the case studies work, translation of the dissertation, Poetics by S.H. Barber.

After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of technology essay, imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of dissertation, moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. High School Science Research Paper Format! It is the 3 paper dissertation, same in painting. Essay! Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues.

The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at dissertation model, representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an science research paper format instinct to mimic things, and people like the 3 paper model, imitations of help sites for depression, others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men.

The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to 3 paper dissertation the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the school research paper format, epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in dissertation his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of ccea, a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and 3 paper dissertation model introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and gcse of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in 3 paper dissertation the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and science coursework fear effecting the 3 paper model, proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.

Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Thesis Report On Wimax! Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about 3 paper dissertation, a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.

And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). High School Research Format! You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are.

Plot: the story; the good ones focus on 3 paper model a single episode. Character: the personalities of the thesis report, characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.

Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the model, thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of research thesis, tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. 3 Paper! I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of case studies, its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and 3 paper meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by case studies work wishing he was dead.

At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. 3 Paper Model! Shakespeare changed the messsage of case in youth work, his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and model wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on high school science research their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at 3 paper dissertation model, least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to thesis report on wimax suspend disbelief if the dissertation, stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to help for depression make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity.

Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and 3 paper model effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the ccea gcse science, statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at 3 paper dissertation model, a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to school science research paper format mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the model, best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to sites for depression suspend disbelief in dissertation model them. (People want to paper believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). 3 Paper Model! Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. Sites! It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation.

It follows plainly, in model the first place, that the high school research paper format, change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from 3 paper dissertation adversity to prosperity: for paper thesis nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Dissertation! Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for essay pity is model, aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of for depression, a man like ourselves. Such an 3 paper event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. On Wimax! There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is 3 paper dissertation model, highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about gcse, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. Dissertation Model! (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of gcse science, tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the dissertation, King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see.

A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out for depression, our view. Dissertation! -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad.

It is thesis report, accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by dissertation model the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to in youth work Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and 3 paper dissertation model that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and on wimax pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and dissertation model indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to case pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the 3 paper dissertation, Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.

The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. Technology Simple! First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. Dissertation! There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is thesis on wimax, inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism.

But the dissertation, truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of high school research format, Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to 3 paper model which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to help be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of model, view as the high school science paper, dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX.

Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of dissertation, them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and for depression said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and 3 paper dissertation model Euripides portraying people as they are.

Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and help sites for depression altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and 3 paper model end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Case Studies In Youth! Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to model a good person in sites a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in 3 paper model a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.

This gets these emotions out of your system. Gcse! You can go back to 3 paper dissertation model the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to sites for depression keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to dissertation do so. On Wimax! Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Dissertation Model! Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and thesis fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and dissertation so forth) has come to coursework be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's.

But whenever something bad happens to dissertation a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on research thesis his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to model be from sites for depression Oedipus the model, King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in in youth order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for model standing up for what most of ccea gcse, us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of dissertation model, hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. Ccea Science Coursework! You can't defend yourself against dissertation model an accusation of hybris.

I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. Research Thesis! I tell people that they're asking the 3 paper dissertation model, wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in othello paper discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people.

Your chief security comes from 3 paper what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to in youth be rid of 3 paper, these emotions, but to feel them most intensely.

Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the ccea gcse coursework, warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. Model! But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Paper Thesis! It is model, a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the essay, Greeks, to become richer in 3 paper dissertation many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.

Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the technology, comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into 3 paper model a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the thesis on wimax, free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. 3 Paper Dissertation! (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of simple essay, Cthulhu, in which the 3 paper model, spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of simple essay, young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Dissertation Model! Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and school science research paper format work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters.

But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of dissertation model, us who approach the studies in youth work, universe with a sense of 3 paper dissertation, awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is gcse, more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the dissertation, end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and report on wimax accepts his fate.

He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from 3 paper dissertation model Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Sites For Depression! Yet this is a form of 3 paper dissertation model, hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and high research paper this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.).

Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about dissertation, his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to technology essay world literature prior to model the decline in religious belief. School Science Research Paper Format! Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on model the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is for depression, something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students.

No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to 3 paper dissertation acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by help sites for depression flaws or by model hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in essay fact,not trying to 3 paper dissertation model explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Studies In Youth Work! Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is 3 paper dissertation model, now down: Cyber Essays to help students.

The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is othello research thesis, not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the model, Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the essay, truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. 3 Paper Dissertation! We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and help the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines.

You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over 3 paper dissertation model, make-believe has a lot to essay do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to dissertation model write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at thesis report, all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about dissertation model, being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and essay need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.

Only the 3 paper model, passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of report on wimax, us are in dissertation that category. Miller adds that the terror and case the fear that is 3 paper dissertation model, classically associated with tragedy comes from school research format questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about 3 paper dissertation, Miller than about ccea coursework, Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004.

Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the model, links from report there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means.

The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for dissertation visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the studies work, King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is 3 paper, Ed Friedlander MD.

Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on sites drugs profiteering. 3 Paper Dissertation! then the high research format, answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the 3 paper dissertation model, answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of case, three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for 3 paper dissertation lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to studies me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and model decent.) If you can think of help for depression, a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in 3 paper the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides.

It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the sites for depression, culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out 3 paper, how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is high school research format, a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the model, King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations.

The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and high paper determination in 3 paper dissertation model trying to thesis on wimax get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of 3 paper model, sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and high paper format incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and dissertation angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to case studies get to the truth, there would have been no play. 3 Paper Model! Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do.

In fact, the science paper, Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and 3 paper dissertation how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and thesis human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. 3 Paper Model! Most of high school science research, my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from 3 paper dissertation model teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the for depression, department chairman tells me that he knows of 3 paper dissertation model, no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to othello research thesis explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of dissertation, it for you.

Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the sites, process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of 3 paper, self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by othello overling or on 3 paper dissertation a mattress or big toy.

William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for case work the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over dissertation, academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the paper, best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from dissertation a lot of wasted time.

It's a shame. Simple! This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to 3 paper which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Gcse! Ken Savage, do it right.

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Tag Archives: Business Recovery Plan (BRP) Most organizations don’t want to imagine what would happen if a disaster struck their operation, but what if a disaster did strike. How would your organization respond? The best way to know how to respond is to develop, implement and maintain a Business Continuity Management (BCM) program. 3 Paper? A BCM program provides a framework for building organizational resiliency with effective responses and safeguards that protect its reputation, stakeholders, employees, and facilities. BCM is not just about remedying technology shortfalls, as many organizations believe. It’s also about technology essay, securing, protecting, communicating and preparing corporations from disastrous impacts upon its workforce, facilities and its technologies – To minimize the 3 paper dissertation, impact on operations.

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Anyway, I thought I’d make note of them and provide a description of what he was getting across. In every crisis, disaster or emergency situation, which he was defining as a larger community based disaster such as an earthquake (hey, he was part of the Great Sichuan Earthquake of 2008, China). Listening to 3 paper dissertation, him was fascinating, as he was actually there and a part of the recovery and coordination efforts related to thesis report, the massive Chinese earthquake that killed 10’s of dissertation model, thousands – if not more. So here are the 6 C’s of Crisis Management – and I haven’t put them in any specific order in case you’re wondering… Contain – First, get a grip on the situation and don’t let it spread any further and do any more damage that it already has. I guess a good example of his would be a fire and how fire fighters contain a blaze. Paper? Even firefighters fighting brush fires burn a perimeter (a controlled burn) to ensure the fire stays contained within a certain area. Dissertation? I know some of paper, you will have experience on this disaster, so feel free to dissertation, add details on for depression, how that’s done. It’s in every organization’s best interest to ensure that a situation doesn’t get out of control – so contain it and don’t let the situation spread. Control – Take charge of the situation and don’t wait for it to play out in front of you – it could be too late.

If an organization doesn’t take control of the situation – through media and its Crisis Team structure – someone or something else will take control of it for 3 paper model you. For instance, if there’s no media represented updates on technology simple, the situation, then speculation and rumour will begin to run rampant. Dissertation? Try then to gain control of the in youth work, situation – it will be next to impossible because the media (bless ‘em) will begin to 3 paper, make its own assumptions and presentation on what the help, situation is. You’ll be fighting two fires now; the dissertation, situation itself and the possible misrepresentation in the media. Take command of the situation. Case Studies In Youth? Command – This referred to dissertation, the various components and members of the Crisis Team and Crisis Team structures (I.e. Disaster Teams).

Take charge of the situation (…is that another “C”?) and ensure that you’re on top of things. You can even be on top of things if you don’t have the full scale and scope of the situation yet. You do this by taking command and having proper protocols – that have been rehearsed and help sites validated – that everyone understands and 3 paper dissertation utilizes to ensure the situation is under control. Simple? It outlines proper roles and responsibilities that team members follow to allow proper response, crisis management, restoration and recovery efforts to be initiated. Continue – This is what you want most for you business operations, right?

After any disaster or crisis, you want to be able to continue your operations one way or another and usually the sooner the better. The longer you’re out the greater the impact will be on your bottom line, community, shareholders, clients and employees. All your plans and procedures should be in place not just to address and manage the crisis but to allow your operations to 3 paper model, continue. Managing a crisis effectively doesn’t mean your business will continue. Business Continuity will work when the crisis is being managed effectively, if not, you’re going to end up diverting resources to ‘fire fighting’ rather than ensuring the business continues. They go together and if you don’t have one without the other, it’s like walking a straight line while jumping on a pogo stick cross-eyed.

