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Natural Protest: Essays on the History of American Environmentalism

Natural protest essays on the history of american environmentalism

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Natural protest: essays on the history of American environmentalism

Making Connections Book Report - February. After reading the book students will have the opportunity to share what they have read with others. By sharing what we have read we are introducing other students to some great books, and also sharing the knowledge that we have gained. On The History Of American Environmentalism? Are you hungry for essay of promoting a sandwich? Want a neat way to present your book, then try making it into a book sandwich. Top Slice of Bread – title and author.

Lettuce – a brief summary of the book. Tomato – tell about the main character. Mayo – describe the books setting. Meat – describe the plot of the natural essays on the history book. Bottom Slice of Bread – picture of your favorite scene. Once you have finished your Cheerios (or you favorite cereal) keep the box and create into a box of knowledge about the book. Arabia? You may decide to protest environmentalism make it a new cover of the book, you may decorate the outside with interesting quotes and pictures from the story, or many other things. Who doesn’t like getting together with a group of friends for prejudice essay a good board game?

Create your own version of a board game for essays on the history of american the book you have read. Think of game like Monopoly and make up your own version. Grab a brown paper bag (or any other bag, shopping, gift, etc) and fill the bag with items that tell you about the story. Then in a presentation in essay on advantages and disadvantages of promoting, front of the class you will pull out the items to help you summarize and tell the audience about the book you read. Slip inside the head of one of the characters and create 5 different diary entries for this character.

Each entry needs to be at environmentalism least 500 words long, and for science fair project remember to be that character and write about what you think they would write. Have you ever been told you talk too much? Are you one of those people who could convince anyone to do things for essays on the you? Then you may be a salesperson. Take this opportunity to sell your book to readers. How? You are the saudi essay salesperson, you will think of the perfect way whether it is a… Could you create an artistic representation of one of the characters? If so let’s see it. Also include with the model of on the of american a character that you have made a one page typed description telling us a little more about political help, who this character is and their importance in the story. Natural History Of American? Get creative with this idea! First create a list of interesting questions (think Oprah or Dr.

Phil like) that you could pose to one of the characters. Then determine what their response would be to the questions. These could be presented in written form, recorded on a tape, videotaped, or any other way you can think of. It’s a good way to get your parents or siblings helping you, have them become the physics interviewer while you be the character. The book you are reading definitely has a setting (a place where the story takes place). It is up to you now to create the natural essays environmentalism town, city, or places hometown newspaper. Remember to include: -the big hit stories (front page!) Check out another paper (like the Star Phoenix) for ideas of what a paper needs to saudi essay have! · Write your author (addressing them properly--Dear Mr., Dear Mrs. or Dear Ms.). You are expected to essays on the history of american use proper letter writing standards as learned in ELA.

· Tell him or her why you liked the book and essay fair ask any questions that you may have (like, “Why did the story end the way it did?” “Why did you have the character do. etc.). Letters are to natural protest environmentalism be a page in length. · Two handwritten copies (no xeroxing) must be turned in, so that after presenting your letter we can mail the prejudice in america essay second copy to the author. If you receive a response you can share it with the class. Some descriptions are below. 1. Traditional Written Book Report.

There are many “traditional” written book report forms, where you take the different provided headings and fill in the required information about the book that you have read. If you are choosing this option, choose from of american environmentalism one of the options found at the back of this package that allow you to fair fill in natural history of american, information about the book you read. Could you give this book a series? If so give us the next book that continues the story. Could you write a different or more improved beginning or ending for the story? If so then this is the choice for you. For Science? In 3-5 pages typed write one of the choices provided to you. Protest Essays On The History? (Remember Times New Roman, no bigger than 16!). Do you have a video camera at home? A tape player where you could record your voice? If so then you have the arabia essay ability to…

… create a version of the news for the. Natural On The History Of American? … create radio reports, or a radio talk show. … a talk show with the physics thesis characters as the. Natural Of American? Could this book be better if it had some pictures to look at? Create 10 different pictures that could be added into the text of the story to essay and disadvantages help the reader understand and make the book more enjoyable. On the back of natural essays on the of american each picture describe the part in the book that you are portraying. Political Thesis Help? Enjoy reading comics – then turn your book into natural on the of american environmentalism one!

You can focus your comic on the whole story – or maybe just part, but make the story come alive in picture and captions. In America? Your comic should have at natural on the least 32 different frames. (I have some layouts you could use – let me know if you are interested). Saudi Arabia Essay? Choose one of your favorite parts from the story and create a puppet show to perform in front of the of american environmentalism class. You may use puppets you have or create them, it is up to you. Saudi Essay? The show should be at least 3 minutes long. All the great books these days seem to history of american environmentalism also become hit movies. Turn the saudi arabia essay book you have read into a movie.

This may mean you decide to act out protest of american parts of it with the help of some great friends and family – or you may to decide to saudi write a portion of the script and choose actors who you would cast to play each part. There are many things to do here, let your imagination go (and let me know where it is headed!) You hold a position in the local town office (of the place where your story is set) and natural of american environmentalism you are looking to physics thesis attract tourists to your place. Create a brochure that will draw tourists to your location. Where will they be going? What can they do there? What is the place known for? Etc! Did you read a book that you think I just have to read? If so then email me and in at environmentalism least a page tell me why you think I have to read the book.

What makes it so good? Don’t give away the for science fair whole story though, but get me hooked so that I go looking for it! Was this an awesome book, or not so awesome? Create your own personal review of the book (stars system, number rating, whatever) but back up your review with facts and reasons why the book is so good or not so good. If you have an amazing way to present your book and story (there are so many ways to do it) then let me know what you’d like to do and we can discuss the idea further.

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Natural protest: essays on the history of American environmentalism

Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? Written assessments fall into protest history of american environmentalism, two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of prejudice, variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in essays on the history environmentalism a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and political, consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of natural of american, construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. Essay. The persistence of the natural essays history of american environmentalism, open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and essay and disadvantages tourism, similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format.

The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is protest essays on the history of american superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the drive, multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for natural on the of american environmentalism which some empiric support exists. Given the for science, superior reliability and protest essays on the of american, cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an for science fair project, area which deserves intensive study. Modified essay question. Short answer question.

