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Principles of reflective writing - SlideShare
Back to Basics: The 15 Most Important Resume Tips for Young Professionals. I’m excited to announce (again!) that my book, Getting from College to Career: Your Essential Guide to in writing a reflective Succeeding in communication prospectus, the Real World, will be published in a brand new, fully revised second edition on principles essay, January 31st! In honor of the communication prospectus, launch, this month I’m writing series of essay “back to basics” blog posts on the essentials of dissertation edition research second writing getting from college to career. Today I’m sharing my absolute favorite, most impactful resume tips: 1. Don’t reinvent the principles in writing essay, wheel . Particularly at the beginning of your career, it’s really hard to start your resume with a blank sheet of paper. So don’t. Check out examples of dissertation edition research student writing strong entry-level resumes online or at your university career center and in writing essay, borrow the best ideas for formatting, headings, wording and more. 2. Essays! Include key words . Employers’ eyes are naturally drawn to the words they’re looking for #8212; the brand names, skills, and basic in writing essay, experience they need #8212; so make sure you include these terms on your resume. Custom! And, be as specific as possible.
For instance, “Experience with Photoshop, Illustrator and InDesign through the principles in writing, production of 12 issues of on-campus magazine” is much stronger than “Design Experience. The best way to find the right words to use is to you write from a poem look at online job listings for the kinds of positions you’re interested in basic in writing essay, and the LinkedIn profiles of essay planning people who have the basic a reflective, positions you want. Then use some of the prominent words and phrases in dissertation prospectus, those job listings and profiles throughout your resume. 3. Tailor your resume to each opportunity. Employers can tell when they’re seeing a generic resume that is being blasted out to anyone and everyone. Principles In Writing A Reflective! It’s fine to have such a resume as a template, but then you need to customize it with different accomplishments and pay for essay, keywords that fit with the individual companies where you’d like to work. (One warning: if you’re sending your resume to a large corporation or posting on the recruiting website of basic principles in writing a reflective essay such an organization, you will have to choose just one version.) 4. Quantify everything that’s quantifiable . Construction Dissertation Second Student Writing! “Managed a team of camp counselors” is less impressive than “Managed a staff of 12 camp counselors and 5 counselors-in-training.” Quantifying can also give life to administrative tasks: “Receptionist at basic a reflective essay a 4-doctor medical practice handling over 100 clients per pay for day.” If your work helped to raise money or profits, then numbers are even more important: “Improved sporting equipment sales in my department by 50% in basic principles in writing a reflective essay, six months” or “Raised $2,000 through solicitation of alumni donations.” Quantifying shows your unique contribution to an organization and also demonstrates that you’re a person who understands the importance of measuring results. 5. Prioritize.
When you list bullet points under each job on communication dissertation, your resume (and you should always list bullet points under each job), be sure to list the basic principles, most important task, accomplishment or responsibility first. It’s highly unlikely that a potential employer is going to read every bullet point under every item on your resume, but most people will read the pay for custom essay, first or second bullet point on each list. Basic Principles! You don’t have to list accomplishments chronologically; list the most impressive first. Also note that more challenging jobs (which ideally should be your more recent jobs) should have more bullet points than less challenging work experiences. 6. Don’t forget to list internships, volunteer work and unpaid summer jobs . Just because you didn’t get paid for something doesn’t mean it doesn’t count as real experience. When including unpaid experience on your resume, emphasize the professional skills you’ve developed.
Use terms such as “leadership,” “fundraising,” “public relations,” “people management,” and 4 paragraph planning sheet, “budgeting” to basic principles a reflective essay describe your activities. 7. Note any notables . Vendetta Essays And Analysis! Be sure to mention anything about you that is unique and uncommon. Some examples include, “Founding president of first-ever entrepreneurial club at XYZ University,” “Winner of the basic a reflective, Anita Lawrence Scholarship for Excellence in construction dissertation research second, Social Studies, awarded to principles the top junior history student” (remember to do you stories in essays explain an award if it’s not nationally known) or “Youngest person ever promoted to assistant manager at local high-end jewelry store.” 8. Don’t highlight something that you despised doing . As you can see, there are many ways to draw a reader’s eye to what you want that person to see on your resume, so avoid these strategies when you don’t want to promote something. In fact, if you’ve had a task or responsibility that you hated and never want to do again (like selling vacuums door-to-door or cleaning animal cages), then don’t include it on in writing a reflective essay, your resume. Custom Essay! You can even leave off an a reflective essay entire job if it’s not relevant to your current job search. 9. Don’t ever lie or stretch the truth. This happens way too often, and it’s never a good idea. Construction Dissertation Second Student! There are so many reasons not to lie on a resume. First of all, if your lie or truth stretching gets discovered, you’ll lose a job opportunity with that company forever. Basic Principles In Writing A Reflective! Second, if you exaggerate your skills, such as being fluent in Spanish when you really just studied it in high school, your lie will become extremely obvious the day you start your job and you lack the skills you said you had. 10.
Keep it to one page . Research! I’ve seen senior executives with one-page resumes, so I don’t see any reason why a college student or recent grad’s resume needs more than that. Basic Principles In Writing! Remember that your resume is a marketing tool and not a transcript or a laundry list of everything you’ve ever done. By keeping your resume short and sweet, you’re demonstrating that you can edit yourself and sell yourself clearly and concisely, which are both important skills in the professional world. 11. Curb your creativity . In the vast majority of circumstances, it’s inappropriate to you write a quote from in an present your resume in any other format than a simple black font (Times New Roman, Arial, etc.) on a white background. On hard copy resumes, it is not okay to use colored paper, scented paper, colorful or creative fonts or any other bells and whistles. Recruiters, especially those in the corporate world, laugh at these attempts to principles in writing stand out and immediately throw such resumes away. You Write From A Poem! It’s also smart to PDF your resume to principles make sure your formatting looks the same on custom, all computers (and to ensure you haven’t left any Track Changes markings #8212; seriously, I’ve seen that happen). 12.
Don’t title your resume document “resume.” This tip comes from Software Advice CEO Don Fornes writing on basic principles in writing, the Job Bound blog. “About a third of vendetta essays applicants name their resume document, ‘resume.doc.’” Don writes. #8220;’Resume’ may make sense on your computer, where you know it#8217;s your resume. However, on my computer, it#8217;s one of many, many resumes with the same name…. By using such a generic file name, the applicant misses a great opportunity to basic principles a reflective brand themselves.” 13. Get professional input . As I recommended in last week’s post on the 7 essentials of a successful job search, if you can afford a professional resume writer, hire one. If you’re still in construction dissertation edition student writing, college, get a free resume critique from your college career center. If you can’t do either of principles a reflective these things, then ask your smartest, most successful friend or family member (ideally someone who works or has worked in pay for custom, your industry) for in writing essay, help. 14. Leave out essay unnecessary information . Here is what you should not include on principles a reflective, your resume: references (an employer will request these if desired), the phrase “References upon request” (they know this), a GPA under 3.0 (click here to read my tips on how to get a job if you have a low GPA) or obvious skills (there is no longer a need to do you short stories say that you know how to use Microsoft Word or Internet Explorer).
You should also remove high school activities once you’re out of college. 15. Quadruple-check for any typos . Typos happen to the best of us, so be meticulous about spelling, grammar, formatting and consistency on your resume. Be especially careful with details like whether or not you end each bullet point with a punctuation mark or whether you’ve capitalized all of your job titles. Even a small typo can blow an opportunity, especially if you’ve included “excellent attention to detail” as one of your skills!
And one more bonus tip… Make sure your resume gets read . A recruiter once told me he always has two stacks of resumes on his desk: one super tall stack of resumes that are submitted online and one very small stack of a reflective essay resumes sent or handed to him by a trusted friend or colleague. Of course you want to be in that smaller, more elite stack. So, always look for an “in” at a company #8212; a friend-of-a-friend, an alum of your university, a LinkedIn connection #8212; who believes in you and will recommend you to his or her employer. How Do From A Poem In An Essay! You can have the best resume in the world, but if a recruiter never sees it you’ll never get the job you want. So, what do you think? Are there any other resume tips I should have included here? Please add your additional tips and principles a reflective essay, suggestions in the Comments! 4 Responses to “Back to Basics: The 15 Most Important Resume Tips for Young Professionals” If its recommended that we not title our resume document #8220;Resume#8221;, what are other alternatives? @Keila The best title for the document is essays, specific, e.g., #8220;Jane Doe Resume,#8221; not simply #8220;Resume.#8221; Good luck! For me, the most important thing was to basic be just different enough to get noticed.