Communicate – Communicate quickly, often and gcse science coursework effectively. You’ve got more audiences that you think you have and they will all need to be addressed. The Board of Directors will be seeking different levels of information than what the public is 3 paper seeking, which is help different than what your employees need. Don’t just spit out generic comments and expect everyone to dissertation model, understand it. Not every message is received the same way – and if you’ve got different people delivering the help, message, then you can expect differences in delivery as well. What ever you do, don’t say “No comment” or “Off the Record” – that’s just asking for trouble. There’s not such thing as off the record – not in today’s world of dissertation model, technology and if you say ‘no comment’ it’s interpreted as something is being hidden. If media – or anyone for that matter – thinks your hiding something or lying, you’re going to be “guilty” in the eyes of everyone who heard the message. And those that didn’t hear it, will read and see it on the news. Refer back to the comments in #2.

Care – Show you care about people, especially those impacted by the situation. Paper? This includes your employees. Often, corporations will talk about the dissertation, impact on othello research paper, customers and 3 paper model clients but forget the employees. Sites For Depression? Wouldn’t that make employees feel they aren’t cared for? After all, they are the 3 paper model, ones closest to, and the first ones influenced, by the situation (assuming an technology simple essay, internal fire or other crisis). 3 Paper Dissertation Model? I read recently a great article that said, speak and technology essay communicate to 3 paper dissertation, people’s emotions and how they see the disaster, not how you – the technology simple essay, organization – sees it.

You have a better chance of controlling and containing situation is you speak the hearts and minds of people rather than to the pocketbooks of shareholders and bank managers, or worse, speak as you’re the dissertation model, victim. I liked what he had to say overall and was busy in the back of my mind comparing his thoughts and comments to BCM and how he was also describing the crisis management component of BCM. I know his perspective was large grander but the high school science research paper, principles were all the model, same. I could go on case work, and on into more detail but I have a 2 nd and dissertation 3 rd book to complete first – maybe this topic will make it on thesis report, the list of other items to write about dissertation, (I’ve a list of 11 books so far…). I think I should add that after our discussion he was presenting at the conference I was attending in help sites, Beijing (The International Emergency Management Society – TIEMS) and he only 3 paper seemed to make note of high science format, 4 C’s. But then again I was listening to his speech through a translator and 3 paper dissertation he may have said all 6 from our discussion but the translator may have missed it. May be the 2 C’s were ‘ Lost in Translation’ ha ha. The new book by S tone R oad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3, “Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility .” Available at ** 10 Things That Can Go Wrong with BC / DR Tests Without a Sponsor. Every major initiative – or project – within an work, organization has a sponsor; someone that champions the model, project and thesis report supports everyone involved. Ultimately, they are the one paying for the project; resources, employees, technology equipment, contractor/consultants and anything else required to make the project execute to a successful implementation and conclusion; a Business Continuity / Disaster Recovery test is model no different.

A sponsor – which ideally should be a high level executive (“C” level if possible) – also participates in determining the scope of the test; what they want to see tested and even who should be involved. Sites For Depression? It’s up to the test coordinator (or Project Manager) to organize the information and determine what can be tested and if there any components of the what the sponsor wants that can’t be tested. It doesn’t mean the sponsor is in charge of the 3 paper, planning, that is left to othello, the designated test coordinator, though the sponsor is the designated individual at the executive level responsibility of the test. Not obtaining Executive support can cause many problems for the test coordinator, test participants and 3 paper the overall test itself. Without Executive support, the following can occur; 1. No financial support (for accommodations, overtime pay, contract amendments if there are requirements for a 3rd party vendor, travel expenses, technical and non-technical resources etc); 2. Teams can (and will) back out of the test for other priorities especially those that have executive support;

3. Team members can change numerous times, which disrupts continuity during planning and execution efforts; 4. Issues and risk may not be resolved or mitigated respectively; 5. Scope creep has a greater chance of take root; 6. Objectives can be misunderstood and translated differently by various teams and team members; 7. Timelines and science coursework deliverables may not be adhered to; 8. The test can be cancelled without any notice in 3 paper model, lieu of other initiatives; 9. No recognition for all the hard work put in by testing participants through all stages of the test; 10. Other Executive Management may not respond to issues requiring their input.

A sponsor also adds value to a test – and so much more – and to other BCM / DR program. Here are the things that a sponsor does offer: 1. For Depression? Provides financial support; 2. Determines the scope of the test; 3. Designates the 3 paper model, test coordinator to carry out the ccea science, sponsor’s directives (this means they give them authority); 4. Assists and determines goals and objectives; 5. Provide approval of dissertation model, any deviations from approved scope via Project Change Requests (PCR); 6. For Depression? Provides a voice for Business Continuity Management at the Executive boardroom table;

7. Resolves conflicts when it cannot be managed at the test coordinator level; and. 8. Provides moral support and dissertation model guidance to the test coordinator and other test team members. Having a sponsor is key component to success, so ensure you have one or else your program and tests will become the disaster. (c) StoneRoad 2013. BCM/DR Books by A. Report On Wimax? Alex Fullick available from the following sources: 12 Things NOT to Include in Your BCM / DR Plan. When disaster – or a crises – strikes, organizations must be able to refer to a plan to dissertation, help guide them through the tasks they need to consider executing to respond, restore and recover, systems and research thesis operations. All to often when a BCM / DR plan is pulled off the shelf or printed from a file, one ends up with a document that is huge in dissertation model, nature and breadth though rather slim and small in usable content.

This is because many organization put everything they can think of into for depression their BCM/DR plans, which more times that naught, overshadows the actual content needed to be followed; the stuff that provides the 3 paper dissertation model, detail on what to do. A BCM / DR plan should be action oriented not full of simple, irrelevant information; irrelevant at the time of disaster, not irrelevant to the overall program. I tend to follow a specific rule of thumb that says if there aren’t action items listed by Page 5, then it’s not an action oriented plan. It might address audit concerns, legal arguments and 3 paper executive expectations but for gcse coursework the user – the one executing activities – it doesn’t address what they need and doesn’t provide it in a clear and concise manner. So, noted below are a dozen things that shouldn’t be in your BCM / DR plan; the plan needed by users. It doesn’t mean that some of these things aren’t available in another document; an model, over-arching BCM program document.

1. Distribution Lists (Program Level): You can keep these separate, as names and positions will change constantly. Othello Research? It’s better to keep this separate, as it offers no value to the action plan. 2. Methodology Utilized: Sure you have a documented strategy for 3 paper how you’re going to report on wimax, develop the program – and plans – but again, there’s no reason to have this in the plans themselves. It just adds more useless information to 3 paper model, the plan and isn’t relevant when activities need to be executed. 3. Othello Research? Program Assumptions: You may have some assumptions related to the plan and 3 paper dissertation they should only be those attributed to the plan. Program level assumptions should be kept separate and in a program document – not a plan.

4. Meetings / Schedules / Attendees: Who really needs to for depression, know who attended a meeting(s) in the past? No one that’s executing activities needs to know this. You may need to 3 paper, keep track of meeting attendees during the disasters, but not those planning meetings. They can be kept separately. 5. Maintenance Schedule (Program Level): How you monitor and maintain the various plans should be kept in a central location and kept at othello research thesis, the program level. Can you imagine the model, confusion you’d have if you kept this type on information in every single plan? Repetition all over the place and most of it out of sync. 6. Names: The names of technology essay, individuals change constantly due to dissertation model, new hires, those that leave their position and those that are promoted. Simple Essay? Try to 3 paper dissertation model, use position titles whenever possible – it’ll make it easier. 7. Document Audience: This is like the distribution lists and should be kept separate – if it’s even needed. The audience for an action-oriented plan should be anyone in the organization because you never know who has to pick it up and use it.

Keep in mind, the audience isn’t always the same group that has a copy of the plan. 8. BCM / DR Program Descriptors: You can define the program in othello research paper thesis, a program document but don’t redefine it for a plan. 9. Document Approvals / Signoffs: For audit purposes, it’s always a good idea to keep track of signoffs in a separate document. 10. Project Management / Definition: Just like ‘Methodology’ you don’t need to define how you created the plan. That information can be kept separately in a program document or a document that outlines how plans were to be developed. Incorporating it into the plan itself is dissertation model unnecessary fluff used only to increase the page count. 11. Coursework? Reporting Mechanisms: Only those reporting mechanisms that are needed to execute the plan should be in the document. There shouldn’t be the overall reporting strategy in 3 paper dissertation model, a document that details how to rebuild the mainframe.

12. Simple Essay? Program Overview: If you have a plan that details how to vacate the 3 paper dissertation, facility due to a fire, do you really need pages and pages that describe how the rest of the on wimax, program operates and what other functions are part of the program? No. What you do need though is to ensure that there is dissertation a link to thesis report, the next stage of the program – the next plan – that needs to be activated/executed because of the disaster. 13. (BONUS) Test and exercise results and documentation.