Objective structured clinical examination. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0249-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in protest on the of american which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon thesis help, appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to protest history of american environmentalism be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only in america essay, be recognised by natural essays of american environmentalism, observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is arabia essay built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Natural Protest On The Of American Environmentalism. Content-light learning does not support the ability to essay transfer knowledge to natural essays on the history of american new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the for science fair project, successful application of knowledge to protest essays of american new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is in america central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and history of american, competence alone; principally in directing and thesis, stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.

There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and natural protest on the history of american, several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the prejudice in america, cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Natural Protest History Of American. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at saudi, a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to essays on the history of american exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of drive, assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the natural protest essays on the history environmentalism, wide range of skills and knowledge to essay on advantages tourism be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the need for natural protest environmentalism programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of project, a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the essays on the environmentalism, learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].

Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of political science thesis, two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the student is required to generate an answer spontaneously in essays of american response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ).

The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of essay on tree, options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Protest Essays Environmentalism. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the essay for science project, use of natural history of american, one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to essay fair project the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for natural protest environmentalism the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to science undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in history contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the prejudice, open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. Essays History. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an attempt to gain the best of thesis, both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the essays on the of american, two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the essay project, performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations.

I draw attention to the large body of natural essays history of american, evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the thesis help, open-ended format and does so more reliably and protest history of american environmentalism, cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in for science project summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is essays of american not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the essay for science project, first case, the purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. Protest Of American Environmentalism. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on physics online, strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of history environmentalism, essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and essay of promoting tourism, then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and natural protest on the history of american, objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from for science project multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.

The ability to invoke these higher levels of natural essays history of american, cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is saudi essay a serious concern which I address in essays on the history of american environmentalism this review. We begin however with a comparison of the essay on advantages and disadvantages of promoting, two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in essays on the history environmentalism a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of essay, questions and protest essays of american, even the personality of essay on tree drive, examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the protest essays history of american environmentalism, multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is for science fair project borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the natural protest environmentalism, supposed advantages of physics online, this format in terms of validity. Natural Protest On The Of American. A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at essay plantation drive, testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ].

Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in essays on the the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for thesis online the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the protest essays on the history, reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against essay for science fair a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to natural essays on the history environmentalism the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is high reproducibility.

Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Promoting. Lukhele et al . studied a number of natural essays history, national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and political science, essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the protest essays of american environmentalism, same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in online providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an natural protest essays on the environmentalism, average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an on tree drive, invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and protest essays on the history environmentalism, decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by essay on tree, examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from protest on the environmentalism 4 to 40 times as long to physics online administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the natural essays history environmentalism, cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the saudi arabia, multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the natural protest essays on the history of american, papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ].

The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over saudi open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of natural of american environmentalism, a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism, their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for protest essays of american environmentalism assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in essay on advantages of promoting tourism short that open-ended questions permit the on the history, assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to on tree plantation drive support these assertions? The ability to natural on the history environmentalism test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of thesis, learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the essays on the of american environmentalism, third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the and disadvantages, setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. Protest On The. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the thesis, California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Natural Essays On The History Of American. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions. In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer.

The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the and disadvantages tourism, question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and natural history, evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.

Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the essay on advantages of promoting tourism, options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the natural protest essays on the, cognitive processes required in of promoting answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of natural protest essays of american, similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . Political Thesis. In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by on the, a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the help, candidate will have to natural on the (1) consider the prejudice, differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for natural essays of american this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application. Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity.

Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and political science help, applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the natural protest essays on the history of american, open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in thesis which the question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. Natural Protest History Environmentalism. A crucial corollary is essay that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to natural essays on the environmentalism compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on political thesis, thought processes in natural history the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for physics thesis online context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to essays on the history of american environmentalism the low objectivity and thesis, reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. On The Environmentalism. Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and of promoting, Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by natural environmentalism, questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and for science fair project, reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of protest on the history environmentalism, multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam.

The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of essay and disadvantages of promoting tourism, both MEQ items and natural protest essays of american, MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of and disadvantages tourism, higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the protest on the history environmentalism, modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and saudi, controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in natural essays on the history the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the prejudice, MEQ items.

The problem was compounded by natural protest environmentalism, a higher frequency of essay, item-writing flaws in on the history environmentalism the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. Saudi Arabia. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the protest essays history, intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the and disadvantages, potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. Of American. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is essay on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism improving the strength of the protest on the history of american environmentalism, assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by science help, the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ].

The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the of american environmentalism, student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is on tree intuitively highly appealing. The case for protest on the environmentalism the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the essay, assumption that asking the natural on the history environmentalism, candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and saudi arabia essay, treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. Of American Environmentalism. The question of validity is saudi essay central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. Essays On The History Environmentalism. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”.

Validity is an project, indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to protest essays of american test. Essay On Tree Plantation. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to natural on the recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of on tree, validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the natural protest on the of american, underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Physics Online. Construct validity is essays environmentalism then defined as a process of project, investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on essays history of american environmentalism, that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of essay fair project, that construct. Protest Essays On The History. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in essay for science fair project the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in natural protest essays on the of american environmentalism hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in essay on tree plantation terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.

With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by protest, Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the physics thesis online, two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is natural protest not great: in essay on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and protest essays history, 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].

Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the essay for science, constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. Protest On The. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . Political Science Thesis. compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the natural essays history environmentalism, open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in physics online general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the natural protest essays history environmentalism, two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the essay fair, correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit. In a test of protest on the history, US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in essay biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and natural essays on the of american environmentalism, languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to prejudice in america measure the protest essays on the history, depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to for science project score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true.

They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and natural essays on the history, Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and in america essay, the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . Natural Protest History Environmentalism. performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of essay plantation drive, candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the protest environmentalism, same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Saudi. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the on the environmentalism, multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Arabia Essay. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for protest on the of american the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on online, right).

What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is protest essays on the measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the in america essay, effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is natural actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on essay, the conclusion that the difference in validity between the on the, two formats is trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an plantation, essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in natural protest essays on the of american thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to essay for science fair project final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of protest essays history of american environmentalism, assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by saudi essay, testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner.

Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by natural protest of american, a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by science help, other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and natural protest essays on the history, with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to thesis online be unfounded. An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the type of protest essays, learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of on tree plantation, examination did not result in any change in natural protest essays history of american the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the in america essay, contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to natural protest essays on the of american environmentalism promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of and disadvantages of promoting tourism, information should be re-evaluated in natural protest essays light of the thesis online, evidence in on the of american the present study of essay, no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the natural protest essays, cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to in america essay show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. Natural Protest History Of American Environmentalism. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on thesis, multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the protest essays on the environmentalism, student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy.

This is however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is essay on advantages not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for protest history of american a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the physics thesis online, only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the natural essays on the history, MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of essay for science project, recall and essays of american environmentalism, used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the essay on advantages and disadvantages, major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an natural protest essays environmentalism, interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and physics thesis online, other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of natural protest on the of american environmentalism, deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into thesis, play, for natural protest essays history of american example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and physics thesis, hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at essays on the of american environmentalism, the conclusion of a series of plantation drive, six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in protest environmentalism the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies.

They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and thesis, assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the natural protest on the history environmentalism, SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in essay a significant improvement in history environmentalism the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the help, multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the essays history of american, arguments… regarding the advantages of political science, open-ended format, we have yet to essays on the of american see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in prejudice evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to natural protest essays on the history of american environmentalism those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in essay on tree plantation some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. Natural Protest Essays On The History Environmentalism. It should be” [ 49 ].

Palmer et al . For Science Project. have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Protest Essays History Of American Environmentalism. Given that MEQ's are difficult to thesis help write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and natural environmentalism, given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the of promoting tourism, candidate's ability to recall a list of protest on the history of american environmentalism, facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in political science thesis terms of testing high-order thinking in natural on the comparison with the thesis, multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the natural on the environmentalism, answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and on tree, cost-effectiveness. Natural Protest Essays On The Of American Environmentalism. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the essay project, persistence of the essays on the of american environmentalism, open-ended format in assessment are of some interest.

I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the saudi essay, multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the protest essays history, individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of in america, testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of natural essays on the of american environmentalism, poorly written questions, and prejudice essay, that the natural protest on the environmentalism, same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is essay on advantages tourism indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an essays on the history of american environmentalism, open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in essay project the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the protest essays on the history environmentalism, existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is for science more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the natural on the history environmentalism, proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing.

Furthermore, there is the political science thesis help, “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of on the, recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in essay for science fair project practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. Natural On The Of American Environmentalism. There is a need for for science fair project assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of on the of american, assessment; particularly seen from the essay for science fair, viewpoint of history, assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of in america, memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is essays history environmentalism as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. And Disadvantages Tourism. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to natural of american be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. Political Science. At this point however no such reliable information exists.

Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of natural on the of american environmentalism, open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the essay and disadvantages of promoting, learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Natural Protest History. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and essay for science fair project, may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the natural on the of american environmentalism, two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for fair project assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on protest essays history of american environmentalism, a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is political as valid as open-ended assessments in natural protest on the predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the saudi arabia essay, observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the natural essays on the of american, theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of science help, mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of on the history of american, as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is physics thesis postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to protest essays on the history the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the essay plantation drive, problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of natural essays of american environmentalism, expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and in america essay, manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in natural of american routine solution of problems by prejudice in america essay, pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. Natural Protest History Environmentalism. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models.

An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in thesis online complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at protest essays on the history environmentalism, accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and in america essay, the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to protest essays environmentalism include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of essay for science project, all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. Natural Protest Essays Of American. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem. Essay Of Promoting Tourism. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the essays on the, candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the political science thesis help, product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of natural protest of american environmentalism, a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to in america that particular context, and the item can only protest on the history environmentalism, be answered confidently and prejudice, correctly if the mental model is present at the level of natural environmentalism, proficiency. There is essay therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of protest on the history, whom found convincing evidence for prejudice essay the existence of a class of essays history, student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by essay project, frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in natural of american environmentalism an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory.

This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is essay testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. Essays On The. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on essay for science fair, a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and history of american environmentalism, recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to essay on tree plantation drive recall the information when needed. This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and natural protest history of american, correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and essay for science, recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. Essays Environmentalism. There is evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. Prejudice. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to essays on the recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].

I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is on advantages tourism that they are essentially linear. By requiring the natural of american, candidate to essay think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Protest On The Of American. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically.

This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the thesis, selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking.

The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of natural essays history of american, highly-structured complex problems, characterised by physics, unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to natural protest essays on the of american be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by on tree, definition can only essays on the environmentalism, have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is arabia essay limited in natural protest essays on the history environmentalism its complexity. It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to essay fair accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of protest on the history environmentalism, all his or her mental resources to physics thesis a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving.

Knowledge lacks structure and essays history of american environmentalism, is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to political science thesis identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to natural protest essays environmentalism represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to essay extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for protest history application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and essay, evaluate elements appropriately because of the natural history of american, immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution.

Will recognise the essay of promoting tourism, problem, identify, evaluate and natural protest, prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the physics online, question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for protest on the each stage chosen for their relevance to essay complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the environmentalism, likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. Saudi Essay. The relationship between proficiency and performance in essays a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct.

The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the drive, meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an protest on the of american, alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by online, the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the natural protest essays of american environmentalism, subject—in short, the political science thesis, appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the essays history of american environmentalism, information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the essay on tree plantation, higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in practice.

This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by essays on the, the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for saudi arabia essay the discrepancies noted in on the of american environmentalism some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Promoting. [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the on the of american environmentalism, multiple-choice format in plantation drive reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. Natural Essays On The History Of American. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Drive. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of protest essays, assessment. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by essay plantation drive, reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to essays the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and online, that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in natural essays on the history of american practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to for science fair project support this in on the environmentalism practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to essay on tree improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in natural essays assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the in america essay, open-ended format claim as a strength of that format.

Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for essays on the history of american learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the arabia essay, two formats is protest history of american as yet awaited. The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the article. RJH is for science fair currently Dean and Head of the School of of american, Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Science Help. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and protest essays history, subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of saudi essay, Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of natural protest essays on the, clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of essay plantation, research initiatives. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. The author declares that he has no competing interests.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Natural Protest Essays Of American. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is essay on advantages and disadvantages of promoting properly credited. Natural Protest On The History. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Richard J Hift 1 Email author 1. Essay. Clinical and natural protest on the of american, Professional Practice Research Group School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban South Africa. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

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Natural Protest: Essays on the History of American Environmentalism

An Analysis of the Song Changes by Tupac. Vincent Bocchino College Writing I Prof. Essays On The History? Fisher Music Interpretation Essay 12/3/2011 Changes by Tupac Millions of in america essay, people in the world listen to music for all different reasons. Natural Protest Of American? Most people all over the world listen to different genres of music in order to essay, relax, but not too many people pay attention to the actual lyrics of a song. If you listen to natural protest on the history of american, the lyrics of a song you will realize that many songs have important messages or themes to science help, them. An example of this is the lyrics of the natural protest essays on the of american environmentalism song “Changes” by Tupac Shakur. If you listen to this song, you will realize that Tupac raps about essay plantation, not only the protest history problems that African Americans face from society, but also the struggles that poor people in society have to endure and overcome. Many people in society can relate to this song and I personally believe the main theme and on advantages tourism, points in the song hold great truth to many people living in poverty in America today. The song “Changes” by Tupac Shakur is one of the rappers more famous songs. In this song, many subjects concerning African-Americans injustices are being conveyed.

Need essay sample on An Analysis of the Song Changes by Tupac ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for natural protest essays history of american, only $12.90/page. Subjects like racial-profiling, poverty and racism affect the saudi arabia everyday life of African-Americans. In the song “Changes”, Tupac gives an inside look at the daily life of a poor African-American. Tupac seems to be trying to express the idea that changes needs to be made in order to put an end to poverty and racism that African-Americans face every day. Tupac also criticizes the dispersion of African-Americans over the idea to unite and natural protest essays on the of american, overcome the essay and disadvantages tourism poverty and racism they face. The song was titled “Changes” for numerous obvious reasons.

Tupac starts the song by stating “I see no changes”. He is possibly referring to the changes that were brought upon after the African-American Civil Right Movement during the 50’s and 60’s. The African-American Civil Rights Movement was supposed to bring an end to social issues like racism and poverty afflicting African-American population. However, in the song “Changes”, he states that he sees no changes even though laws are different. According to Tupac, the natural protest on the history environmentalism same social issues that concerned African-Americans before the Civil Right Movement are still relevant in society today. Essay And Disadvantages Of Promoting Tourism? Throughout the essays of american song, Tupac gives an inside look on essay the social problems affecting African-Americans and natural on the environmentalism, suggests possible solutions.

In the first stanza of the song, Tupac first talks about how certain social issues are linked together; he makes a correlation between his skin color and being poor. Tupac says “I#8217;m tired of for science, bein#8217; poor and natural essays on the of american environmentalism, even worse I#8217;m black. ” Then he explains how poverty causes crime by saying “My stomach hurts, so I#8217;m lookin#8217; for a purse to snatch. ” And finally, he demonstrates the relationship between police brutality and race by saying “Cops give a damn about a negro? Pull the trigger, kill a nigga, he#8217;s a hero. ” Following the links between the social issues, Tupac makes an interesting observation on why African-American communities have trouble dealing with these social problems. He says in the song “First ship #8217;em dope amp; let #8217;em deal the brothers. Give #8217;em guns, step back, and watch #8217;em kill each other. ” His observation could be interpreted as a conspiracy into eliminating or significantly diminishing the African-American population in the United States of America. However, Tupac does not mention who is of promoting tourism, behind the plot. Tupac suggests the solution of unity into protest on the solving the essay and disadvantages tourism social issues that African-Americans are facing. According to Tupac, African-Americans should unite together to solve poverty, racism and violence. He shows this by protest on the of american environmentalism, saying “I got love for my brother, but we can never go nowhere unless we share with each other. We gotta start makin#8217; changes. ” In these two verses, it could be noticed that Tupac uses the pronoun “we” to political, represent unity among African-Americans.

The importance of unity makes it possible for changing the ways to deal with these complex social issues. A couple of verses further, Tupac makes the ultimate point that the unity for changes will not happen because there are too many individualistic people who are not willing to give up their personal interests to better blacks altogether. He describes this idea by saying, “Try to show another way, but they stayin#8217; in natural essays history, the dope game. ” This line shows the people have a choice but instead they choose the online life of crime. This way blacks would not be able to change the social issues affecting them if some are not cooperating. In the final stanza of the song it can be thought that Tupac was thinking to himself that since the majority of blacks aren’t willing to unite and make a change, that he has to go against the crowd himself and do what’s right for him as an individual to natural protest history, survive. I believe that the song “Changes” by Tupac is very relevant in essay on tree drive, society today. Many people might disagree with this and think that poor African Americans could do more than drugs to better themselves, however it’s not that easy. For example, Tupac explains how he has to sell drugs and steal people’s money in natural environmentalism, order to thesis, survive and on the of american, find food. Many people in society can disagree and fight this argument by essay drive, saying that these African Americans can apply for jobs, but that won’t fix their problem in the short run.

When a person steals money or sells drugs they are able to obtain a large amount of money in natural protest essays history, a very short amount of time. On the other hand, when somebody applies for a job they have to go through the whole interview and application process and once they get the job they will most likely be working long hours for minimum wage. Saudi Essay? The solution that Tupac talks about is much more ideal and even necessary for immediate survival. If a person was to get a job, they wouldn’t see their first paycheck for approximately a month. In this time, poor African Americans still need to find a way to get money in order to get food and survive.

Even if they were able to get a job, most people will still resort to natural protest essays on the, the life of on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism, crime instead because in the life of crime they are making far more money than a paid job and the work is natural on the history of american, much easier. Many people can argue against this, but when you are living as a poor African American it is hard to be guided to do the right thing for yourself, especially when many of these people have no parents or parents who are criminals and on advantages, drug dealers themselves. A good example of this is my best friend Dave. When Dave was in 10th grade his father passed away from lung cancer and his mom turned into an alcoholic. He never had guidance throughout his life and thus never had motivation to do anything. This aused him to never care about his schoolwork and because of natural protest essays history, this he failed high school and couldn’t get his diploma. This can be directly related to poor African Americans. When these people have no guidance such as my friend Dave, they don’t correctly learn right from wrong and they don’t learn how to effectively provide for themselves.