Everyone is trying to pay for custom essay maximize their resume, so they end up all looking similar. Putting something unusual, like a dog shelter vounteer or something can make an exec look twice. My $.02. Job Search Advice for 2015 Graduates - Lindsey Pollak. Principles! [#8230;] my career to sharing job search advice that can help new grads figure it out, like basics on how to build a resume and edition research student writing, where to start a job [#8230;]
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Essay introduction to reflective a personal writing
What you need to know about the new Rotman Application. We’ve had some pretty serious positive trajectory over the last number of years here at principles in writing essay Rotman. So much so that our application volume for you write in an essay the FT MBA Program has doubled in the last 5 years. Basic Principles Essay! With that, we’re really excited about continuing to improve how we spot talent and introducing authentic pieces of who you are as a person into the application and admissions process. Here’s what you need to know about the new Rotman application for construction dissertation edition research second student writing the Class of 2020 (2018 intake). Changes to the Essay: Our 1 traditional essay question has changed once again. This year we think we’ve simplified our essay question. Here it is: “Our Full-Time MBA Program at the University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management is best defined as a transformational experience.
We believe that your journey begins with ‘why’. Please describe why you are pursuing an MBA? Why Rotman? Why now? (500 words)” This change is designed in part to enhance the interview. Principles! Because we now get to stories in essays, know your ‘why’ right up front, the basic essay interview can focus on getting to know you in custom, more depth and detail than ever before.
Carrying Forward from Last Year: We are always looking to improve in everything we do, so the other application components have shifted slightly year-over-year, but there are no major changes to basic principles in writing essay, report. Dissertation! We’re really proud to continue including Kira video responses as a staple in basic principles, the admissions process at Rotman because we think it’s a fantastic opportunity for you as a candidate to really showcase your personality early on in the admissions process. Video responses allow you to dissertation prospectus, virtually put yourself in basic principles, right in front of the admissions committee even before your interview. These questions are focused on 4 paragraph essay, your interests, experiences and values and don’t require you to prepare in advance. Basic! We’re also continuing with the timed written response on Kira as well. Our goals when we introduced the italicize short in essays timed written response were to understand more about basic principles in writing how you communicate, both in terms of ability and style. We also wanted to simulate a realistic writing environment and use this to see how you would write an email in 10 minutes or less. Early applications have been coming in over the last month and we have been really impressed so far. The Round 1 Application Deadline is Monday, October 16 at 12 midnight (eastern standard time). Edition Research Student! We look forward to reviewing your application!
Classes are officially underway this week and with that, we’re thrilled to share our incoming class profile. This year’s class is among the most diverse classes ever at Rotman. 70% of incoming MBA candidates were born outside of Canada representing 51 countries. We are also incredibly proud to report 40% female students in the program for the first time ever at Rotman! As the saying goes, you learn as much from your peers in b-school as anything else.
And via program kick off last week and the pre-program courses, it’s already very clear that this group is really going to complement one another well. With applications rising nearly 30% this year, getting into Rotman is more competitive than ever and this group is impressive by any measure. What’s always hard to capture are the stories behind each of these 350 incredible people. The academic backgrounds range from aeronautical engineering to orthopedic surgery and corporate law. Some have already been published, and others hold patents. Many have already started companies, served on boards, and founded social ventures. There are professional athletes – cricketers and basketball players – professional photographers, producers and actors, soldiers who have served their countries, musicians, and scuba divers. Our GMAT average climbed slightly to 665 (+3), while the GRE average remained steady at 313.
The GPA average also increased from 3.4 to 3.5 and years of work experience rose marginally by .2. ? GMAT Average = 665; GMAT Median = 680. ? GRE Average = 313; GRE Median = 316. ? GPA Average = 3.5; GPA Median = 3.5. ? Average Years Work Experience: 4.3. Because class profiles are often viewed through the prospective student lens as a proxy for what admissions committees look for, we always encourage everyone to principles in writing, review the full ranges for GMAT, GPA, work experience, etc. This framing more accurately captures our holistic focus in admissions and hopefully serves as a helpful reminder (especially to anyone thinking of applying) that nobody is the communication prospectus average.
Despite the beautiful end of summer weather here in Toronto, our team is already traveling the world to a reflective essay, meet with top talent for our next class. Have a look at our schedule of events here to see when we will be in your area! These Colombians chose Rotman for their MBA: Find out why. There are many reasons why students choose Rotman for their MBA. In this post, we’d like to essays and analysis, focus on our dynamic group of basic principles a reflective Colombians in the Class of 2018.
Here’s what they’re saying: “I think Rotman really sets itself apart with its integrated approach to teaching and its concentration on design thinking. Plus, half the students are international students, and the program is located in a mega-diverse city with lots of opportunities to network and experience cultural diversity. All of how do from a poem essay this makes for a very compelling and interesting program.” “Debido que mi objetivo post-MBA es Mercados Capitales, escogi Rotman porque estoy seguro que es la mejor escuela de negocios que me puede preparar y guiar en este proceso, como tambien su gran reputacion con todas las instituciones financieras en Canada. Basic Principles A Reflective! A si mismo, Rotman esta localizada en el centro de Toronto, una de las mejores ciudades para vivir en el mundo, ofreciendo diversidad cultural, restaurantes, vida nocturna, y el tercer centro financiero de Norte America.” Alejandro Fuentes Tapias. “One of Rotman’s main objectives is to have women comprise 40% of the student body by the year 2020. Custom! In addition to basic in writing, attracting more women to essay sheet, the MBA, the Rotman has created an basic principles, atmosphere that allows us to vendetta and analysis, take advantage of available opportunities and be more ambitious in basic principles, our career objectives.
It has opened a Men’s Business Chapter within the Women’s Business Club to discuss the importance of diversity and inclusion and to develop strategies for increasing work equality.” “Escogi el MBA de Rotman por su fuerte enfoque en finanzas y gerencia, los programas de autodesarrollo y la estrecha relacion con las empresas mas prestigiosas del pais. Estas caracteristicas ofrecen una oportunidad integrada para crecer profesional y personalmente. Construction Dissertation Edition Student Writing! Rotman esta situado en la ciudad mas multicultural y diversa del mundo y al mismo tiempo el lugar mas incluyente en el que he estado. Lo que proporciona un escenario internacional perfecto donde el poder de unir conocimiento de todo el mundo y diferentes formas de pensar permiten desarrollar una vision empresarial global.” Get to know the calibre of the Class of 2018 Colombians by checking out their profiles below: Let us know if you see yourself in the Class of 2019 and request a pre-application meeting to find out more! Tips to “unlock” the principles in writing admissions essay. Each year, we post a few tips to communication, “unlock” the principles admissions essay. How Do You Write A Quote A Poem In An Essay! Many of a reflective you have reached about this year’s essay and asked for advice on how to approach our new question. So, here it is … Essay Question: When you reflect 10 years from now, how will you measure your MBA experience? (500 words)
Completing the MBA is a big decision. At this stage in the application process, you should be thinking about essay how your dream school and MBA Program fits within the larger picture of your life. This year’s essay question is a reflective, about your values – how are you going to measure your MBA? Broadening the scope of the question to essay sheet, consider your perspective 10 years from now is important because it prompts a meaningful reflection where you will dive deep, beyond your immediate professional goals. So, in many ways, this is basic in writing a reflective essay, actually an evolution of last year’s essay where we asked applicants to state your professional goals and pay for how you plan to achieve them.
Our hope with this essay question is that you will not only be able to basic principles in writing a reflective, share a thoughtful response with us but, you will also develop a greater understanding of yourself in the process. And, of course, you already know this but there is no right or wrong answer. Strategic Prospectus! We’d rather see a thoughtful response that is a reflective essay, authentic. We look forward to reading your essay. Class of communication dissertation 2019 application is a reflective essay, live.
What’s changed? Our essay question – this year we are asking you to reflect back 10 years after completing your MBA and share with us how you will measure your MBA experience at that point in construction edition second, time. We also increased the word limit from 250 to 500. Our hope in extending the word limit is basic principles in writing a reflective essay, that you will have even more freedom to express yourself in an authentic way. Tips to short in essays, unlock the admissions essay coming soon … What’s new? We’ve enhanced the demographic section to include new optional information, including gender and sexual identity. For all of a reflective essay these new optional demographic questions on essay, the admissions application, providing responses will be voluntary, optional, and will not impact admission decisions. Basic In Writing! Providing the construction dissertation research student LGBTQ+ community with the option to self-identify supports the basic principles in writing University’s priorities of creating an inclusive and welcoming campus environment and this was an important area for improvement.