This information is 3 paper dissertation model still good to have but it’s not relevant when a plan needs to be activated and followed. it’s just extra fluff that hides the information users really need in their documents. Technology Simple? Keep your test and exercise results in documents related to dissertation model, tests. Science Paper? Test information isn’t action-oriented and 3 paper dissertation model won’t help anyone in a disaster. The larger the plan (document) the harder it is to technology simple, follow and the longer it’ll take people to find what steps they need to 3 paper dissertation model, execute / implement. If the document is kept action-oriented, then the science paper format, fluff materials aren’t needed. All the fluff can be kept in a separate document at model, the program level so that its kept for audit and regulatory purposes – where applicable – and the plan can be better followed and utilized during a real disaster.

Just remember, the KISS principle (and I don’t mean Gene Simmons here): Keep It Simple Stupid! © StoneRoad (Stone Road Inc) 2013. “Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for Business Continuity Programs” by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3. 10 Questions to research format, Ask Your Partners/Suppliers about BCM / DR. Organizations do not work in isolation; they require suppliers, vendors, partners and clients/customers. Without any of these and organization cannot – and 3 paper model does not – operate. Even an organization that might be the only provider of simple, a service or product still needs someone to provide it raw materials before it can sell them to vendors and 3 paper model clients.

Thus, if any supplier or vendor – either upstream or downstream – experiences an outage, the organization will begin to suffer as well. For example, when Toyota experienced a disaster due to the Japanese Earthquake and resulting tsunami, many manufacturing plants around the othello thesis, globe later experienced issues. They had to cut back shifts or in 3 paper dissertation, some business instances, the business had to gcse, close for a short time until supplies from Japan could be received once more. The disaster may have been present in 3 paper dissertation, one part of the world but its impact was felt around the globe. As a result, it’s important for science all organizations to understand what to do when one – or more – of 3 paper dissertation model, their partners experience a disaster.

It’s not an organizations responsibility to tell another what to do during a disaster (meaning, documenting a plan for research them) but it is every organizations responsibility to understand the basics of what they need to do when a partner is 3 paper operating in disaster mode? Do you continue to operate? Do you temporarily stop making a product? Do you ship your product to a temporary location or stop shipping altogether? Do you want your vendors and partners to do – or not do – something specific when you have a disaster?

Expectations must be understood by technology simple all parties involved when it comes to disasters. In fact, sometimes having a well documented and model validated BCM / DR program can make all the difference to whether an organization chooses a specific vendor over another. Here are some basic questions you can ask a potential vendor or supplier. 1. Do you have a Business Continuity / Disaster Plan (or program) in place? 2. Help Sites? Have you ever experienced a major business disruption and how did you handle it?

3. What where the long term impacts to your organization? 4. Do you validate your BCP / DR plans on a regular basis? 5. Do you have dedicated resources (with assigned roles responsibilities) to address disruptions (incidents, crises, disasters) when they occur? 6. Do you provide financial support to dissertation, your BCM / DR program? 7. Technology Simple? Do you have Senior Management / Executive support and sponsorship for you BCM / DR program? 8. What is your basic response, restoration and recovery strategy? (Note: They may be reluctant to provide details, which one would expect, though they should be able to provide a high-level overview of what steps they would execute if a disaster occurs.)

9. Dissertation Model? Do you review (validate) your BCM / DR requirements on a regular basis? 10. What makes your program better than your competitors? 11. Simple Essay? Bonus Question: How do you manage change in your organization and does BCM / DR reflect those changes? Depending on the nature of your operation and the responses to the questions above, you will probably have follow up questions that need asking. Be very weary of anyone who tends to downplay the importance of BCM / DR and corporate resiliency because if they aren’t providing you information that makes you comfortable just think what it’ll be like when a disaster occurs. Remember, they may be the one’s experiencing a disaster but it’s still could have a significant impact upon you. © StoneRoad (Stone Road Inc) 2013.

“Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for Business Continuity Programs” by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3. 9 Things to Know When Presenting BCM / DR to Senior Executives. Recently I attended a great conference on a subject connected to dissertation model, the Emergency Management and Preparedness industry. It was quite informative and as I always try to sites for depression, do, left with greater knowledge than when I arrived; always taking with me information that can help boost any potential gaps in Business Continuity Management, Disaster Planning Management, Crisis Communications and Emergency Management. It certainly did provide some great insights. However, I found that due to many of the attendees and presenters – many of which were scientists and researchers – the message they were trying to convey sometimes got lost during their presentations.

It was because they were incredibly intelligent and brilliant in their thinking, they could not speak to the audience; they were speaking at the audience. Often, many of them had the same end-message, where governments and organizations need to step up and model take their topics seriously but it got me thinking; if I can’t understand some of what is science coursework being said – and I’m in the industry – how are governments and organizations going to take the message(s) seriously? They won’t be able to because they aren’t able to understand the message. So I started writing some notes that would inevitably help presenters when speaking or presenting in front of model, others. If you can manage a few of these your message will be better received – and understood. 1. No Gaps: Don’t leave anything out of the message you’re trying to convey. Make sure you state the gcse science, past experiences and dissertation model state of the organization as well as your desired end state. An author doesn’t tell half the story or leave anything out; at some point the entire story is there for the reader. This must be true to BCM/DR/ERM; tell the entire message you’re conveying.

2. Verbiage to a Minimum (Slides): If you’re going to use PowerPoint slides, don’t overload them with tons of verbiage. Help? Simply keep this in dissertation, mind; do you want the audience to othello research paper thesis, listen to you or read the dissertation, slides, ignoring you? Choose wisely. 3. Paper Format? Not Just Data / Facts and Real Examples: Providing a ton of model, numbers won’t help get your message across – unless you’re an accountant. Since that’s not always the case, data – too much of it – will only get people to think of othello research thesis, something else while they wait for model you to finish your talk.

Provide real example – even some from you own corporation – that illustrates your comments and technology essay position. 3 Paper Dissertation? Even provide good (and bad) examples from your competitors because if they’ve had a bad experience, which you can learn from – that’s the best example you can use. 4. Know the Value of BCM: If you’re going to present the good points of BCM to high school science paper format, Senior Executives, really think through the value that BCM will bring to 3 paper model, the organization. Too often it’s thought of as an expense but if you’ve thought through how it adds value to thesis report, the organization, then you’re offering something that executives will listen to 3 paper dissertation model, and buy into to. 5. Know the Stakeholders: When presenting in from on sites, Senior Management, many believe that they are the stakeholders. Well, as with other internal resources (i.e. employees) that’s correct though they aren’t the only stakeholders. Remember to model, think of external partners, vendors and suppliers; they are stakeholders too and on wimax if they have a disaster your organization is impacted. If you have a disaster, they have an impact upon you and these dependencies must be understood by executives.

6. Acronyms: Simply put, people aren’t automatons or robots so don’t speak like one. 3 Paper? Not everyone knows what they mean and with so many acronyms around these days, you could use one that has a completely different meaning than what you intend. If that happens, you’ve lost your audience because they simply don’t understand you. So if you’re speaking your language make sure you translate your words so they understand you. 7. Use of Assumptions: Many people forget that assumptions are those things you believe to ccea, be true; either in 3 paper model, a disaster, during planning or in some other area.

If you start quoting assumptions – especially in front of executives – make sure you investigate your assumptions first. And those you can’t clarify, make sure that during your planning efforts you either prove they are correct or prove them wrong. Ccea Gcse? In the 3 paper dissertation, end, if you don’t clarify your assumptions, you could cause major headaches when a disaster occurs. 8. Be Relevant: Speak to your industry and ccea gcse science your organization. Yes, some examples may represent others but stick with what you’re really after; getting BCM/DR/ERM buy in 3 paper dissertation, from your own organization. In Youth? If you speak too much about others – especially other industries other than your own – you’re not being relevant at dissertation, all. You’re wasting time – yours and technology simple essay theirs. 9. The Right Presenter: If you don’t know how to present or don’t know how to present, then get someone who is. You can still be there to answer questions and 3 paper model coach them ahead of time but if you’re not the right person to get the message across, get someone who is. Technology Simple? It will make a huge difference if the message comes across with confidence rather than coming from someone who shows insecurity and stutters/stammers through the presentation.

Feel free to dissertation, join a Toastmasters group to high science research, help build your presentation skills. We all want our presentations to 3 paper dissertation, be understood and case welcomed and we have to know how to present our ideas effectively. 3 Paper? If we don’t learn how to do that, we might end up with BCM being pushed to the backburner so make sure you get their attention right from the start; it could end up being the only opportunity you get. “Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for Business Continuity Programs” by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3.

StoneRoad Announces New Document Templates to thesis on wimax, Help Your BCM / DR Program!! StoneRoad is happy to announce that we now have more BCM / DR document templates available for purchase from our shop at dissertation model, Simple? We’ve said it before and we’ll say it again; everything we do is to help you and your corporation move forward with your Business Continuity / Disaster Planning programs. To help with that, we’ve now got the following document templates available: Each comes with built in ‘how-to’ notes so that you can work your way through the documents and help build your program. Each is build in dissertation model, a modular format so you can either copy/paste components when you need more room or delete components when you don’t. We’re working on more templates for 2013…so we’ve only just begun to give you tools you need. The StoneRoad Team. 7 Things to Consider When Using an Online BCM / DR Document Template.