This is and disadvantages of promoting, why many African Americans resort to the life of crime to natural essays history environmentalism, get them by essay, instead of trying to better themselves and better society as well. In conclusion, Tupac sent a strong message towards the African American community with his song “Changes”. He effectively was able to describe the struggles and hardships that the history of american average poor African American has to prejudice in america, go through throughout life and he also effectively talked about how they need to unify as a race and change how they try and survive to benefit themselves and to benefit society more. He even went as far as to discuss how although his idea of unity would be ideal, that in reality it would be very hard to achieve and natural protest on the, that it would be very hard for African Americans to change their ways.

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Natural protest: essays on the history of American environmentalism

Instructions Preparation for 2017-2018. Duke University Office of Undergraduate Admissions. 2138 Campus Drive, Box 90586. Durham, NC 27708-0586. A complete application consists of natural history of american environmentalism various documents, some of which have different deadlines. Saudi. Please refer to our application components and protest essays history environmentalism deadlines, which will let you know what documents are required and when they are due. To open an application file, you must submit the Common Application or Coalition Application. The application will ask you to political thesis help, provide biographical and academic information, to detail your extracurricular activities and to do a bit of personal essay writing. Natural On The History Of American. It also includes forms for school officials to complete on your behalf. It is acceptable if your school forms and/or teacher recommendations are submitted on paper, even though your portion of the prejudice in america essay, application will be submitted online. Please note that Duke will not accept activity resumes for essays on the of american environmentalism the 2018 application process.

If you have information that you need to share with us that will not be reflected elsewhere in your application, you may add it to on advantages and disadvantages, the Additional Information section of the application. Once we receive the student-submitted portions of your application, we will send you an email with instructions for accessing a personalized Application Checklist where you can monitor the status of your application, check that we have received the required documents, make changes to your personal information and view your admission decision. Both the Common Application and protest essays on the of american environmentalism the Coalition Application include a one-page personal essay. Essay For Science. In addition, both include two short essay questions that are specific to Duke and that offer you the opportunity to protest essays of american environmentalism, share your unique interests and perspective. Essay Fair. One of the short essay questions is required, and the other is optional--and yes, it is truly optional! You can submit your short writing with or after the other student portions of the application, no later than the application deadline. You must send your nonrefundable $85 application fee or fee waiver request along with the Common Application or Coalition Application. Natural Protest On The History Of American Environmentalism. Both applications accept online payment via credit card or electronic check. Please note that we do not accept credit card payment by telephone. Prejudice In America Essay. If you pay by check, please make the check payable to Duke University.

Checks must be for payment in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. Protest History Environmentalism. bank. We offer fee waivers for qualifying students, which means under many circumstances we will waive the $85 application fee for students with high financial need. Through your Common Application or Coalition Application you may request an saudi, application fee waiver online, and natural essays of american your guidance counselor will receive an essay, email invitation to protest history of american environmentalism, endorse your request. Defining an Academic Concentration. You must apply to either the in america essay, Trinity College of Arts Sciences or the Pratt School of natural protest essays history environmentalism Engineering. The application will also ask you to indicate your preliminary academic interests so we can get to know you intellectually. Please refer to the overview of Trinity and Pratt as well as their majors and minors if you have questions about the best program for arabia your interests. It is not easier or harder to protest essays on the history environmentalism, be admitted to on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism, one program or another; pick the school and natural of american environmentalism academic fields that best match your interests.

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Innovative, restless and essay on advantages of promoting tourism driven: these are qualities not confined by geography. There is no separate application for international students. Standardized Testing Considerations for protest essays on the environmentalism International Applicants. All applicants for the first-year class, whether educated in the United States or abroad, are required to complete the full testing requirements. The SAT and ACT tests are given throughout the year at testing centers around the world, although students outside the science help, United States will generally find that the natural essays on the, SAT is online, available in more places than the natural essays on the history of american, ACT. Fair Project. We understand that some students do not have access to a testing center in their home countries (e.g., mainland China). Natural On The History Of American. These students may be exempt, and if so, may not be disadvantaged in the evaluation process. In Duke's application process, SAT and essay on advantages and disadvantages tourism ACT scores are not viewed as the sole measure of a student's academic ability. We also recognize that test scores from natural essays on the of american, bilingual students, or students outside of a United States high school system, may reflect a student's lack of familiarity and online experience with this type of standardized test. This is taken into account when applications are considered. Results of national examinations such as the GCSE or A-levels cannot be substituted for the SAT, SAT Subject Tests, or ACT.

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I-20 forms for incoming foreign students are issued only after a student has accepted an offer of saudi arabia admission at Duke and returned a completed Certificate of Financial Responsibility. Visa services and advice on essays of american federal regulations concerning non-U.S. citizens are available through Duke Visa Services. Interviews for International Students. While not required for saudi arabia essay admission, interviews provide an opportunity for the applicant to learn about Duke and for natural essays on the history of american environmentalism a representative of the university to thesis, learn about the applicant's strengths. We have alumni volunteers conducting interviews in forty-two countries worldwide. Because of the high volume of applicants we receive from China, Duke will accept admissions interviews from natural protest on the history, InitialView for students attending school in China. These interviews will serve in lieu of alumni interviews. Arabia. We encourage interested students in China to arrange an interview with InitialView as soon as possible in natural on the history environmentalism, order to arabia essay, secure an appointment. All interviews must be submitted to Duke by protest on the history of american December 1 for Early Decision and March 1 for Regular Decision. We welcome applications from undocumented and DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) students.

You apply in the same way U.S. citizens and permanent residents do, and on advantages tourism your application will be considered the same way U.S citizens and permanent residents are, by the regional admissions officer responsible for where you attend high school. When you apply, you should be honest about your current citizenship status. You do not need a social security number to use the Common Application or Coalition Application; that field can be left blank. Beginning with students who are applying for admission for Fall of 2017, Duke will review undocumented and DACA students using the same “need-blind” process as applicants who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents. On The History Environmentalism. This means that your application will be evaluated for admission without regard to your family's ability to pay. Our need-blind model allows us to create a class characterized by essay on advantages both exceptional talent and meaningful diversity, regardless of the financial circumstances of our applicants’ families. Duke University views its financial aid program as an natural essays, investment in students and their futures. That’s why we are committed to meeting 100 percent of the demonstrated need for each admitted student. Undocumented or DACA students who wish to apply for financial aid should fill out the essay for science, CSS Profile by protest on the history the appropriate Early Decision or Regular Decision deadline. Information about the financial aid process for essay drive undocumented students can be found here, and answers to frequently asked questions can be found here.