We’ve also included opportunities to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, share your relationship to Toronto, and if you are applying with your life partner/spouse. The rest is carried forward from last year. Principles A Reflective! What we are looking for has not changed. Intellectual horsepower, experience and impact, communications and presence, and dissertation edition second student what we call ‘spike’ factor. Basic Principles A Reflective! The video response is still a trademark of the Rotman application and last year’s application innovation – the 4 paragraph essay planning timed written response – was an effective assessment tool that we are excited to continue with. Although we had an incredible summer in Toronto and the weather continues to basic principles a reflective, be kind to us, our team has already been out traveling the globe spreading the prospectus word about Rotman. Be sure to check out our events page to see when we are visiting a region near you. They’re her e! The class of essay 2018 is prospectus, officially 4 days into orientation at Rotman and the energy at 105 St. George is incredible. More of basic a reflective essay a ‘deep dive’ on this class profile in pay for custom essay, coming weeks. Here are just a couple of highlights:
This is the most internationally diverse cohort to date. 38 nationalities from 52 birth countries are represented and more than 40 languages spoken. Together, this class has a wonderful opportunity to basic principles in writing a reflective essay, learn from one another and develop a global mindset – even more so when you consider the custom essay collective penchant for travel that this group shares! We are also exceptionally proud to basic principles in writing, welcome 118 women into the program, this is the highest number of incoming women in any Rotman class to date. As a Forté sponsor school, we also designated 19 scholarship awards for outstanding women entering our MBA program through the Forté Fellows program.
The narrative here – we are attracting more top women talent to our MBA program (29% in the class of 2015, 32% in the class of 2016, 32% in planning sheet, the class of 2017 and now 34% in the class of 2018). This positive trajectory is a reflective, a sign of strategic communication real progress. Stay tuned for details on the Rotman Power Hour, a new initiative we’re launching this fall to basic essay, ensure that this trend continues. Finally, at Rotman, we screen for a quote a poem in an essay something that we call ‘Spike Factor’. This includes all the things that you’ve done in principles in writing, your life that demonstrate passion, grit, resilience, innovation, drive, and you write a poem in an essay ambition. So, while the age, years of work experience, GMAT and GPA all remain about the same in the class profile year-over-year, there are so many amazing stories behind the principles essay numbers. A sample of how do you write from in an ‘Spike Factors’ from this year’s class includes a ranch owner who managed over 5,700 acres, a Professional Poker Player who competed in the World Series of Poker and on the World Poker Tour, a 4-time world champion in equestrian, a serial entrepreneur who founded not one but two successful mining/prospecting companies in Brazil, a policy advisor to the Prime Minister of essay Canada, a professional golfer, and published authors! This class is poised to achieve remarkable things.
I am the new D irector of Recruitment Admissions for the Full-Time MBA Program at the Rotman School of Management, at dissertation the University of Toronto – and I couldn’t be happier to be here. In fact, I chose to move across Canada to be here. Basic In Writing A Reflective! One of the you write a poem in an essay biggest reasons why I decided to join Rotman was because of its reputation as one of the most innovative b-schools in the MBA space and I am thrilled to use my first blog post not only to principles in writing a reflective, introduce myself but also to share a Program innovation that has just been confirmed. Rotman is introducing a Flexible Internship Program that will give Rotman MBA students the opportunity to work in one of vendetta and analysis three terms: Summer (May-August), Fall (September-December), or Winter (January-April). Traditionally internships have only been available in the summer term. This Program innovation will provide Rotman MBA students greater access to opportunity in a wider variety of industries and have a significant impact on post-MBA employment. The Flexible Internship Program builds on the experiential learning component of the internship – a core part of the Rotman experience – and integrates this with three critical pillars of our program: Rotman’s intensive focus on self-development, our globally recognized faculty, and one of the largest Career Centres in North America with a dedicated team of career coaches assigned to individual students. I am extremely proud to be introducing another innovation at the Rotman School. The Flexible Internship Program is a game-changer! I look forward to basic principles in writing a reflective, sharing many more updates with you and am very excited to work together on your MBA Journey! Hard to believe that it’s already the essay sheet middle of December!
I guess it’s true when they say time flies when you are having fun. I’ve been having a lot of fun and have actually moved into a new role at Rotman as Managing Director for the Full-Time MBA Program and enjoying diving in to run the business of the Program – a great new professional opportunity for me. Admittedly, it has been a busy few months and I haven’t been as active as I hoped on in writing essay, our blog, but am excited to communication prospectus, introduce our new Director of Admissions who will be taking over in the new year – stay tuned! I’m already very excited about the caliber and diversity of the Rotman class of 2018 based on early applications, and very much looking forward to seeing applications in a reflective essay, the new year. As you know, our Round 2 deadline is January 11th – just around the corner! If you do have any questions about your application I encourage you to reach out now – the University will be closed for the holidays from do you short, December 23-January 4. Basic Principles! We are back for one week before the deadline so will most definitely have plenty of time to assist then, but wanted to ensure we shared our holidays hours well in italicize stories, advance. On behalf of the Rotman Admissions team – we hope you have a wonderful and principles in writing safe holiday season! Looking for to pay for custom essay, 2016 – an exciting year of new beginnings #128578; They’re here! It’s hard to believe that just over a year ago I joined the Rotman Full-Time MBA Recruitment and principles Admissions Team to and analysis, support the team in recruiting the Class of 2017. As a transplant from the Career Centre I was quite sure that I would be able to hit the ground running and help the team bring in the best and basic principles essay most capable class that would attract the top employers. (and I believe we did, but more on that later!)
But, what I quickly learned is that there’s more to building the perfect MBA class than meets the eye. When making offers of admission, not only are we looking at candidates at an individual level (see more on what we look for here) but also at a macro level. How are we actually building the cohort to provide a world-class experience to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, all who come? While I was quite confident on in writing, the individual part having had the communication prospectus privilege of insider information from some of the world’s top employers, I learned that the sum is greater than its parts. As a team we carefully screened for intellectual horsepower, impact, presence, and more. Once a candidate passed that test, we carefully considered what would their impact be on the class as a whole? Did we have the right mix? What were we missing from basic a reflective, a diversity perspective, a talent perspective, and spikiness perspective? How would we carefully choose individuals to make up a community that works; something that both we and communication prospectus they will be proud of for years to basic essay, come?
The Class of 2017 can be classified in a myriad of ways: Class Size = 351 Average Age = 27 Average Experience = 4 years Female = 32% (111 in total) Male = 68% Domestic /International = approximately 50/50 split from 34 different countries GMAT = 680 (Median), 663 (Mean) But what I am most proud of is some of their impressive accomplishments, in many cases beyond the work realm that the 4 paragraph essay sheet statistics don’t quite capture. Each student was chosen based on in writing a reflective essay, their experiences which will bring a unique perspective into the classroom and demonstrate resilience, perseverance, and creativity. Characteristics that many of our top recruiters demand. For example, we have students who are a: Published author Varsity athlete – soccer, badminton, football, hockey, Frisbee, swimming Pro poker player International sailing champion Singer or music producer Band member who toured Latin America and the US Black belt in judo, karate, jujitsu, taekwondo and karate Patent holder 1/2 and full marathoner as well as triathlete and former Ironman competitor Surgeon or MD. And I could go on. The cohort is in their first week of how do you write from a poem in an class and what I hear in principles essay, the halls most consistently is where did you find such an impressive bunch? The beautiful part about Recruitment and strategic dissertation prospectus Admissions is that when one year is complete, we get to go out and do it all over again. Next year’s perfect class will be different from this years’ because each student who is principles essay, admitted will bring something equally distinctive.
The next class will take on its own persona and dissertation second I can’t wait to see who’s out there. In Writing Essay! In fact, I enjoyed the Recruitment Admissions experience so much (thank you Class of 2017) I’ll be staying on 4 paragraph essay sheet, as an Assistant Director this year. I look forward to basic principles essay, meeting you on the road in stories, our pursuit for the perfect Class of 2018!
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MOZART, WOLFGANG AMADEUS (1756 #x2013; 1791) MOZART, WOLFGANG AMADEUS (1756 #x2013; 1791), Austrian composer, widely considered one of the most gifted figures in the history of Western music. Born in basic principles in writing the archbishopric of Salzburg, a territory of the Holy Roman Empire, Mozart by the age of six had already acquired a reputation throughout Europe as a musical prodigy. According to his father, Wolfgang was already composing minuets at the age of four, and he was barely six when he performed on the harpsichord for the Habsburg imperial family in Vienna. Yet Mozart's astonishing precocity as a composer and performer should not obscure the planning role of his father, Leopold, in in writing essay nurturing his genius. Communication. Leopold, the son of an basic in writing a reflective essay, Augsburg bookbinder, became a musician at the Salzburg court in 1739 and in 1763 secured an essay planning, appointment as deputy kapellmeister. He was himself an accomplished musician and composer who in 1756, the year of a reflective Wolfgang's birth, published what would become a highly influential treatise on violin playing. Essay Sheet. He was therefore able to principles in writing provide Wolfgang and his sister, Maria Anna (Nannerl; 1751 #x2013; 1829), with superb musical tutelage. Leopold could be a demanding and irascible father, proud of his son's talents but also possessive and manipulative, and the bitter conflicts that marked his relationship with Wolfgang in vendetta later years have made it easy for basic, some biographers to portray Leopold in an unflattering light. But even those scholars inclined to highlight his shortcomings (see, for example, Maynard Solomon's brilliant but controversial biography) acknowledge Leopold's crucial role in fostering the 4 paragraph talents and career of his son.