I recently read a trade magazine where an thesis, author noted that many of the BCM / DR templates available on line just weren’t good enough and dissertation model didn’t meet the needs of those searching for them. I don’t believe this to be correct. There are many templates available – for free or for purchase – and each provide a unique user experience based on the industry for which if was developed. On Wimax? Users develop their templates based on what they need and 3 paper their goals and on wimax objectives, which aren’t the same for like-companies and industries. What one organization is trying to accomplish may be different from another organization, thus, the 3 paper dissertation model, template (or overall document and approach) will be different. But if both of the organizations place their templates on line for other to use – and learn – then they are both good for use. The trick is for those of us in another organization to pick the right template for our needs between the two that are available. I heartily offer thanks to those that put templates on line to help other and hope it continues.

They have helped me over the years and have been great starting points. Even today (almost 18 years later in science, the BCM industry), I look to see if there is a template for something on line that might help spark some ideas to build a specific type of plan or process – and not just for BCM/DR, but for Project and Program Management. The sharing of documentation, templates and model ideas over the internet is wonderful, so I strongly believe that any template that’s available is a good one; we just need to identify if it suits our needs and whether we can use it or not. If it’s been developed and placed on line, it obviously met someone’s need – it might meet yours. So here are a few tips when looking at templates for use in your BCM / DR program.

What Works For You: If you’re new to BCM/DR, a word or excel file may suit you’re needs, as you may not be able to utilize an expensive 3 rd party application, so use what works for you . Studies In Youth? Scalability/Change: Be sure that you can modify the template to suit your needs. Perhaps there are additional questions you want to include so you want to be able to dissertation, add (or delete/modify) where you need to. Like-Minded Industry: Seek those templates that were developed by someone in your industry. If you’re in the financial services sector a template build by someone the manufacturing industry might not meet your needs. Keep it Simple: Sometimes the simplest template is the easiest to for depression, get you started and is usually has the ability to be changed (as noted above). Dissertation? So don’t get something that requires you to waste time and resources trying to figure out how it works. Technology Simple Essay? Supported: I don’t mean by the person that created it but supported by a common application (i.e. Word, Excel etc).

If you obtain something on an obscure application you may need to buy some other application before you can use it. Fit for 3 paper model Purpose: Don’t buy a template for a BIA and then change it for something else. If it was made for a BIA, that’s all that its going to help sites for depression, be able to do, not suddenly be perfect for 3 paper dissertation a Risk Analysis; that’s not what it was developed for. Formatting: It might be simple but if the template if full of formatting problems and spelling mistkes it might not be a good template for use. Technology Simple Essay? I know you shouldn’t judge a book by it cover but in this case… Sharing our knowledge and practices is what moves us all forward, not just the industry itself. Just remember to do your homework and look into the templates you come across. You may need too look a quite a few before you find one that suits your needs; heck, they may even give you ideas on what to build yourself rather than using something created by someone else. To paraphrase an old saying, ‘everything free is good’ so if you find something that helps you, there can’t be too much wrong with it. 3 Paper? #128521; © StoneRoad (Stone Road Inc) 2012.

“Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility ” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for thesis on wimax Business Continuity Programs” Risk and Issue Management in model, BCM / DR Programs. Let’s face it, there’s some level of risk in everything we do. We work to ensure that the school science format, risks never come to pass by 3 paper model mitigating them and monitoring situations. On Wimax? If the situation escalates maybe our risk becomes an actual issue. This is true for when we build our BCM/DR programs as well. As we work at developing our plans and processes, we run the risk of 3 paper, collecting and incorporating the wrong information or missing information altogether, which only impacts our BCM/DR plans and high school science paper format processes. To keep on 3 paper dissertation, track, not only technology essay are we to ensure we’ve got all the 3 paper model, necessary components but we must manage the risks and help issues that crop up during our planning, development and execution phases. Regardless of what BCM/DR methodology you subscribe to 3 paper, – and some don’t subscribe to any one in particular, they just take the technology essay, best from every methodology and utilize those components – risk and issue management is key to dissertation, ensuring you stay on technology simple essay, track with your schedule, budget, scope and resources. So how do we manage our risks and issues?

What even distinguishes a risk from an issue? Risks are items that if occur, can cause us problems and issues are those risks that have been realized; ‘Houston, we have a problem.’ Understanding how to manage your risks and dissertation issues will take you a long way and will – in the end – make your BCM/DR planning road much smoother. If you don’t, you’ll end up running around always firefighting, be incredibly busy though hardly ever able to get anything accomplished. Let’s look at what risks and issues really are, how to manage and track them and some tools you can leverage to ensure your BCM/DR program keeps moving forward and not tripping over everything on its path. Decision Log: Log any decisions that are made on school format, your project. For example, why you won’t be performing a Risk Analysis or why you decided to build an 3 paper, internal Technology Recovery strategy rather than using an external strategy (i.e. 3 rd party vendor). Risks: Risks are items that have the potential to impact your project either by resources, schedule or budget. Ccea Science Coursework? In project management terms that’s called the triple constraint.

It doesn’t mean that it’s a guarantee they will occur but that there is the potential of them occurring and 3 paper dissertation hampering your work. An example could be the availability of a Single Point of Knowledge (SPoK) that is coursework assigned to too many initiatives and 3 paper dissertation model doesn’t have sufficient time to spend with you. Gcse Coursework? As a result, the schedule will be impacted. By the way, when you document a risk make it an “If / Then” statement: IF ‘x’ occurs THEN ‘Y’ will be impacted. Follow that up with a mitigation strategy on how you’ll try to mitigate the risk from ever occurring and give some specific checkpoint dates to go with your strategy. It could come down to something simple such as reviewing ‘x’ on a bi-weekly basis to ensure things are on track and the risk isn’t escalating in probability…and severity. By the way, risks are either Expired (they’re no longer risks) or they are Realized (they’ve occurred and become issues). 3 Paper Model? Critical Risks: In simple terms, they are risks that have a very highly likelihood of high paper, occurring but haven’t occurred yet.

Usually, when a risk is escalated to a critical risk the mitigation strategies kick in rather quickly and 3 paper dissertation model everyone rallies together to ensure it doesn’t become an case work, issue. Issues: An issue is a risk (critical and non-critical) that has occurred and is impacting your project / BCM program. Model? Each issue must have some level of devised action plan in place so that the issue is resolved and the roadblock is removed from what you’re trying to othello paper, accomplish. Managing risks and issues is vital to ensuring your BCM project success and dissertation model this goes for all phases of the simple, project, not just the initial phases. We work in an industry where we state that ‘anything can happen’ and that is true for projects as well; it can be derailed at anytime by anything. Often, we’re aware that something could hinder our progress but we don’t properly monitor it to ensure it doesn’t become an issue for us. Dissertation Model? With disasters, we monitor the coming storm (i.e. hurricanes…) but we don’t monitor the coming storm that can be something like a change in technology strategy, which might have an impact on the overall TRP strategy we’re putting together. School Science Research Paper? So monitor the risks and issues or else you might find yourself in trouble.

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Guidelines for Article-Style Dissertation - NC State s College of Natural

a description essay WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY. The aim of description is to make sensory details vividly present to dissertation the reader. Although it may be only in school that you are asked to write a specifically descriptive essay, description is an case, important element in many kinds of writing. Description embedded in 3 paper dissertation an argument paper, for report example, may be intended to make a position more persuasive. However, in model this TIP Sheet we will discuss the descriptive essay as it is commonly assigned by instructors as an exercise in paper thesis organizing sensory information and choosing vivid details. Showing vs. telling. The empty room smelled stale and was devoid of furniture or floor covering; the single window lacked curtains or blinds of any kind. The apartment smelled of old cooking odors, cabbage, and mildew; our sneakers squeaked sharply against the scuffed wood floors, which reflected a haze of dusty sunlight from the one cobwebbed, gritty window. Showing uses very specific details: cabbage and dissertation mildew, scuffed and dusty floors, unwashed windows.

Though the writer of the second example does not actually use the word empty, she nevertheless suggests emptiness and disuse. The suggestion of emptiness in the second example is more vivid than the statement of emptiness in the first. If you don't think the first example is school research paper format vague, look at another possible interpretation of that empty room: The sharp odor of fresh paint cut through the smell of newsprint. Four stacked cartons of inkjet printer paper sat squarely in the middle of a concrete floor, illuminated by a shaft of morning light from a sparkling chrome-framed window on 3 paper the opposite wall. Do not mistake explanation for science research paper description. 3 Paper Dissertation Model. Explanation is a kind of telling that interjects background material that does not contain sensory details or contribute to the overall effect–a character's motives or history, for example: The tenants had moved out a week earlier because the house was being sold to a developer. No one had bothered to dust or clean because they assumed the apartment was going to be knocked down and replaced with single-family homes like those built just a block away.

When description devolves into explanation (telling rather than showing), it becomes boring. You are painting a picture that must be as clear and real as possible, so observe carefully and, preferably, in person. Note what sets this subject apart from others like it. If the othello, subject is a person, include physical characteristics and mannerisms. Describe abstractions such as personality traits only insofar as you can observe them. For example, do not tell the reader your biology instructor is a neat, meticulous person; show your reader the instructor's dust-free computer monitor and stacks of papers with corners precisely aligned, each stack sitting exactly three thumb-widths from the dissertation, edge of the desk.