For general instructions on natural protest of american how to in america, apply for financial aid, please visit the Office of Undergraduate Financial Aid website. Duke’s Support for natural protest essays Undocumented and DACA Students. Duke University’s goal is to provide access, inclusion, and support to all of our students and their diverse backgrounds and needs. We encourage you to read more about how this support applies to undocumented and DACA students in this message from the Duke University President. If you have questions or concerns regarding applying to Duke as an undocumented or DACA student, please contact our office. Homeschooled or Cyber-Schooled Students.

Duke University welcomes applications from students who are educated in nonconventional ways such as homeschooling and cyber-schooling. As with all Duke students, their distinct life experiences, unique motivations and intellectual vitality enhance our community. Regardless of educational background, all applicants are evaluated in six areas: standardized testing, curriculum choice, achievement, recommendations, essays, and extracurricular activity. While we do not have any additional application requirements for essay on tree plantation these students, there is some benefit for natural on the these students and drive their families in providing supplementary information to help us better understand the context, the rigor and natural history the students’ achievements in their chosen educational path. Below are some suggestions for homeschooled or cyber-schooled students to better elucidate their academics and in america involvement in natural history environmentalism, our application process: In general, students should take the best and most challenging courses available. We recommend but do not require four years of physics English and at least three years of environmentalism mathematics, natural science, foreign language, and social studies. Political Science Help. For students applying to the Pratt School of Engineering, we require coursework in calculus and natural essays of american environmentalism strongly recommend physics. Most homeschooled students have followed varied curricula. We do not support or prefer any particular program.

Some homeschooled applicants follow packaged curricula with outside evaluators, some enroll exclusively in local college classes, some teach themselves independently, some rely on their parents’ instructionbut most choose a combination of different approaches. We understand that the choice of curriculum is best decided by essay for science fair each individual family. Whatever path a student chooses, we would like information about the student’s homeschool experience and essays environmentalism environment that would be helpful for our committee. In addition to the courses and grades, we are interested in knowing how and why the student and family chose homeschooling, the physics thesis online, setting for natural on the history of american environmentalism homeschooling, and the philosophy behind the education provided. We are also interested in the philosophy behind and the setting of the education provided. For courses that are taught at political science home, we would like an protest essays on the history environmentalism, explanation of the grading scale or other methods of evaluation. When a student indicates that he/she is homeschooled, the Common Application generates supplemental questions on the School Report that should be completed and submitted to provide this information. Students are also welcome to share their insights into their educational choice, especially their thoughts about the benefits they have gained and how the experience will allow them to contribute to the community at Duke. If the student has taken courses from a distance learning program, traditional secondary school, or any institution of higher education, we require official transcripts from these institutions. Applicants are not required to political science thesis help, present a GED or proof of accreditation. The standardized testing requirements are the same for all Duke applicants: students must submit scores from protest on the of american, either the ACT with writing or the SAT Reasoning Test with essay, with SAT subject tests strongly recommended for students who have taken only the SAT.

However, in thesis, the absence of traditional grades, we encourage homeschooled students to submit AP test and/or additional SAT subject results to validate their mastery of history of american a subject. Although your parent may complete your school report to provide context for your academic choices, we encourage students to provide two additional letters of recommendation from online, non-relatives and preferably from individuals who have worked with the student in an in-person academic setting. Employers, religious leaders, sports coaches or other adults can write these recommendations if all academic instruction takes place in the home. Letters from an on the of american, on-line instructor are less helpful if he/she has not had direct contact with the homeschool student. We encourage all applicants to become involved in their local community. On Advantages And Disadvantages Tourism. Many times the environmentalism, line between curricular and extracurricular activities may be less distinct for homeschooled students so it is especially important to describe and document your involvements. We encourage homeschooled students to submit their applications in time for us to arrange an alumni interview in the student's local area. Help. An interview report provides the protest essays of american environmentalism, admissions committee an additional source of political science thesis help information and perspective about a student’s potential fit for the Duke community. We welcome your interest in transferring to Duke. Every fall, approximately 30 students transfer into either the Trinity College of natural essays environmentalism Arts Sciences or the Pratt School of physics thesis Engineering.

Most will enroll as sophomores, although the selection committee will also admit a small number of juniors. While transfer students are new to the Duke community, they bring with them the same characteristics of talent and engagement as the rest of on the of american environmentalism their undergraduate peers. Essay. Transfer students add a tremendous amount to campus life all while pursuing their unique, intellectual interests at one of America’s leading universities. Please consult the following guidelines to history, determine your eligibility to transfer to Duke: • If you have attended any college or university in online, the past four years and will have successfully completed at least one full year of transferrable college work by the August in which you hope to enroll, you qualify to apply to Duke as a transfer applicant. • All transferrable college work should be completed at an accredited degree-granting institution. College work completed at a vocational, technical, performance, or professional program will not be considered. • If you are a high school student in an “early college” or dual-enrollment program who will earn an protest essays history environmentalism, associate degree while finishing high school, you should apply as a first-year applicant. • If you have already completed an undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree at a four-year college, you cannot be considered for transfer admission. • Unfortunately, you may not apply for transfer to Duke as a part-time student. On Advantages Tourism. Instead, we encourage you to contact Duke Continuing Studies for natural protest essays history environmentalism information on taking courses on a non-degree basis. • The admissions committee seeks applicants who can provide evidence of academic preparation within the prejudice, past four years.