This role was evident above all in the series of European tours he arranged for Wolfgang between 1763 and 1772, when Leopold journeyed with his son to such major musical capitals as Vienna, Paris, Naples, Milan, Mannheim, and London. These journeys were undertaken with the purpose of landing Wolfgang a position more suitable to his talents than what was then available in Salzburg. Mozart failed to basic principles a reflective secure a permanent appointment and for most of the period up to 1781 would remain formally in the service of the Salzburg court. But the vendetta essays grand tours of the principles in writing a reflective essay 1760s and early 1770s did have the effect of essay exposing the young composer to an exceptionally broad array of musical influences and genres. In this respect the essay extensive travels of pay for Wolfgang's youth certainly helped foster what would become a key element of his gifts as a composer, namely his universality.
Mozart would not only basic principles in writing essay master every musical genre of his day, but leave a lasting imprint on each #x2014; sacred music, keyboard and chamber music, concertos and symphonies, opera #x2014; and although a composer of his talents was certainly more than the sum of his musical influences, the how do a quote a poem in an range of basic in writing essay styles and how do a quote a poem in an genres to which his father helped expose him fostered the conditions under which Wolfgang's genius could flourish. But the young Mozart's travels also bred a growing dissatisfaction with his patrons at the Salzburg court, where he spent most of the years from 1773 to 1780. Mozart's unhappiness came partly in response to the policies of the new archbishop, Hieronymus Colloredo (in office 1772 #x2013; 1803), whose reform-minded efforts to lower court expenditures and curtail the use of instrumental music in the Mass further reduced what to Mozart already seemed a dearth of musical opportunities. Growing tension between the two, heightened by the efforts of the Mozart family to find employment elsewhere, culminated in the composer's unceremonious dismissal (in Mozart's words, with a kick on the ass) by the archbishop's court chamberlain in basic essay 1781. Construction Edition Research. Mozart's break with the in writing essay archbishop later acquired legendary and dramatic force as the romantic embodiment of the clash between unrequited genius and essays mediocrity. But the principles in writing a reflective essay incident also pointed to the growing importance of Vienna, where Mozart now resolved to make his fortune, as a musical and cultural capital. The 1780s, which coincided with the reign of the reformist Joseph II (ruled 1765 #x2013; 1790), marked the dissertation edition research second student writing high point of Enlightenment culture in the Habsburg capital. The city's expanding musical and theatrical venues help explain why Mozart could take a step so unusual for a composer of his day, namely that of basic principles a reflective essay embarking on a freelance musical career in do you short lieu of one based on court patronage. Legends to the contrary, Mozart enjoyed considerable success in Vienna. The concerts he presented earned him noteworthy sums, due substantially to the popularity of his concertos, while the city's lively stage provided a vehicle for Mozart's operatic ambitions. Principles In Writing A Reflective Essay. The Viennese premier of his German Singspiel, Die Entf #xFC; hrung aus dem Serail (1782; The abduction from the seraglio), was a major success, as was Le nozze di Figaro (1786; The marriage of Figaro), his first of pay for essay three collaborative efforts with the Italian librettist Lorenzo da Ponte (1749 #x2013; 1838).
The Viennese reception of Don Giovanni (1788) and Cos #xEC; fan tutte (1790), for which da Ponte also wrote librettos, was more muted, though the former had earlier premiered to an enthusiastic audience in Prague. Basic Principles In Writing A Reflective Essay. Die Zauberfl #xF6; te (1791; The magic flute) masterfully blended North German chorale, Viennese popular comedy, and from a poem in an essay Italianate coloratura, while its Masonic themes of brotherhood, reason, and principles in writing a reflective justice (Mozart had become a Freemason in 1784) mark the opera as one of the highest expressions of the Viennese Enlightenment. Second Writing. There Mozart's universality is once again evident, not only in the opera's synthesis of principles in writing a reflective diverse musical traditions but also in the transcendence of its moral universe. Although Mozart's annual income during most of his Viennese years was relatively comfortable and roughly approximated that of a merchant or higher government official, his failure to achieve financial security is legendary. Personal extravagance, aggravated by the need to maintain a style of living proper to his status as a composer, was partly responsible. Later scholars have sometimes blamed Mozart's financial insecurity on his wife Constanze (n #xE9; e Weber), the daughter of a Mannheim court musician, whom Mozart had married in 1782. But charges that Constanze, after entrapping Mozart in marriage, drove the pay for pair to financial ruin through her spendthrift ways, appear to be groundless. Evidence suggests that she was a supportive wife and a competent if not shrewd household manager. At least in his later years, what was chiefly responsible for principles in writing essay, Mozart's precarious finances were deteriorating health, which reduced the income he would otherwise have earned through teaching, performing, and composing. The causes of his death in 1791 remain a subject of speculation, with rheumatic fever the most widely accepted explanation. Serious scholars have dismissed the sensationalist claim, first advanced in the 1820s and later revived in stage (1979) and film (1985) versions of Peter Shaffer's Amadeus, that Mozart died of poisoning at the hands of the composer Antonio Salieri (1750 #x2013; 1825).
Braunbehrens, Volkmar. Mozart in essay Vienna, 1781 #x2013; 1791. Translated by Timothy Bell. New York, 1990. Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York and London, 1999. Landon, H. C. Robbins. 1791: Mozart's Last Year. Principles A Reflective. London, 1988.
Sadie, Stanley. (Johann Chrysostom) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie, vol. 17, pp. 276 #x2013; 347. London and New York, 2001.
Solomon, Maynard. Pay For Custom. Mozart: A Life. New York, 1995. James Van Horn Melton. Cite this article. Pick a style below, and essay copy the text for your bibliography. COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group, Inc. Born: January 27, 1756. Died: December 5, 1791.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian composer (a writer of music) whose mastery of the whole range of in essays contemporary (modern) instrumental and principles a reflective essay vocal forms #x2014; including the symphony, concerto, chamber music, and especially the opera #x2014; was unchallenged in his own time and perhaps in any other. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on January 27, 1756, in Salzburg, Austria. His father, Leopold Mozart, a noted composer, instructor, and the author of construction dissertation second famous writings on violin playing, was then in the service of the basic principles in writing essay archbishop of Salzburg. Leopold and Anna Maria, his wife, stressed the importance of music to their children. V For Essays And Analysis. Together with his sister, Nannerl, Wolfgang received such intensive musical training that by in writing a reflective essay the age of six he was a budding composer and strategic communication dissertation an accomplished keyboard performer. In 1762 Leopold presented his son as performer at the imperial court in basic principles essay Vienna, Austria, and from 1763 to dissertation 1766 he escorted both children on a continuous musical tour across Europe, which included long stays in Paris, France, and London, England, as well as visits to basic principles in writing a reflective essay many other cities, with appearances before the French and English royal families. Mozart was the most celebrated child prodigy (an unusually gifted child) of and analysis this time as a keyboard performer. He also made a great impression as a composer and improviser (one who arranges or creates). In London he won the admiration of musician Johann Christian Bach (1735 #x2013; 1782), and he was exposed from an early age to an unusual variety of basic principles a reflective musical styles and tastes across Europe. From the age of ten to seventeen, Mozart's reputation as a composer grew to a degree of 4 paragraph planning maturity equal to that of most older established musicians. He spent the years from 1766 to basic principles a reflective essay 1769 at sheet Salzburg writing instrumental works and in writing a reflective music for school dramas in German and Latin, and in 1768 he produced his first real operas: the German Singspiel (that is, with spoken dialogue) Bastien und Bastienne.
Despite his growing reputation, Mozart found no suitable post open to him; and strategic dissertation prospectus his father once more escorted Mozart, at age fourteen (1769), and set off for Italy to try to make his way as an opera composer. In Italy, Mozart was well received: in Milan, Italy, he obtained a commission for in writing a reflective, an opera; in Rome he was made a member of an honorary knightly order by the Pope; and at Bologna, Italy, the Accademia Filarmonica awarded him membership despite a rule normally requiring candidates to be twenty years old. During these years of travel in Italy and returns to Salzburg between journeys, he produced his first large-scale settings of opera seria (that is, court opera on serious subjects): Mitridate (1770), Ascanio in Alba (1771), and Lucio Silla (1772), as well as his first string quartets. Communication. At Salzburg in late 1771 he renewed his writing of Symphonies (Nos. 14 #x2013; 21).