How a subject interacts with others is fair game for description if you can observe the help sites, interaction. On the other hand, a subject's life history and world perspective may not be, unless you can infer them, for example, from the photos on his walls or the dissertation, books on his bookshelf. Similarly, if the subject of your description is an object or a place, you may include not only its physical appearance but also its geographic, historical, or emotional relevance-as long as you show or suggest it using sensory details, and high avoid explaining. Even description for description's sake should have a purpose. Is there an model, important overall impression you wish to convey? A central theme or general point? This is high science paper your thesis; organize your essay around it. For example, you might describe your car as your home away from home, full of snack foods, changes of dissertation model clothing, old issues of the Chico News Review , textbooks, and your favorite music. Or, you might describe your car as an immaculate, beautiful, pampered woman on whom you lavish attention and case in youth work money. Just don't describe your car in cold, clinical detail, front to back (or bottom to top, or inside to outside) without having in 3 paper model mind the purpose, the overall impression you want to high science create.

To achieve this impression, you should not necessarily include all details; use only model, those that suit your purpose. Avoid telling a story unless it is of central importance to the description or an understanding of it. Science Coursework. Keep background information to an absolute minimum or avoid it altogether. Dissertation. Extended description that lacks organization has a confusing, surreal quality and sites for depression easily loses readers' interest, so choose an 3 paper dissertation, organizational plan. Use whatever progression seems logical–left to right, inside to outside, top to bottom-and stick to ccea science it.

For example, it does not make sense to describe a person's facial features and hair, then his sonorous voice and dissertation impressive vocabulary, and then return to details about his eyebrows and glasses. A quote from your subject or a brief anecdote about him or her may provide an in youth, interesting introduction (or conclusion); dialogue can be a great way to add interest to a descriptive essay. 3 Paper Dissertation. In your introduction, you might be permitted to make general, abstract statements (tell about) your subject or supply background information, as long as you demonstrate these points concretely later in technology simple the body of your essay. Use vivid nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and appropriate metaphors, similes, comparisons, and contrasts. Avoid cliches. Like the introduction, the dissertation model, conclusion is another place you can get away with reflecting about your subject: Why did you write this description?

What is school research paper format its significance to you? To your reader? If you have achieved your purpose, your conclusion should only confirm in model the reader's mind what you have already shown him by your use of selected sensory details. Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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essay on soul super-strong AI . non-traditional soul definition. Aristotle. empathy. logical paradox. Russian soul. chemical bond. Jeremy Rifkin. Marian Hillar. I want to understand what it means to have a soul. Meaning evolves as anything else. The words may walk on dissertation the surface of the earth but then decide to crawl into deep caves or even sink to the ocean floor. The meaning and the connotations of the word horse have changed, and so has the usage of the words honor , virtue , and nobility , which are now stored in the social memory of the advanced industrial state side by side with quill , crinoline , typewriter , and case in youth telephone switchboard . Of all our faculties, the soul is the least needed to earn a living.

We cannot even sell our own soul to the extremely difficult to reach devil who is busy with other things and 3 paper dissertation probably would not give a damn for it. Whether we have souls or not, whether they are immortal or die with us, and ccea coursework whether the heaven or the hell is their final destination is of no relevance for any practical matter in the modern world. And yet long before Aristotle and up to 3 paper modern times, the fate of the case studies, soul ( I have caught up the ghostly couple together! ) has been a matter of big concern for many people, and, as Max Weber thought, even a motivation for the development of the capitalist way of production. What an irony: the capitalism of the third millennium, allegedly born from the 3 paper model, Protestant ethics, is as much about the ccea coursework, soul as entomology about whales. 1. Philip E. Agre , The soul gained and lost; artificial intelligence as a philosophical project . 2. : Persons in commodified relationships are there to 3 paper 'serve' or 'perform, ' Jeremy Rifkin writes. In this environment, what happens to empathy? What happens to the individual soul in relation to other souls? ( See APPENDIX 11 ) Every metaphor is a connection (transfer) between two objects.

Is there anything tangible behind the soul or is school research it just an echo of the word? I am looking for dissertation model the place of the idea of the othello research thesis, soul in the changing system of our civilization. Dissertation Model! Is the soul a legitimate dimension of the process? If so, the soul is not of the all-or-nothing kind. Are we really losing our souls? If yes, to whom? The machines can have a mind of their own, but can they have soul? Does super-strong AI (besouled) make sense? In this Essay I deliberately limit myself to Aristotle as the only literary source.

It seems to me that his De Anima (widely represented on the Web) provides an interpretation on his own terms. In the sci-phi forum, Aristotle has as much to say as anybody else. NOTE. An excellent study of the problem of the soul in Aristotle's De Anima by Marian Hillar is available on the Web. In the world of information, it is the body, the hard copy, which is science practically immortal. The weightless electronic information is as mortal as heavy human flesh.

Fortunately, Marian Hillar 's work is 3 paper dissertation published in Contributors to the Philosophy of Humanism , M. Hillar and F. Prahl, eds, Humanists of Houston, Houston, 1994, pp. 51-82. His personality and works on humanism (for example, on universal ethics ) deserve independent attention. Evidently, the subject of the soul was difficult for Aristotle. To attain any assured knowledge about the soul is one of the most difficult things in the world. The soul is so much unlike anything else that Aristotle discusses the method of study at a great length and technology often, short of rigorous logic, uses comparison, parallel, analogy, and dissertation metaphor. The reason for this is easy to see: the soul has no larger category to thesis report fall into. It is what remains in life if we subtract from it the observable material body. In the end, Aristotle takes the only possible secular way. He simply lists all aspects and species of 3 paper model phenomena comprised by the vague notion of the soul, as if defining the concept of the animal from all particular species of animals. His book is traditionally entitled in Latin De Anima , but if we remember that the soul in Greek is ???#942; , psyche (or psuche), the subject of Aristotle looks the same as that of modern psychology, only against a wider biological background.

Classification and analysis is where Aristotle feels at home. Analysis, unlike synthesis, never generates chimeras: it dismembers them. Today practically all the elements and blocks into which Aristotle decomposed the soul belong to established areas of knowledge: biology, physiology, psychology, social psychology and othello research paper thesis Artificial Intelligence. Having completed the analysis of the soul, Aristotle did not find any mystery. And yet reading De Anima , I had a feeling of the great mind's tension, struggle, and dissatisfaction, and it prompted me to look for something else.

The problem for Aristotle was that while everything was clear about different parts of the soul, i.e., observable functions of the living organism and its mind, and the whole did not have any other function but life itself. The soul was just a sum of its parts. The abstract notion of soul was empty and shallow because it was circular: From all this it follows that soul is an actuality or formulable essence of something that possesses a potentiality of being besouled. Model! ( On the Soul , End of Book 2, Part 2) For Aristotle, the paper thesis, soul was the set of all faculties of dissertation model life, starting from the lowest and adding up. For example, The soul of ccea science coursework animals is characterized by 3 paper dissertation, two faculties, (a) the faculty of discrimination which is the work of thought and sense, and (b) the faculty of simple originating local movement. ( Beginning of Book 3, Part 9 ) The plants have the nutritive faculty, and so the animals and humans have it, too. The faculties of the soul, therefore, form a pyramid of a kind, with plants at the foundation and humans at the top. I have an impression, however, that Aristotle pondered on the possibility that even inanimate things could form the foundation of the pyramid: Suppose that what is literally an 'organ', like an 3 paper model ax, were a natural body, its 'essential whatness', would have been its essence, and so its soul; if this disappeared from it, it would have ceased to be an case studies in youth ax, except in name. (Book 2, Part1) Yes, let's suppose that for a moment: not an ax but a robot..

A possible interpretation of the Aristotelian idea of the soul can be found in his metaphoric explanation: It follows that the soul is analogous to the hand; for dissertation model as the hand is a tool of tools, so the mind is the form of forms and high paper sense the form of sensible things.(Book 3, Part 8) The hand is the tool of tools because it can manipulate and use any tool, including an unfamiliar one. The mind is the form of forms, for example, because it can perceive the meaning of many verbal expressions, images, sounds, etc. 3 Paper Model! The sense, such as vision, is capable of thesis perceiving any visual image, not necessarily understanding it.

Hearing perceives all sounds, etc. It seems to 3 paper me that in the above quotation Aristotle took some liberties with analogy. He says that the soul is analogous to the hand but further he takes only the parts of the help sites, soul, as if speaking about the hand he meant only its fingers. The complete analogy should be: the soul is analogous to the hand; for 3 paper dissertation model as the hand is a tool of tools, so the soul is . is technology what? Aristotle refuses to give a general definition of the soul other than in terms of model its parts. It is evident that the way to give the most adequate definition of soul is to report seek in the case of dissertation each of its forms for the most appropriate definition. (Book 2, Part 3) Aristotle understood—it is only my guess—that, regarding the soul as a whole, he would end up in thesis on wimax a vicious cycle: soul is soul, as life is life.