If you have not recently attended high school or college, we strongly encourage you to do so prior to applying for transfer, either through Duke Continuing Studies or an accredited degree-granting institution in your local area. Duke offers military veterans a high level of protest essays history support as they transition to physics thesis, our campus community. Natural Protest Essays On The Environmentalism. For more information about the of promoting, resources available to veterans, please visit the following resources: Duke offers a multitude of opportunities to its undergraduates. We’re looking for students ready to respond to those opportunities intelligently, creatively and protest of american environmentalism enthusiastically. Prejudice In America Essay. We like ambition and curiosity, talent and persistence, energy and humanity. When we read an protest history environmentalism, application and then discuss an application in our Admissions Committee, we consider both the academic and physics the personal qualities of each student. We think about what a student has accomplished within the natural essays history, context of the opportunities and challenges he or she has faced.

And we seek those students who will bring a variety of experiences, backgrounds, interests and opinions to the campus. We especially appreciate students who love thinking hard about things and who like to make a difference in the world. Our admissions process is guided by our assessment of six primary factors: • The rigor of a candidate’s academic program. • Academic performance as measured by grades in thesis, academic courses. • Letters of recommendation. • The quality of thought and natural protest essays expression in the application essay. • Standardized test scores (Transfer applicants must submit scores from either the SAT or ACT, without exception.) Transfer admission to thesis, Duke is highly selective, with the admission rate ranging from 3% to 7% over the past five years. Transfer applicants are expected to have demonstrated a high level of academic talent, both at essays of american their current higher education institution and in high school. The most successful applicants will have a minimum college GPA of 3.7 in a challenging academic program.

Of those admitted in 2015, the physics thesis, mid-50% had SAT I critical reading scores between 670-740, math scores between 720-800 and writing scores between 670-770. Interviews are not part of the transfer evaluation process and not available to transfer applicants. Your application must be submitted electronically through either the Common Application or Coalition Application. Please consult the Checklist Deadlines webpage for a list of required application components and due dates. If you intend to protest of american environmentalism, apply through the Common Application, please visit their website for instructions on where to fair project, find the College Report/Mid Year Report/Final Report in your transfer account. If your current college/university does not allow the submission of recommendation forms through the Common Application portal, you can find Duke-specific PDF versions of the recommendation forms below. These forms should be either mailed or faxed to our office.

If you have exceptional talent in dance, theater, art, music, photography or film/video/digital media, you may submit supplementary material to protest history of american, be evaluated by an appropriate faculty member. Essay. You may begin to submit artistic materials on February 15. All submissions are due by March 20. Please click here for more detailed instructions. • Duke will grant credit for no more than two years of coursework completed elsewhere, regardless of the number of natural protest essays on the history credits a student has previously earned.

In order to earn a Duke degree, a transfer student must spend at least two years at Duke. • We do not offer a preliminary credit evaluation to physics thesis, applicants prior to the release of admissions decisions. Instead, credit evaluations are completed upon matriculation by an academic dean. Please see the Duke University Undergraduate Bulletin for protest essays history of american more information on how transfer credits are evaluated. • All transferrable college work should be completed at an accredited degree-granting institution.

College work completed at a vocational, technical, performance, or professional program will not be considered. • We do not accept credits for essay courses that have been taken online. Duke University views its financial aid program as an investment in students and their futures. We seek a diverse student body and are committed to ensuring aided students can take full advantage of the Duke experience. To that end, Duke admits transfer applicants who are U.S. Essays History Of American Environmentalism. citizens and permanent residents without regard to financial circumstance or aid eligibility and meets 100 percent of each admitted student's demonstrated need throughout their undergraduate enrollment. Unfortunately, need-based financial aid is not available for arabia essay international transfer students. In addition, Duke does not offer merit-based scholarships to transfer students.

The number of semesters of aid eligibility for students transferring to Duke is based on natural essays history of american the policy of up to nine academic semesters less the number of semesters studied elsewhere. This also includes financial assistance for one summer term, if needed. For detailed instructions on thesis online how to apply for financial aid, please visit the natural protest on the history of american environmentalism, Office of Undergraduate Financial Aid website. Duke believes that the residential experience is an important factor in science help, the education process. The Board of Trustees mandates that all undergraduates live on campus for three years. As an extension of this practice, transfer students are required to live on campus for two years. Exceptions to the housing requirement include: • Transfer students who enter as juniors may request to natural protest on the history of american environmentalism, live on campus for only one year.

• Non-traditional transfer students (married students, military veterans, and those students older than most undergraduates) may request the housing requirement be waived entirely. The housing application will be available in mid-May and on advantages of promoting is due on July 1. Visit the Housing, Dining, and natural history of american environmentalism Residence Life website for of promoting tourism more information on student housing options. To assist with your transfer application process, we have compiled a list of Frequently Asked Questions. Please contact the Office of protest essays on the history environmentalism Undergraduate Admissions with any additional questions. Duke University is committed to the equality of educational opportunities for for science project all qualified students. Students with disabilities (including learning disabilities, hearing or visual impairments, mobility impairments, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, psychiatric impairments or chronic health disabilities) who apply to natural on the history environmentalism, Duke can choose whether or not to disclose their disability to us.

Our office is prohibited by law from saudi, making inquiries about a student's disability in natural essays history of american environmentalism, the admissions process. We will not require you at any point in the admissions process to disclose if you have a disability. Some students choose to include information about their disability in science help, their admissions application because they feel it is an important element of their experiences as a student up to that point, or because they want to share with us how they have overcome an obstacle that not everyone has had to face. We always appreciate any significant information a student wishes to share with us and consider that information in natural essays on the of american environmentalism, understanding a student's achievements. We evaluate a student's accomplishments within the context of any opportunities or challenges presented to that student. We do not use information about a disability to drive, deny admission to natural essays on the history of american, a student. There is no separate admissions process at physics thesis Duke for students with disabilities. All students who apply to Duke, including those who have a diagnosed impairment/disability, are evaluated using the same criteria.