Paris was a vastly larger theater for Mozart's talents. Basic In Writing Essay. His father urged him to go there, for from Paris the fame of a man of great talent echoes through the whole world, he wrote his son. But after nine difficult months in Paris, from March 1778 to January 1779, Mozart returned once more to essay Salzburg, having been unable to secure a foothold and depressed by the entire experience, which had included the death of his mother in the midst of his stay in basic essay Paris. Unable to get hired for an opera, he wrote music to order in Paris, again mainly for pay for custom, wind instruments: the Sinfonia Concertante for four solo wind instruments and orchestra, the Concerto for in writing essay, flute and harp, other chamber music, and and analysis the ballet music Les Petits riens. In addition, he began giving lessons to make money. Mozart's years in Vienna, from age twenty-five to his death at essay thirty-five, cover one of the greatest developments in a short span in the history of music. In these ten years Mozart's music grew rapidly beyond the construction edition research student writing realm of many of his contemporaries; it exhibited both ideas and principles methods of elaboration that few could follow, and to many the late Mozart seemed a difficult composer. The major instrumental works of this period bring together all the fields of Mozart's earlier activity and some new ones: six symphonies, including the famous last three: no. 39 in E-flat Major, no.
40 in G Minor, and no. 41 in C Major (the Jupiter #x2014; a title unknown to essay Mozart). He finished these three works within six weeks during the summer of 1788, a remarkable feat even for him. In the field of the string quartet Mozart produced two important groups of works that completely overshadowed any he had written before 1780: in 1785 he published the six Quartets (K. 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, and 465) and in 1786 added the single Hoffmeister Quartet (K. Basic Principles Essay. 499). In 1789 he wrote the last three Quartets (K.
575, 589, and 590), dedicated to King Frederick William (1688 #x2013; 1740) of Prussia, a noted cellist. Mozart's development as an opera composer between 1781 and his death is even more remarkable, perhaps, since the problems of opera were more far-ranging than those of the construction dissertation writing larger instrumental forms and principles in writing a reflective essay provided less adequate models. The first important result was the German Singspiel entitled Die Entf #xFC; hrung aus dem Serail (1782; Abduction from the Seraglio ). Mozart then turned to Italian opera. Mozart produced his three greatest Italian operas: Le nozze di Figaro (1786; The Marriage of Figaro ), Don Giovanni (1787, for Prague), and Cosi fan tutte (1790). In his last opera, The Magic Flute (1791), Mozart turned back to German opera, and he produced a work combining many strands of popular theater and strategic communication dissertation prospectus including musical expressions ranging from basic principles a reflective essay, folk to stories opera. On concluding The Magic Flute, Mozart turned to work on what was to be his last project, the Requiem. This Mass had been commissioned by a benefactor (financial supporter) said to have been unknown to basic principles essay Mozart, and he is supposed to have become obsessed with the belief that he was, in effect, writing it for himself.
Ill and exhausted, he managed to finish the first two movements and sketches for several more, but the last three sections were entirely lacking when he died. It was completed by his pupil Franz S #xFC; ssmayer after his death, which occurred in Vienna, Austria, on December 5, 1791. Deutsch, Otto Erich. Strategic Communication Dissertation Prospectus. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965. Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999. Parouty, Michel. Mozart: From Child Prodigy to Tragic Hero. New York: Harry N. Basic. Abrams, 1993. Solomon, Maynard.
Mozart: A Life. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995. Cite this article. Pick a style below, and copy the 4 paragraph sheet text for your bibliography. Copyright The Columbia University Press. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (m#333;t?sart, Ger. volf?gang amad#257;?#335;#335;s m#333;?tsart) , 1756–91, Austrian composer, b. Salzburg. Mozart represents one of the great peaks in principles the history of music. Short Stories In Essays. His works, written in almost every conceivable genre, combine luminous beauty of sound with classical grace and technical perfection.
See W. A. Basic Principles Essay. Mozart's letters, ed. by E. Anderson (tr., 2 vol., 2d ed. 1966), and selected letters, ed. by R. Essay Sheet. Spaethling (tr., 2000); biographies by O. Jahn (tr. 1891, 3 vol.; repr. 1970), A. Einstein (4th ed. 1959), O. E. Deutsch (2d ed. 1965), E. Blom (rev. ed. 1937, repr. 1985), M. Solomon (1995), P. Gay (1999), R. W. Gutman (2000), J. Basic Principles In Writing Essay. Rushton (2006), and C. Wolff (on his last four years, 2012); studies on his quartets by T. F. Dunhill (1927), his operas by E. J. Dent (2d ed. 1947, repr.
1970), his symphonies by G. de Saint-Foix (tr. 1947, repr. 1968); C. Dissertation Research Writing. Rosen, The Classical Style (1971; expanded ed. 1997), J. Basic Essay. Liebner, Mozart on the Stage (1972, repr. Essay Planning Sheet. 1980), H. C. R. Landon, 1791: Mozart's Last Year (1988, repr. Basic A Reflective. 1999), and W. Short. Stafford, The Mozart Myths (1991). Cite this article. Pick a style below, and principles in writing a reflective copy the text for your bibliography. #xA9; World Encyclopedia 2005, originally published by how do you write a poem Oxford University Press 2005.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756#x2013;91) Austrian composer. A child prodigy on the piano, Mozart was taken by his father, Leopold, on performing tours in Europe (1762#x2013;65), during which he composed his first symphonies. In the 1770s, he worked at the Prince Archbishop's court in basic principles in writing a reflective Salzburg. Masses, symphonies, and his first major piano concerto date from this time. Opera was his primary concern, and in 1780 he composed Idomeneo , which is impressive for its rich orchestral writing and depth of expression. In the 1780s, he moved to Vienna, where he became court composer to the Austrian Emperor in 1787. In this decade, he composed and performed his greatest piano concertos, the last eight of his 41 symphonies and the brilliant comic operas Le Nozze di Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787) and Cos#xEC; fan tutti (1790).
In the last year of his life, Mozart wrote the pay for operas Die Zauberfl#xF6;te and basic principles in writing a reflective La Clemenza di Tito , the clarinet concerto, and the Requiem (completed by a pupil). In all, he composed more than 600 works, perfecting the classical style and foreshadowing Romanticism. Cite this article. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
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Free International Relations essays. The international system seems to be changing due to the effects made by basic a reflective, globalization. However, it is just history repeating itself. A Quote In An Essay! One of the factors repeated over time is sanctions. Sanctions have been part of the international system for a long time although in different forms. Basic Principles A Reflective Essay! For example, British trade was sanctioned by the Napoleon System.
A more specific example to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet Africa was in South Africa. The state was sanctioned by the United Nations with the aim to abolish apartheid . In both cases the a reflective sanctions were economic. Sanctions, whether in law or ethics, are imposed on groups or individuals to encourage approved behavior. The sanctions can either be positive or negative. However, the term has over the years been used in the negative sense especially in international relations (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2015). The sanctions commonly used are political, economic or social.
The political and economic sanctions are used most often in the international sphere. The economic sanctions involve trade embargoes on states while political sanctions involve alienation of certain people from traveling to other countries than their own. Social sanctions may involve a state being banned from international participation in activities such as sports. The social sanctions have little effect on state compliance as political and economic matters are more important. Previous work on do you short stories in essays sanctions have been done by Florea and in writing, Chirtoaca (2013) and Kanishchenko and Mamalyga (2015). Florea and Chirtoaca (2013) wrote on sanctions in the International Public Law. Do You Short Stories In Essays! Their work draws from agreement such as the 1969 Vienna Convention.
The agreement was drawn at a time when majority of African states were fighting for liberation. Hence, African states were not actively involved in making the agreement. It is important to note that the application of such agreements to a continent with different values and cultures is extraneous. The work by Kanishchenko and Mamalyga (2015) pertained to basic a reflective modern trends of economic diplomacy in a globalizing world. Once again majority of the how do a quote in an work points to basic principles in writing essay the Northern Hemisphere states and the regional influences of dissertation research second, sanctions. As much as a state is sanctioned by the international community, the terms of the sanctions are difficult to adhere to by the regional states around the sanctioned state. This chapter will investigate the impact of sanctions on South Sudan. The chapter will examine whether the basic international community imposed economic, social or political sanctions on South Sudan. Moreover, the chapter will investigate whether the dissertation edition second writing sanctions have managed to change the behavior of the entities or individuals sanctioned. The sanction period will pertain to basic a reflective the 2013 civil conflict that still wages on.
2.2 UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL SANCTIONS. The United Nations Security Council met to decide on the fate of the 18 month long unending conflict in South Sudan. Essays And Analysis! The meeting resulted in drafting of resolution 2206 (2015). The resolution imposed certain measures in basic principles a reflective, order to put an end to the conflict. Custom! The measures were in the form of sanctions (UNSC, 2015).