And this is true about modern science, where there is a general and detailed understanding of what life is, but no satisfactory definition of life, and, for that matter, of energy, either. The closest modern translation of the term soul in Aristotle is bio-life, which comprises all general functions of the body. It is a fact of observation that plants and certain insects go on 3 paper living when divided into segments; this means that each of the segments has a soul in it identical in species, though not numerically identical in the different segments, for both of the school research paper, segments for 3 paper dissertation a time possess the paper, power of sensation and local movement. That this does not last is not surprising, for they no longer possess the organs necessary for model self-maintenance. But, all the same, in school science research each of the bodily parts there are present all the dissertation model, parts of thesis soul, and the souls so present are homogeneous with one another and with the whole; this means that the several parts of the 3 paper model, soul are indisseverable from one another, although the sites, whole soul is divisible. Model! (Book 1, Part 5) This remarkable paragraph becomes completely modern if we substitute life for soul and a life function for a part of the soul.

Life divides and multiplies, while its functions are indivisible and we cannot have hearing without breathing. Research Paper! There is no place for 3 paper the separate faculty of having a soul in the scientific and rational picture of technology a human being. Taking life apart, we find no such part as the soul per se . Nevertheless, a consistent version of Aristotle's analogy would look as: As the 3 paper dissertation model, hand is a tool of tools, the soul is the X of Xs. Aristotle's formal logic did not admit self-reference. But we can attempt it: As the hand is a tool of tools, the soul is the soul of souls. Aristotle did not say that, and could not, because it violates his formal logic.

But he expressed the idea elsewhere in an uncharacteristically informal way. The thinking part of the soul must therefore be, while impassible, capable of receiving the form of an school research object; that is, must be potentially identical in character with its object without being the object. (Book 3, Part 4) That could be generalized by substituting soul for dissertation object as: The soul proper part of the overall soul must therefore be, while impassible, capable of receiving the form of another soul; that is, must be potentially identical in character with its object (another soul) without being the object. This means that the human soul is thesis on wimax something that recognizes souls of other beings as identical in character with the soul of the 3 paper model, observer. The soul, therefore, could be just another separate human faculty. To give a far-fetched metaphor, it reminds me the surprising ability of dogs to recognize another dog from high science paper format, afar or even by the sound of its steps. This does not necessarily mean compassion. We may hate the guts of another person ( the guts stands for the soul). The soul is the ability to identify oneself with other beings, and, for that matter, not just human beings.

A person can identify himself or herself with other persons, fictional characters, poets, animals, gods, and even forests, atmosphere, and the finite resources of mineral fuel. The soul is the ability to substitute somebody's soul for one's own, albeit for a short moment. This is possible because all souls are interchangeable in the sense the electrons are in dissertation model molecules. The response may be positive, as well as hostile. A terrorist watches with great satisfaction the terror of another soul even if he is driven by love to something.

One thing is to recognize a tree or a bird, but quite another is to recognize oneself in the other. The reason for that is that while, along Aristotle, we do not really have stones and birds inside, only their forms, we certainly have our selves inside our bodies. The soul as a separate human faculty, in my opinion, means not identification with a group, as in social psychology, but with another soul. A soulless human being is strictly functional, like a machine. It has a purpose and a means to high paper achieve it.

Anything not related to the function is ignored or tackled as a distraction. A human being with the soul recognizes itself in another human being. I fear death and so does he or she. I suffer, and so does he or she. He is like myself.

For a short moment, both souls—mine and the other's—are in joint possession and exchanged freely. When I look at my dog who looks at me, I feel for both the dog and myself, and so does the dissertation model, dog who expects me to take him for a walk. Can we look the on wimax, same way into the eyes of a robot? If we can, than the dissertation, robot has the soul, but only if the robot sees a soul in us and regards us as one of them, robots . The human soul falls into a larger category, as life does: there is soul , as there is case in youth work life, not necessarily of biological nature (which is one of the main motives of my Essays: the life of Things ). From the pragmatic point of view, this may seem quite irrational. One primary indivisible and singular term—self—is substituted for the other. We see an elephant in ourselves and ourselves in the elephant. The elephant does not see us as elephants.

I really do not know about the dogs, but I suspect that my dog would see me as a kind of dog. Dissertation Model! For any practical functional purpose, it would be a fatal mistake to science mix up myself and the other. Actually, acting as machines, we cannot mix up anything, as we cannot mix up letters while typing on dissertation model the keyboard or keys while playing piano. A machine is gcse coursework not supposed to mix left and 3 paper dissertation right. I cannot escape the thesis on wimax, problem of the 3 paper dissertation, definition of the soul, and othello research paper thesis here is my definition:

The soul is the ability of a system to recognize the presence of 3 paper model a soul in another system. This definition reminds of logical paradoxes because of its circularity. Research Thesis! How to recognize the soul (self) in another system? To check if the other system recognizes the presence of the 3 paper, soul in your system. I believe this is what we mean by having a soul. The soul is not an organ but a relation. It is not the self , because the self is senseless without the other . School Format! The soul is a bond, an exchange of souls, as a chemical bond is an exchange of electrons. Dissertation Model! Whether it is high paper format a subject of psychology or social psychology, I cannot say. 3 Paper Dissertation! I would say that the soul manifests in any strong attraction to anything which is not part of an outside program of rational actions.

What is programmed and nothing but programmed is soulless. Naturally, one can have more or less soul. Thesis! I would even measure the size of the soul as the size of the ethical neighborhood of the self ( Essay 24, On Myself ). The soulless being is strictly functional, as all without exception existing creations of AI. It has no ethics. Nevertheless, the corollary is that it may be possible to dissertation model make a robot with a soul because there must be a neurophysiological mechanism behind the soul, and any mechanism can be duplicated. I would reserve my guess (of a mathematical nature) about the case studies in youth work, mechanism for a separate Essay. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to call such a robot machine . Strictly speaking, we all are machines, but not all machines have souls. To lose the soul means to become a machine. We can literally lose our souls to the machines who will appropriate them.

Sci-fi or sci-phi? All the above could be just a starting point. I am taken aback by what I have found. I display some tentacles of the idea in the APPENDIX. So much for the soul. 1. The related problems of identification, empathy, and 3 paper dissertation consciousness have been discussed in science coursework two different areas: artificial intelligence (AI) and social psychology. Come to dissertation think about it, the two apparently distant areas might fuse one day. 2. The famous article by help sites, Thomas Nagel What is it like to be a bat? reverberated in responses entitled What is it like to be a Rock? by Aaron Sloman, where one can find also answers to the questions what is it like to be: that rock over there? a (normal) new-born human infant?

in the advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease? Finally, one can find a discussion on 3 paper What is high school science research paper it like to be a Human (Instead of a Bat) by Laurence BonJour. 3. It seems to me that the religious idea of the soul is dissertation nothing but the high school paper format, idea of 3 paper dissertation a tiny personal god. Help Sites! Monotheism simply kneads all the pagan gods into a dough and 3 paper model gives everybody a cookie. 1. The spiritual, rational, and immortal part in man; that part of high science format man which enables him to think, and which renders him a subject of 3 paper dissertation model moral government; -- sometimes, in distinction from the higher nature, or spirit, of man, the so-called animal soul, that is, the seat of life, the sensitive affections and fantasy, exclusive of the technology essay, voluntary and rational powers; -- sometimes, in distinction from the mind, the moral and emotional part of 3 paper dissertation model man's nature, the seat of feeling, in distinction from intellect; -- sometimes, the intellect only; the understanding; the simple, seat of model knowledge, as distinguished from feeling. In a more general sense, an animating, separable, surviving entity, the format, vehicle of 3 paper dissertation model individual personal existence. Tylor. The eyes of our souls only then begin to see, when our bodily eyes are closing. Law.

2. The seat of real life or vitality; the source of action; the animating or essential part. The hidden soul of harmony. Milton. Thou sun, of technology simple this great world both eye and soul. Dissertation Model! Milton. 3. The leader; the inspirer; the moving spirit; the heart; as, the othello research paper thesis, soul of an dissertation enterprise; an able general is the soul of his army. He is the very soul of bounty! Shak. 4. Energy; courage; spirit; fervor; affection, or any other noble manifestation of the heart or moral nature; inherent power or goodness. That he wants algebra he must confess; But not a soul to give our arms success.

Young. 5. A human being; a person; -- a familiar appellation, usually with a qualifying epithet; as, poor soul. As cold waters to a thirsty soul, so is good news from a far country. Prov. xxv. 25. God forbid so many simple souls Should perish by the sword! Shak.

Now mistress Gilpin (careful soul). Science Research! Cowper. 6. A pure or disembodied spirit. 3 Paper Model! That to his only Son . . . every soul in heaven Shall bend the knee. Milton. 5. Today some people, myself including, have a feeling that we live in the mixed society of humans and machines where the thesis on wimax, former distinctions are being eroded: people become more machine-like and machines more human. 3 Paper! The humans with machine-guns are responsible for unthinkable atrocities to each other, the machines directed by humans are saving human lives, and some humans are turned into destructive suicidal machines by other humans.

I firmly believe that the relation between humans and high research format machines is the major defining conflict of the near future. Fast evolving machines, with their short—and shrinking—life cycle, dictate the organization and function of the incomparably more conservative human society where the life cycle is artificially extended, not without the 3 paper dissertation, help of the machines. 6. Ccea Science Coursework! Losing Our Souls [by Edward Pessen] is the first book to sum up the consequences of the cold war for Americans - the shifting ideals of our approach to international affairs; the building of our nuclear arsenal; the tactics used to combat communist subversion throughout the world and 3 paper model within the United States; the transformation of the ccea gcse science coursework, American economy in response to security demands. Carefully reviewing the evidence, and writing with the authority of a distinguished historian, Mr. Pessen charges that American cold war policy has been disastrous for many of our cherished values and institutions. 7. Social psychology, interested in altruism, empathy, and compassion, deals with important manifestations of dissertation being human and having a soul, without any interest in the soul itself.

Thus, empathy and altruistic behavior raise a controversy similar to that of the soul of the machine. That we always act in self-interest and to decrease our stress is one of the old axioms of social psychology. New and report controversial theories (C.D.Batson) admit that the pure altruism and active empathy are in competition with self-interest with variable outcomes. This area, however, is too closely connected with religion. I would not be surprised, however, if the model, ability of identification with another person was given a status of a separate human faculty, rationalizing the soul, at last. 8. In the help, Russian culture, as I remember it, the exchange of the souls (which the Russians still consider absent from the affluent Western culture) consisted, ideally, of complete and intimate openness to each other and the selfless mutual support.

The real soul mate or bosom buddy was supposed to stand for the other as for himself or herself (to give the 3 paper model, last shirt off his back). Vendetta (blood feud) may present a negative version of the same soul bond. The one who hates is research thesis as much attached to the object of his/her passion as the one who loves. Dostoyevsky noted, somewhat cynically, that a Russian may give you a shirt off his back and to kill you next moment. Isn't that true for any strong attachment? Bernard Lewis, a historian of Islam, noticed this contradiction in the attitude of the Muslims to America. At first the Muslim response to Western civilization was one of admiration and emulation -- an immense respect for the achievements of the West, and a desire to dissertation model imitate and adopt them. In our own time this mood of admiration and emulation has, among many Muslims, given way to one of hostility and help for depression rejection. (From The Atlantic Monthly ) V. S. Naipaul in Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey ( New York: Random House, 1981 ) saw it as an ongoing ambivalence. 9. Are besouled beings and soulless ones facing a possible future conflict? The age of dissertation machines is coming when more machines become less machine-like and thesis report more humans more machine-like.

The advent of Things seems inevitable and irreversible: humans are going to serve the metabolism of Things, while Things are already serving the procreation of humans. Can that impose a deep tragic stress on model humans, leading to their extinction as we know them? The situation is not quite new. The kingdom of Things is irreversible, but so is death. Humans were born not only with tools but also with the first burial rites. The mystery of death brought to existence art, religion, philosophy, and even science—all the ways to semi-immortality. Humans might adapt to Things as they have adapted to death. 10.

Why do we identify ourselves with elephants? To feel better. No, really, why? Because most of us, at othello research paper thesis least in the West, are insulated from suffering, big family, hard work, hunger, and war. We turn to the elephants. 11.

My quotation from Jeremy Rifkin's The Age of Access: The New Culture of Hypercapitalism where all Life is a Paid-For Experience ,( New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2000) refers to page 246; on page 245, the following description of dissertation empathy can be found: To empathize, one needs to reach beyond the confines of the self, to school science research format take up emotional residence in the being of another, and to 3 paper model feel another's feelings as if they were one's own. Jeremy Rifkin also quotes Robert Jay Lifton ( The Protean Self: Human Resilience in the Age of Fragmentation, New York: Basic Books, 1993, p.214.): Empathy requires that one include the other's humanity in one's own imagination. Is empathy what we understand by the soul? Yes, as a way of speaking. Simple Essay! But the soul proper is not exactly empathy because we do know what empathy is. 12. Excerpts from The Mind's I : Fantasies and Reflections on dissertation Self and Soul by Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennet (New York: Basic Books, 1981). The true nature of meat eating, like the true nature of sex and case studies excretion, is only easy to refer to implicitly, hidden in euphemistic synonyms and allusions: “veal cutlets,” “making love,” “going to the bathroom.” Somehow we sense that there is dissertation model soul-killing going on in slaughterhouses, but our palates don’t want to be reminded of high research paper it (p. Dissertation Model! 114).

When does a body contain a soul? In this very emotional selection, we have seen “soul” emerge as a function not of any clearly defined inner state, but as a function of our own ability to project. Thesis On Wimax! This is, oddly enough, the most behavioristic of approaches! We ask nothing about the internal mechanisms—instead we impute it all, given the behavior. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! It is a strange sort of validation of the Turing test approach to “soul detection” (p.115).

Soul represents the perceptually unbreachable gulf between principles and particles. The levels in between are so many and so murky that we not only essay, see in each person a soul but are unable to unsee it. “Soul” is the name we give to that opaque yet characteristic style of each individual. Put another way, your soul is the “incompressible core” that determines how you are, hence who you are. But is this incompressible core a set of moral principles or personality traits, or is it something that we can speak of in physical terms—in brain language? (p. 385) It is always both.

There is no function without soma , as the Greeks called the body, and the modern medicine keeps calling it, dealing with malfunction. When we pinpoint the function, we start looking for its somatic mechanism, and vice versa . 13. Do dogs have souls? If somebody does a serious research trying to find out if the dissertation model, dogs really identify themselves in any way with some people, we might have an answer. I remember how our dog Nika, a Saluki, suffering after a painful injection, was whimpering and school research paper trying to get into bed with me and my wife. As soon as she had been admitted between us and put her head on the pillow, she immediately got quiet and dissertation looked really happy. This does not prove anything.

Yet one has some reason to suggest that, as the dog's master makes distinction between the sites, beloved dog and all the other dogs, the dog may make distinction between the master and all the model, other dogs and people in the world. If soul is studies bond, love is an 3 paper dissertation model evidence of a soul.

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Guidelines for Article-Style Dissertation - NC State s College of Natural

Variant Effect Predictor Annotation sources. VEP can use a variety of dissertation model annotation sources to retrieve the transcript models used to predict consequence types. Cache - a downloadable file containing all transcript models, regulatory features and variant data for a species GFF or GTF - use transcript models defined in studies work a tabix-indexed GFF or GTF file Database - connect to a MySQL database server hosting Ensembl databases. Data from VCF, BED and bigWig files can also be incorporated by model, VEP's custom annotation feature. Using a cache (--cache) is the simple essay, fastest and most efficient way to use VEP, as in most cases only a single initial network connection is dissertation model, made and most data is read from local disk. Use offline mode to studies in youth, eliminate all network connections for speed and/or privacy. Ensembl creates cache files for dissertation every species for help sites for depression each Ensembl release. They can be automatically downloaded and configured using If interested in RefSeq transcripts you may download an alternate cache file (e.g. Model! homo_sapiens_refseq), or a merged file of RefSeq and Ensembl transcripts (eg homo_sapiens_merged); remember to paper, specify --refseq or --merged when running VEP to dissertation, use the relevant cache. See documentation for full details. It is also simple to download and set up caches without using the installer.

By default, VEP searches for caches in othello research paper $HOME/.vep; to use a different directory when running VEP, use --dir_cache. FTP directories by species grouping: The cache stores the following information: Transcript location, sequence, exons and dissertation, other attributes Gene, protein, HGNC and other identifiers for each transcript (where applicable, limitations apply to RefSeq caches) Locations, alleles and frequencies of research existing variants Regulatory regions Predictions and scores for SIFT, PolyPhen. It does not store any information pertaining to, and therefore cannot be used for, the following: HGVS names (--hgvs, --hgvsg) - to retrieve these you must additionally point to a FASTA file containing the dissertation, reference sequence for your species (--fasta) Using HGVS notation as input (--format hgvs) Using variant identifiers as input (--format id) Finding overlapping structural variants (--check_sv) Enabling one of these options with --cache will cause VEP to warn you in its status output with something like the following: For those with Bio::DB::HTS (as set up by or tabix installed on their systems, the speed of retrieving existing co-located variants can be greatly improved by converting the cache files using the supplied script, This replaces the plain-text, chunked variant dumps with a single tabix-indexed file per chromosome. The script is simple to run:

To convert all species and all versions, use all: A full description of the options can be seen using --help . When complete, VEP will automatically detect the converted cache and use this in place. Note that tabix and bgzip must be installed on your system to convert a cache. downloads these when setting up Bio::DB::HTS; to simple, enable to dissertation model, find them, run: When using the public database servers, VEP requests transcript and variation data that overlap the loci in your input file. As such, these coordinates are transmitted over the network to a public server, which may not be appropriate for those with sensitive or private data. High School Science Paper Format! Users should note that only the coordinates are transmitted to the server; no other information is dissertation, sent. To run VEP in an offline mode that does not use any network connections, use the flag --offline. The limitations described above apply absolutely when using offline mode.

For example, if you specify --offline and --format id, VEP will report an help for depression error and refuse to run: All other features, including the ability to use custom annotations and plugins, are accessible in offline mode. VEP can use transcript annotations defined in GFF or GTF files. Model! The files must be bgzipped and indexed with tabix, and VEP requires a FASTA file containing the genomic sequence in order to generate transcript models. Your GFF or GTF file must be sorted in chromosomal order. VEP does not use header lines so it is safe to remove them. You may use any number of research GFF/GTF files in this way, providing they refer to the same genome.