The sanctions were travel bans and asset freezing. In Writing A Reflective! These were not applicable to the whole state but to certain individuals and pay for essay, entities. The committee was unable to identify any entities to sanction but sanctioned 6 individuals. A Reflective! These were Gabriel Jok Riak, Simon Gatwech Dual, James Koang Chuol, Santino Deng Wol, Marial Chanuing Yol Mangok and Peter Gadet. These individuals were identified from either side of the conflict. The list was however subject to a quote in an essay change once the committee found any individual or entity to be accelerating the conflict or preventing the peace process (UNSC, 2015). The travel ban was to be implemented by member states where the states were to prevent entry into or transit through their territories. The travel bans were to be imposed on the individuals named above. Basic A Reflective Essay! The states were however to edition student writing enable entry of their own citizens as the principles essay ban is only applicable to the named individuals. The ban was as per paragraph 11 of the resolution (UNSC, 2015). Asset freezing on the other hand, was to be implemented by member states where all assets pertaining to the named individuals, all funds, other financial assets and economic resources which were on member states territories were to be immediately frozen.
The states were to also consider assets owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by individuals/entities on behalf or at construction dissertation edition research writing, their direction. These assets were to be frozen as well (UNSC, 2015). The member states should ensure that during the initial period the funds are inaccessible to the individuals, their nationals and people within their territory. These guidelines were provided in paragraph 13 of the resolution. To measure the progress of the sanctions, members states were given a period of 90 days.
The period was to enable implementation of the resolution (UNSC, 2015). It is important to note that the resolution did not include an arms embargo. This would suggest that the individuals cannot access their assets but can still be able to basic in writing a reflective access arms using other means such as selling of the oil from the oil rich regions. The sanctioning of lower officials is commendable but higher officials should also have been considered. The sanctions should have also included the president and construction dissertation research student, former vice-president as their actions are of immediate effect to the conflict.
The president and a reflective, vice-president continue to travel within the region and making the need for do you italicize short peace less urgent than it actually is. In this case, the UN would be considered a toothless dog as the conflict continues to wage on despite the sanctions. A Reflective Essay! Moreover, the decision was made millions of you write essay, miles away and the direct mediators of the conflict were not involved. IGAD should have been involved in in writing a reflective essay, the decision making because they understood the essay planning sheet conflict better. Basic In Writing A Reflective! The implementation of the construction dissertation student sanctions should be more focused on countries immediately bordering South Sudan. These include Kenya, Uganda, DRC, C.A.R, Sudan and Ethiopian. However, some of the countries such as DRC and principles in writing a reflective essay, C.A.R are not stable and may not be able to help resolve the conflict. As a result, the sanction has had little impact on the conflict.
The sanctions may have affected the named individuals but there are many more individuals, entities and third parties at play which may have been considered as part of the dissertation sanction. Thus, the panel of experts on principles in writing a reflective essay South Sudan should have carried out more research. 2.3 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON SOUTH SUDAN. On 10 July 2014, the European Union Council met to make a decision on the conflict in custom, South Sudan. The council arrived at Council Decision 2014/449/CFSP concerning restive measures in view of the situation in South Sudan.
The decision was made in support of the efforts made by the African Union, IGAD and other international organizations (European Union Council, 2014). The measures were to be imposed on individuals obstructing the political process or violating the agreements. In this case, the restrictions were applicable to two individuals who were Santino Deng and Peter Gadet. The European Union Council gave reasons for basic principles a reflective essay each individual’s restriction. Santino Deng was said to have violated the 4 paragraph essay 23 January Cessation of Hostilities Agreement. This was done by recapturing of Bentiu in May 2014. Peter Gadet violated the 23 January Cessation of Hostilities Agreement by attacking Bentiu in the 15-17 April 2014(European Union Council, 2014). The state was sanctioned as much as the in writing a reflective essay individuals.
This was in terms of supply, transfer or export of arms or ammunition to South Sudan. The use of flags by member states was prohibited as well as use of their aircraft (European Union Council, 2014). The European Union’s effort for an arms embargo is more commendable compared to that of the UNSC. However, this again was a decision made millions of miles away. Moreover, Europe is construction research second not the only region which can supply arms to the country in conflict. Countries such as China, Russia and the United States can as well supply arms. This chapter was meant to determine the impacts of sanctions on South Sudan, whether political, economic or social. The sanction period pertained to the 2013 civil conflict. Moreover, the chapter was also to determine whether the sanctions have managed to deter the behavior of the individuals or entities sanctions.
The findings of the chapter were that the sanctions have had an basic principles in writing, impact on do you italicize South Sudan, however, the sanctioned individuals have not changed their behavior. Gabriel Jok Riak, Simon Gatwech Dual, James Koang Chuol, Santino Deng Wol, Marial Chanuing Yol Mangok and Peter Gadet were the sanctioned individuals by both the UNSC and EU. The sanctions imposed were both political and economic. The political sanction was a travel ban while the basic a reflective essay economic sanction was freezing of assets. The impact of the sanctions towards the individuals has been political and economic. However, the overall goal to bring peace to South Sudan has failed. Despite the efforts of the UNSC and EU council, the vendetta essays and analysis sanctions seem to be causing more harm than good. Monitoring has not markedly improved, and many of the practices and procedures of basic essay, sanctions committees are to some extent seriously flawed. The Security Council remains in control and permanent members seem disinclined to modify past practices. They prefer not to be burdened with rules and they do not want to be billed for collateral damage.
The sanctioned state are left to rebuild from scratch and more often given loans from Brussels institutions. The loans create a cycle of payment for many generations on the African countries. Sanctions do hold great promise despite the current inability to prevent or stop conflict. Under certain conditions and measures, sanctions may be able to work. For example, states neighboring the construction student conflicted country to actually come up with the sanctions compared to states and basic in writing a reflective, institutions which are nowhere near the region. i??i??CHAPTER 3: COMMODIFICATION. War has been part of 4 paragraph sheet, human history. The war or conflict has been over many differing issues. In Writing A Reflective! The first world war was triggered by pay for, the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. World War Two was caused by Adolf Hilter’s goal to kill all Jews. At the essay end of all conflicts and pay for custom, wars, peace was negotiated.
Majority, if not all, peace agreements were negotiated by basic, the top most officials only. The peace of World War Two was negotiated by the victors who make up majority of the Security Council of the UN. Africa was never part of the negotiation process and was thus commodified in the process. The first instance of commodification for South Sudan was after the colonial period where Sudan became independent in 1956. The government was being controlled from Khartoum and the Southern region was often left out in the political, economic and social process. Stories In Essays! This led to subsequent conflicts with the two decade war between the government and a reflective essay, SPLM/A being the most significant. Dissertation Writing! The Comprehensive Peace Agreement came at a much needed time with Kenya leading the basic principles in writing mediation process through former President Mwai Kibaki. After the death of the then Vice-president John Garang, the you write a quote from in an essay CPA was deemed to no longer sustain the agreement between the two regions. Basic Principles A Reflective! The southern region was then given the chance to either remain with the northern region or separate into planning sheet, two. The separation of the two regions was believed to bring an end to the conflict but an internal conflict was brewing within the southern region itself which eventually led to a civil conflict in a reflective, December 2013. Previous work on commodification has been done by Bush (2004).
His work suggests that many diplomatic solutions are dependent on italicize short agreement between or among the basic principles essay leaders involved in the conflict. Majority, if not all, agreements are per the standards of the leaders and 4 paragraph essay planning, are mostly meant to protect themselves. The war prone society is rarely consider and the discontent by the people results in a reflective essay, the reoccurring of conflicts as in the case of South Sudan. This chapter will find out the relationship between commodification and recurrence of essay, conflict in South Sudan. The chapter will also look at the various peace agreements that have been made before South Sudan became a state as well as agreements afterwards. The agreements that will be examined pertain to peace. The chapter will investigate whether political, economic and social factors were considered. 3.2 THE ADDIS ABABA ACCORD.
The British left a well divided country as was the case in basic in writing essay, Eastern Africa but nation-states were of little consideration at the time.The first military rule by General Abood was not well welcomed and you write a quote from a poem in an essay, accepted by a reflective, the Sudanese people. It eventually led to a rebellious uprising in 1964. His rule was characterized by extreme islamization arabization of the southern region. He also expelled foreign missionaries which were largely christians and had spread christianity in the southern region. As a result of the rebellion governance, identity and vendetta, acceptance of other ethnic groups were the core issues of discussion. This was the emerging point of accords and agreements in essay, the Sudanese political scene (Ahmad,2010).
The rebellion was known as the ‘October Revolution’ but called Anya-Nya war according to the southerners. The transitional government consisted of the military and civilian leadership of prominent elites in the South. These included Agrrey Jaden and 4 paragraph essay, William Deng.Exerting considerable effort, the transitional government managed to attract a wide spectrum of politicians representing major political parties from both the North and in writing essay, south to join a round table conference to deliberate Sudan’s most pressing issues of the day. V For Essays! Since it was not able to reach a final conclusion, the conference was suspended and its work was delegated to a 12 man committee composed of representatives of the basic a reflective various political parties (Ahmad,2010). The committee came up with possible recommendations to pay for solve the country’s issue. Some of the recommendations were decentralization of government, preservation and development of languages and culture.However, the recommendations did not reach the implantation stage and were swept aside (Ahmad,2010).
The country was to be once again drawn into conflict as a result of the assassination of William Deng. This took place in basic principles in writing a reflective, May 1968 during a tour of the South. The confidence and ties that had developed quickly came to a demise and a civil war ensued. Short Stories In Essays! At this juncture, the South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) was formed. The SSLM came up from the ashes of the Anya-Nya movement and drew ranks from it. After a brutal five years of fighting between the SSLM and the central government, change came about. This was as a result of a military takeover at the centre. The new regime announced the June 1969 Declaration which recognized the multiple differences between the North and the South.
The declaration also granted the much needed regional autonomy to basic principles a reflective essay the South (Ahmad,2010). A dialogue between the SSLM and how do you write from a poem in an, the central government was resumed in in writing a reflective essay, which the World Council of Churches and Emperor Haile Selassie played a pivotal role in short stories, bringing the basic in writing a reflective two parties to vendetta essays and analysis the table. The negotiations culminated in the Addis Ababa Accord of February 1972 which paved the basic essay way for stopping the war (Ahmad,2010). It is widely acknowledged that the Addis Ababa Accord indirectly adopted the recommendations of the Twelve Man Committee. The Accord recognized the root problems and attempted to provide serious solutions, thereby initiating autonomous regional rule which provided the edition research second writing southern people enough space for self’determination and basic principles a reflective, guaranteed all rights included in the June 1969 declaration (Ahmad,2010). This being the first official and significant agreement between the North and the South suggests that commodification was of much greater importance compared to pay for custom complete involvement of the southern region. Basic Principles A Reflective Essay! In terms of political participation, the South was significantly participating but failing economically due to hegemony within the state. Hence, the political elites were gaining while the population was loosing economically. As a result, the Addis Ababa Accord did not hold and conflict ensued once again. 3.3 THE COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), also referred to as the Naivasha Agreement, is the most crucial milestone in the political development of Sudan and custom essay, South Sudan.The country had been in almost three decade war.
Due to the collapse of the Addis Ababa Accord, reaching the agreement was very difficult. The process of dialogue took more than 5 years just to reach a consensus. Basic In Writing! The international community also took part in making this possible (Ahmad,2010). The serious beginning of this dialogue was initiated through the IGAD Declaration of 1994, an approach endorsed by custom, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the Eritrean President Asaias Afewerki, both of whom were experts on Sudanese affairs due to their long stays in principles in writing a reflective essay, Sudan while leading the struggle to remove Mengistu Haile Mariam from power in Ethiopia. IGAD was also assisted by troika which was a combination of do you italicize short stories in essays, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States and later on Italy.The group contributed to maintaining continuity in the dialogue as well as providing an element for the guarantee of its results (Ahmad,2010). From the Abuja talks and so forth was the birth of the Machos Protocol of principles in writing a reflective essay, 2002. This set the pace for other protocols which would ensue later on.The other protocols would involve power sharing, wealth sharing and security.In 2005,the complete comprehensive agreement was signed in Naivasha with the guidance of former president Mwai Kibaki. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning! The hopes and future of basic principles essay, Sudan was pegged on strategic that agreement compared to those before it (Ahmad,2010).
John Garang de Mabior became the vice president but his time was soon to come to basic principles in writing essay an end in June 2005.He did in a helicopter crash under questionable circumstances which to date have not been answered. He left the CPA as a tool for the peaceful co-existence among the Sudanese but it did not hold as the southern region wanted to become a country of its own, South Sudan. The data above suggests that the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet whole CPA was pegged on the leadership and guidance of basic principles, John Garang. Without him, the agreement was not able to hold. It further suggests the pay for commodification nature of the agreement where the elites were involved and the agreement did not trickle down to the citizens. 3.4 2014 CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AGREEMENTS.
In December 2013, South Sudan was engulfed by a civil war which evoked the response of IGAD. IGAD has held a number of essay, meetings for the two warring sides to agree but it seems that the custom essay two sides can never agree. The meetings held in Addis Ababa consisted of the basic a reflective cessation of hostilities agreements which will be discussed below (IGAD,2014). The first cessation of do you short stories in essays, hostilities was agreed upon on 23 January 2014 in in writing a reflective essay, Addis Ababa.The agreement was signed by Nhial Deng Nhial and Taban Deng Gai representing the government and the opposition respectively. The agreement was witnessed by Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazaro Sumbeiywo and General Mohamed Ahmed M. El Dabi (IGAD,2014). The agreement recognized that the transitional constitution of South Sudan requires peace building through dialogue. Planning! The loss of life on 15 December was recognized and basic a reflective essay, various factors led the violence to ensue. The parties were to immediately without hesitation cease all forms of hostilities between them. All forces and armed groups under their control were to you write from in an essay as well observe the agreement. If any side had received any outside support, the outsiders should progressively withdraw (IGAD,2014).
The parties were to basic principles in writing a reflective also cease all forms of hostile propaganda. The use of media and other propaganda campaigns was prohibited. Ethnic propaganda was specially prohibited by the agreement. Any further actions to undermine the peace process were as well prohibited (IGAD,2014). The protection of custom essay, civilians was an essential part of the agreement. Both sides were to refrain from in writing essay, causing harm to the civilian population. Pay For! They were to protect human right,life and property as provided for by national,regional,continental and international instruments. The rights of the girl child were to basic be protected through prevention of rape,sexual abuse and student, torture.
Only third parties,not involved in the conflict, were allowed to re-unite families (IGAD,2014). Due to the immediate need for humanitarian assistance, both sides were to allow free and secure flow of principles, humanitarian assistance to those affected by the conflict. Human dignity was to be observed by decent burials and memorialization (IGAD,2014). The agreement was to enter into force 24 hour after signature by the Parties and the progressed monitored by essay sheet, a Monitoring and Verification Team. The team would be compose of IGAD member states, the two parties and a mix of civilians and individuals with military backgrounds.The Agreement had such good promise of peace but it did not take long for it to in writing a reflective be invoked. The invocation sparked fresh civil clashes further engulfing the country into conflict (IGAD,2014). On 9 May 2014 President Slava Kiir Mayardit and chairman of SPLM/A( In Opposition) signed another agreement to put an end to hostilities between the how do a quote from in an essay two sides. The guarantor of the agreement was the Chairman of IGAD Assembly and the Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Dessalegn. The agreement was witnessed by Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazoro K. Sumbeiywo and General Mohammed Ahmed El-Dabi.
This second agreement was to reinforce the efforts of the previous agreement.The two sides recognized that a military solution was not suitable to basic principles in writing solve the conflict but political dialogue was rather more saturable. The two parties were to 4 paragraph again cease hostilities within twenty-four hours and agree to deploy the IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism. Finally, all South Sundaes stakeholders not in either parties where to be included in the peace process (IGAD,2014). Although the peace agreements were commendable once again the people at the grass root such as chiefs and generals were not put into consideration.Even though the people present were to basic principles in writing a reflective represent their views, some of their concerns may have not been represented and hence the invocation of the cease fire by the generals who had been sanctioned by the UN.This further suggests the commodified nature of peace agreement made at top levels. This chapter was meant to find out the relationship between commodification and recurrence of conflict in v for essays and analysis, South Sudan. The chapter was to also look at the various peace agreements that have been made before South Sudan became a state as well as agreements afterwards. The agreements that were examined pertain to peace. The chapter would investigate whether political, economic and principles, social factors were considered.
The findings were that commodification and the recurrence of conflict due have a relationship. The relationship was the various peace agreements made fulfilling only political factors rather than economic and do you italicize, social factors as well. Basic Principles In Writing A Reflective! The peace agreements included the Addis Ababa Accord, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and essay sheet, the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. The Addis Ababa and the Comprehensive Peace Agreements were written before South Sudan became a state. The Cessation of Hositilies Agreements were drawn after South Sudan became a state. The Addis Ababa Accord attempted to incorporate the needs of the society but was deterred by failure in the economic sector and principles in writing, conflict ensued once again. Planning Sheet! The CPA was the most significant peace agreement that stopped an almost three decade war.
It was very promising but it died its promises died with the late vice president John Garang. The state was soon split into basic principles in writing a reflective, two giving birth to South Sudan. The agreement seemed to have stopped hostile between the a quote a poem two states but internal tensions were beginning to show. Basic Essay! Ultimately a civil conflict took place in 2013 which gave birth to the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. The agreements were evoked time and time again as political elites kept changing sides. This suggested that the agreements were dependent on pay for custom essay the politicians rather than the people. Leaders are a representation of the people and are meant to air their views. However in basic principles in writing a reflective essay, the instances of peace agreements, these views may be overlooked. As a result, conflict does not stop but rather ensues into a larger conflict. Custom! The commodification nature of the Addis Ababa Accord, the CPA and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements suggests this to in writing a reflective essay be true. CHAPTER 4:MEDIATION OF THE SOUTH SUDAN CONFLICT.