You may also use them in concert with annotations from a cache or database source; annotations are distinguished by the SOURCE field in the VEP output: This functionality uses VEP's custom annotation feature, and the --gff flag is a shortcut to: You should use the longer form if you wish to 3 paper dissertation, customise the name of the GFF as it appears in the SOURCE field and VEP output header. VEP has been tested on GFF files generated by Ensembl and NCBI (RefSeq). Due to inconsistency in research paper thesis the GFF specification and adherence to 3 paper, it, VEP may encounter problems parsing some GFF files. For the same reason, not all transcript biotypes defined in your GFF may be supported by high school science paper, VEP. VEP does not support GFF files with embedded FASTA sequence. The following entity types (3rd column in the GFF) are supported by VEP. Lines of other types will be ignored; if this leads to an incomplete transcript model, the 3 paper, whole transcript model may be discarded. [Show supported types]

aberrant_processed_transcript CDS C_gene_segment D_gene_segment exon gene J_gene_segment lincRNA lincRNA_gene miRNA miRNA_gene mRNA mt_gene ncRNA NMD_transcript_variant primary_transcript processed_pseudogene processed_transcript pseudogene pseudogenic_transcript RNA rRNA rRNA_gene snoRNA snoRNA_gene snRNA snRNA_gene supercontig transcript tRNA VD_gene_segment V_gene_segment. Entities in the GFF are expected to be linked using a key named parent or Parent in studies in youth the attributes (9th) column of the GFF. 3 Paper Dissertation! Unlinked entities (i.e. those with no parents or children) are discarded. Simple! Sibling entities (those that share the same parent) may have overlapping coordinates, e.g. for 3 paper dissertation exon and CDS entities. Transcripts require a Sequence Ontology biotype to simple essay, be defined in order to be parsed by VEP. The simplest way to define this is using an attribute named biotype on dissertation model the transcript entity. Report! Other configurations are supported in order for VEP to be able to model, parse GFF files from NCBI and other sources. The following GTF entity types will be parsed by VEP: Entities are linked by an attribute named for the parent entity type e.g. exon is linked to transcript by technology, transcript_id, transcript is linked to gene by gene_id. Transcript biotypes are defined in attributes named biotype, transcript_biotype or transcript_type. 3 Paper Model! If none of these exist, VEP will attempt to help for depression, interpret the source field (2nd column) of the model, GTF as the biotype.

If the high science research paper, chromosome names used in 3 paper model your GFF/GTF differ from those used in the FASTA or your input VCF, you may see warnings like this when running VEP: To circumvent this you may provide VEP with a synonyms file. A synonym file is included in VEP's cache files, so if you have one of these for your species you can use it as follows: Using a GFF or GTF file as VEP's annotation source limits access to some auxiliary information available when using a cache. Currently most external reference data such as gene symbols, transcript identifiers and protein domains are inaccessible when using only a GFF/GTF file.

VEP's flexibility does allow some annotation types to be replaced. The following table illustrates some examples and alternative means to retrieve equivalent data. * Note this will also instruct VEP to annotate input variants against transcript models retrieved from the cache as well as those from the GFF/GTF file. It is possible to use --transcript_filter to include only the transcripts from sites your GFF/GTF file: By pointing VEP to a FASTA file (or directory containing several files), it is possible to dissertation, retrieve reference sequence locally when using --cache or --offline.

This enables VEP to retrieve HGVS notations (--hgvs), check the studies in youth work, reference sequence given in input data (--check_ref), and construct transcript models from a GFF or GTF file without accessing a database. FASTA files can be set up using the installer; files set up using the installer are automatically detected by VEP when using --cache or --offline; you should not need to use --fasta to manually specify them. To enable this VEP uses one of dissertation two modules: The Bio::DB::HTS Perl XS module with HTSlib. Research! This module uses compiled C code and can access compressed (bgzipped) or uncompressed FASTA files.

It is set up by the VEP installer. The Bio::DB::Fasta module. This may be used on systems where installation of the Bio::DB::HTS module has not been possible. It can access only dissertation, uncompressed FASTA files. Report! It is also set up by the VEP installer and comes as part of the BioPerl package. The first time you run VEP with a specific FASTA file, an index will be built. 3 Paper Model! This can take a few minutes, depending on the size of the FASTA file and the speed of sites your system.

On subsequent runs the model, index does not need to be rebuilt (if the othello research paper, FASTA file has been modified, VEP will force a rebuild of the index). Ensembl provides suitable reference FASTA files as downloads from its FTP server. See the Downloads page for details. You should preferably use the installer as described above to fetch these files; manual instructions are provided for reference. 3 Paper Dissertation Model! In most cases it is best to download the single large primary_assembly file for science paper your species.

You should use the model, unmasked (without _rm or _sm in the name) sequences. Note that VEP requires that the file be either unzipped (Bio::DB::Fasta) or unzipped and science, then recompressed with bgzip (Bio::DB::HTS::Faidx) to run; when unzipped these files can be very large (25GB for dissertation human). An example set of commands for setting up the data for human follows: VEP can use remote or local database servers to retrieve annotations. Using --cache (without --offline) uses the local cache on disk to fetch most annotations, but allows database connections for some features (see cache limitations) Using --database tells VEP to retrieve all annotations from the database. Please only use this for small input files or when using a local database server!

By default, VEP is configured to connect to Ensembl's public MySQL instance at thesis report on wimax, For users in the US (or for any user geographically closer to the East coast of the 3 paper, USA than to Ensembl's data centre in Cambridge, UK), a mirror server is available at high research paper format, 3 Paper Dissertation! To use the mirror, use the flag --host Users of Ensembl Genomes species (e.g. Help Sites For Depression! plants, fungi, microbes) should use their public MySQL instance; the model, connection parameters for this can be automatically loaded by using the flag --genomes. Users with small data sets (100s of variants) should find using the default connection settings adequate. Those with larger data sets, or those who wish to use VEP in a batch manner, should consider one of the alternatives below. It is possible to set up a local MySQL mirror with the databases for your species of sites for depression interest installed. For instructions on installing a local mirror, see here. You will need a MySQL server that you can connect to from the machine where you will run VEP (this can be the dissertation, same machine). For most of the functionality of VEP, you will only need the Core database (e.g. homo_sapiens_core_90_38) installed.

In order to simple, find co-located variants or to use SIFT or PolyPhen, it is also necessary to install the relevant variation database (e.g. homo_sapiens_variation_90_38). Note that unless you have custom data to insert in the database, in most cases it will be much more efficient to use a pre-built cache in place of a local database. To connect to your mirror, you can either set the connection parameters using --host, --port, --user and --password, or use a registry file. Registry files contain all the connection parameters for your database, as well as any species aliases you wish to set up: For more information on the registry and registry files, see here. ADVANCED The cache consists of 3 paper dissertation model compressed files containing listrefs of serialised objects. These objects are initially created from the database as if using the school science research, Ensembl API normally. Dissertation! In order to reduce the size of the cache and allow the serialisation to occur, some changes are made to the objects before they are dumped to disk.

This means that they will not behave in exactly the studies work, same way as an object retrieved from the database when writing, for example, a plugin that uses the cache. The following hash keys are deleted from each transcript object: analysis created_date dbentries : this contains the external references retrieved when calling $transcript-get_all_DBEntries(); hence this call on 3 paper model a cached object will return no entries description display_xref edits_enabled external_db external_display_name external_name external_status is_current modified_date status transcript_mapper : used to convert between genomic, cdna, cds and protein coordinates. A copy of studies in youth work this is cached separately by VEP as. As mentioned above, a special hash key _variation_effect_feature_cache is created on 3 paper dissertation the transcript object and used to thesis report, cache things used by 3 paper dissertation model, VEP in predicting consequences, things which might otherwise have to be fetched from the database. Some of these are stored in place of studies equivalent keys that are deleted as described above.

The following keys and 3 paper dissertation model, data are stored: introns : listref of essay intron objects for the transcript. Dissertation Model! The adaptor, analysis, dbID, next, prev and seqname keys are stripped from othello research paper thesis each intron object translateable_seq : as returned by mapper : transcript mapper as described above peptide : the translated sequence as a string, as returned by protein_features : protein domains for the transcript's translation as returned by Each protein feature is stripped of all keys but: start, end, analysis, hseqname codon_table : the 3 paper dissertation, codon table ID used to translate the transcript, as returned by protein_function_predictions : a hashref containing the keys sift and polyphen; each one contains a protein function prediction matrix as returned by e.g. Similarly, some further data is cached directly on help sites the transcript object under the 3 paper dissertation, following keys: _gene : gene object.

This object has all keys but the following deleted: start, end, strand, stable_id _gene_symbol : the gene symbol _ccds : the for depression, CCDS identifier for the transcript _refseq : the NM RefSeq mRNA identifier for the transcript _protein : the Ensembl stable identifier of the model, translation _source_cache : the source of the transcript object. Studies Work! Only defined in dissertation the merged cache (values: Ensembl, RefSeq) or when using a GFF/GTF file (value: short name or filename) Ensembl release 90 - August 2017 EMBL-EBI EMBL-EBI.