IGAD has played a huge role in the peace processes in the Eastern Africa region. This is especially true to the peace process of Sudan and South Sudan. The CPA was paramount and no chances were taken to achieving peace. The Abuja talks were the first steps taken towards mediating the two parties. The serious beginning of this dialogue was initiated through the IGAD Declaration of how do from, 1994. In the basic principles essay subsequent years the CPA was drawn. The agreement was signed by the Khartoum government and the SPLM/A. Since IGAD was familiar with the conflict in the region, it was the do you first regional body to mediate the 2013 conflict in South Sudan. The regional body’s mechanism had even predicted the probability of the conflict occurring.
The regional mechanism was the basic principles in writing Intergovernmental Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism. The mechanism had warned of an dissertation prospectus, imminent conflict but failed to prevent it. A mediation team was quickly formed in 2014 to immediately stop the civil conflict in such a young nation. Putting the above into consideration, this chapter will examine whether the in writing a reflective mediation efforts have actually helped in resolving the conflict. Moreover, the chapter will view the history of vendetta, IGAD in basic principles in writing a reflective essay, the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan. The history preview is strategic communication prospectus meant to understand the previous mediation process.The chapter will also examine the intervention role played by Uganda. 4.2 IGAD’s HISTORY IN SOUTH SUDAN. IGAD was instrumental in mediating the conflict between the North and south of Sudan in the 1990s. The conclusive efforts led to the signing of the CPA in Kenya.The efforts of IGAD were officially engaged in 1993. A Standing Committee on Peace was established by IGAD. The committee was to basic principles in writing a reflective essay mediate the negotiation to end Sudan’s civil war (Young,2007).
The efforts led to the establishment of A Declaration of Principles. The document contained the communication dissertation prospectus basis for negotiation.The SPLM was quick to accept it but that was not the case for the Khartoum government. However, in 1998 the principles essay document was accepted by the Khartoum government. Although it was important for the Khartoum government to accept the v for vendetta essays and analysis document, the peace process had been dwindling. In an effort to save the process, IGAD once again came in.
In 1999 the Standing Committee established a secretariat, Secretariat for the IGAD Peace Process on the Sudan. The mandate of the secretariat was to ensure and sustain the mediation process. This phase of mediation was led by Special Envoy Ambassador Daniel Mboya (Young, 2007). Special Envoy Lieutenant General Lazaro Sumbeiywo in basic principles in writing, 2002 continued to mediate the process. The Machakos Protocol was later signed by the Khartoum government and SPLM/A . This took place on 20 July, 2002.The document was another guideline for the conduct of negotiation. The process led up to the CPA which was signed in 2005 (Young, 2007). Years later after South Sudan became a state, another civil conflict erupted.It came as no surprise that IGAD would as well mediate the civil conflict in South Sudan.
The success of the CPA suggested the proactive nature of IGAD’s intervention and mediation mechanism.However, the strategic communication case became different when it came to basic in writing a reflective essay South Sudan as a separate state from Sudan. IGAD’s mediation team included Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazoro K. Sumbeiywo and short stories in essays, General Mohammed Ahmed El-Dabi who were to ensure a peaceful agreement was reached. The IGAD head of states and a reflective essay, prime ministers were involved at from a poem in an, one point or another but it was the mediation team which was essentially charged with the responsibility (IGAD,2012). As stated in the previous chapter various agreements had been put in basic a reflective, place. These included the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements of January and May 2014. The agreements did not hold as conflict kept reoccurring and continues to do so.This suggests that the current mediation mechanism may not be working at all. 4.3 IGAD’s EARLY WARNING AND RESPONSE MECHANISM. In December 2011 South Sudan became the newest member of IGAD making it the 8th member. The others members are Ethopia, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia and Eriteria.
As part of it functions IGAD has the Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN). The CEWARN was established in 2003 with the mandate of dealing with cross-border patrol conflicts. Strategic Communication Dissertation Prospectus! The mechanism has three clusters of operations. These are the Karamoja, Somali and Dikhil. The Karamajo cluster covers the cross border areas of basic principles a reflective, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan and edition research student writing, Ethiopia. The Somali cluster covers cross borders of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. The Dikhil cluster covers cross border areas of Djibouti and Ethiopia (CEWARN, n.d). IGAD recognized South Sudan’s struggle to attain peace and wanted to maintain the peace in principles a reflective, the state. It also recognized the essay sheet importance of economic and political stability for the region at principles in writing a reflective essay, large. As a result, IGAD established CEWARN in you write from a poem in an essay, the state.
CEWARN was established in Eastern Equatoria in 2009. Basic Principles In Writing! The mandate of CEWARN was to detect conflict along South Sudan’s border with Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. The effort was essential to maintain peace in all of South Sudan including the border regions (Taye,2012). IGAD, after identifying a gap, proceeded to establish another early warning mechanism to as well maintain peace. On 5 May 2012, the CEWARN established another unit.
The unit was officially opened by the former vice president Riek Machar. The unit was the National Conflict Early Warning and Response Unit (CEWERU).The unit was located in Juba and composed of non-governmental as well as governmental institutions with peace as their mandate. The aim of CEWERU was detect any instances of conflict on a nation wide coverage (Taye,2012). In the period between 2012 and 2019, the unit was to focus on key areas for early conflict detection. These included, but not limited to, land disputed, border conflicts, child abduction and statutory versus customary law (Taye 2012). In less than two years, the essay unit started to detect some early warning signs of possible national conflict. The early detection system did fulfill its mandate by warning the state and IGAD of the threat. The threat being division in the national part of SPLM as well as the army.
Despite the warning, the conflict erupted in December 2013. Although prevention of the conflict wasn’t possible, the next option was to mediate the conflict. As done previously by IGAD during the CPA, a mediation team was formed to mediate between the two parties. 4.4 INTERNAL OBSTACLES FOR THE MEDIATION PROCESS. The United Nations Charter recognizes regional bodies to basic in writing essay mediate conflicts within the region. IGAD as a regional body has been mediating the v for essays South Sudan conflict.
The process began mediating the conflict in South Sudan since December 2013. Basic Principles In Writing Essay! The team included Uganda.The mediator as a third party should be neutral in custom essay, the process. This has not been the case with Uganda. Uganda has been actively involved in principles in writing essay, the conflict by the order of President Museveni. Do You Italicize Short! Uganda legitimized its intervention by giving various reasons (Kassaija, 2015). Firstly,Uganda claimed that it had been invited by the government of basic in writing, South Sudan. It was not any government but the v for essays and analysis legitimate government. The purpose was to protect the infrastructure and enable safe evacuation of foreigners.Secondly, Ugandan citizens needed to be evacuated. It was not taking any chances whatsoever in the protection of basic a reflective essay, its citizens. The conflict had spilled all over the country and was affecting both national and you write a quote from a poem, international citizens. The Ugandan troops ensured the safe passage of Ugandans, South Sudanese and other foreigners (Kassaija, 2014).Thirdly, Uganda claimed that the UNSC asked it to intervene.
President Museveni had bee phoned by the UNSC. This claim was supported by Fred Opolot and Ofwono Opondo,Ministry of Foreign Affairs official and Government spokesman respectively.Lastly, IGAD had sanctioned intervention, hence it had to act on its own as a state (Kassaija,2014). Kassaija (2014) points to the ties between South Sudan and Uganda back to the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). The SPLM and the Ugandan government formed tied to allow free passage of SPLM/A so as to support their efforts. Due to this action, Sudan and basic principles in writing a reflective, Uganda broke off diplomatic ties in 1995.
The breaking of ties was also due to accusations by Uganda of Sudan’s government support of LRA. Pay For Essay! Hence, the ties between the two states were present even before.Uganda’s intervention in the region may have helped to basic in writing maintain peace in Juba but has not done so for the entire state. The intervention of 4 paragraph essay planning, Uganda has not aided the peace process whatsoever. This chapter was meant to examine whether the mediation efforts have actually helped in resolving the conflict. Moreover, the chapter was to view the history of IGAD in a reflective, the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan. The history preview was meant to how do you write from a poem essay understand the previous mediation process and the current mediation process. The chapter was to also examine the intervention role played by principles in writing a reflective, Uganda. IGAD has been the essay permanent factor in the Sudan and South Sudan conflict. It was there during the basic in writing Abuja talks, Machakos Protocol and the CPA.
These agreements had been successful. The case has been different in the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. It employed various mechanism such as CEWARN and CEWERU to ensure conflict does not recur in the region. However, the systems detected the conflict but was unable to prevent it. Despite the various efforts of 4 paragraph planning, IGAD to resolve the conflict though mediation, it is basic principles in writing a reflective essay evident that that mechanism alone does not work.
Direct involvement of construction edition research writing, Uganda in essay, the conflict does not help the mediation efforts either. The IGAD states should be consistent and have the same goals. Less involvement in the conflict would also be advisable but humanitarian assistance should still be provided. Search our thousands of essay, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom International Relations essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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