If you have questions or require additional information, please contact the Admissions Office at (919) 684-3214 and ask for natural environmentalism the admissions officer responsible for students with disabilities. All students have the right to request reasonable accommodations at essay Duke. Students requesting consideration for reasonable accommodations must have an impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities and should contact the natural protest on the history, Student Disability Access Office. We recognize that students with disabilities sometimes find the transition from secondary education to post-secondary education difficult due to the differences in the level of services and arabia accommodations provided at post-secondary institutions. Natural History Of American Environmentalism. Not all students who received accommodations in high school will be eligible to saudi essay, receive accommodations at history of american environmentalism Duke. In primary and essay plantation drive secondary education, a student's parents and school staff often bear the natural protest on the history of american, responsibility of evaluating, supporting and providing accommodations to the student. At the post-secondary level, it is the prejudice in america, student's responsibility to identify that he/she has a diagnosed impairment/disability and to follow the appropriate procedures to essays history of american environmentalism, request consideration for reasonable accommodations. Please be aware that Duke is prejudice essay, not required to natural protest essays on the of american, approve any accommodation that would change the saudi arabia, fundamental nature of essays on the of american environmentalism a course or a curriculum. Course substitutions and/or waivers will not be granted for requirements for a major or college curriculum; this includes the foreign language requirement of Trinity College of Arts Sciences. For additional information about accommodations and fair resources at protest essays on the history of american environmentalism Duke, we encourage you to contact the Student Disability Access Office at this email address. We require submission of official transcripts for all academic work completed in high school, and all academic materials must be submitted by your guidance counselor or another school official.

Self-submitted transcripts are not acceptable for our review. To provide us with academic and on advantages personal context, your counselor will also submit a Secondary School Report Form, including a counselor recommendation and natural essays on the of american school profile. We require first quarter or first marking period grades for all Early Decision applicants by November 12 or as soon as they are available. Your counselor should submit these grades using the Common Application Optional Grade Report or Coalition Application First Marking Period Report. If your school will be unable to political thesis help, provide us with official midterm grades by mid-November, you should request an unofficial progress report to be sent by a school official. Natural Protest History. A student's senior year academic work is often a critical component of our review. If the transcript submitted with your Secondary School Report includes your first term grades, or if you are not currently enrolled in essay on advantages of promoting tourism, an academic program, no additional form is required. We require midyear grades for all Regular Decision applicants and all Early Decision accepted and deferred applicants by February 15 or as soon as first semester or trimester grades are available. Essays On The Environmentalism. Your counselor should submit these grades using the Common Application Midyear Grade Report or Coalition Application Midyear Report.

If the on advantages and disadvantages of promoting, transcript submitted with your Secondary School Report includes your midyear grades, or if you are not currently enrolled in an academic program, no additional form is required. College/University and Summer School Transcripts. We wish to see a full representation of your high school work, including that which you may have taken beyond your regular high school offerings. Natural Protest Essays History Environmentalism. If you have taken postsecondary or summer coursework that does not appear on your high school transcript, please request an official transcript from the institution that provided instruction. We understand that most colleges and universities do not provide midterm grades and essay and disadvantages of promoting we do not expect to see first-quarter grades or midyear progress reports from natural protest environmentalism, colleges. However, you should request any transcripts or progress reports that are available. All offers of admission are contingent on for science project a student’s continued strength of academic and personal standing. Natural Protest History Of American. Upon completion of essay fair their final terms, all admitted students must request a final official transcript to be submitted along with the Common Application or Coalition Application Final Report form.

Although all student application forms must be submitted online through the Common Application or Coalition Application website, schools may send hard copy materials to natural protest on the history of american environmentalism, us via fax at 919-668-1661 or postal mail at 2138 Campus Drive, Box 90586, Durham, NC 27708. They may also submit materials via email to physics, undergrad-admissions@duke.edu. If you have already completed secondary school and your application includes a final, complete secondary school transcript as part of the School Report, you do not need to submit first quarter grades using the protest history of american, Optional Report, nor do you need to submit the Midyear Report. Your online checklist may show these items as missing, butsince the information we need is already included in on tree drive, the materials your school submittedthat will not affect your candidacy. All candidates for admission must complete one of the following standardized testing options and arrange to have official test score reports sent to essays of american, Duke: The College Board SAT, with two Subject Tests strongly recommended. Students who submit the project, new SAT will also be required to submit the essay component. We strongly recommend that you submit your scores by the application deadline, even if you plan to take additional tests later.

If it is financially burdensome for you to protest essays history environmentalism, release your scores to Duke, then your counselor may submit your scores to undergrad-admissions@duke.edu with a subject line of School-Reported Test Scores. For students who choose to submit the ACT with writing, Duke will consider the physics online, highest composite score and highest scores on each section, regardless of test date, but will not recalculate the composite score. Students who take the ACT are not required to submit SAT or SAT Subject Test scores. Our school code for the ACT is natural on the environmentalism, 3088 . For students who submit the SAT, two SAT Subject Tests are strongly recommended. Students who have taken the test multiple times may choose which scores to send to physics thesis online, Duke. Duke will use the highest available scores in each section, plus the two highest Subject Test scores, regardless of the date those tests were taken. Natural History Environmentalism. Our school code for the SAT is 5156 . The redesigned SAT: Students intending to physics online, enroll in on the history of american environmentalism, the fall of 2017 may submit either the new or old SAT. Duke does not have a preference for either test, but if you choose to submit both, Duke will consider the stronger score as determined by concordance tables.

Students intending to essay, enter in the fall of essays history of american 2018 and beyond will be required to essay drive, submit the new SAT. Applicants to natural of american environmentalism, the Pratt School of Engineering who take the thesis online, SAT are strongly recommended to take one SAT Subject Test in Mathematics (level 1 or level 2). Applicants to the Trinity College of Arts Sciences who take the SAT may take any two SAT Subject Tests. Protest Essays On The. For complete information about the use of SAT Subject Test scores in saudi essay, foreign language placement at Duke, please visit Languages at Duke. If I take both the SAT and ACT, do I need to send both scores to Duke?

How does Duke consider multiple scores? We will always consider your highest score regardless of test type or test date, and you are welcome to send us SAT scores, ACT scores or both. Applicants may choose the Score Choice option for the SAT and choose to submit scores from specific ACT test dates. We do NOT require applicants to submit all of their test scores--just the ones necessary to fulfill the testing requirement. If I take the ACT, can I also submit SAT Subject Tests? Although we do not require or expect SAT Subject Test scores from candidates who take the natural essays history of american, ACT with Writing to fulfill our testing requirement, we do accept them and will consider them as an additional demonstration of subject proficiency. If I submit the arabia, new SAT with essay and/or the ACT with writing, will Duke consider a higher SAT score or ACT composite score from a test date without writing? As long as students report a new SAT with essay and/or an ACT with writing, we will also consider a higher SAT score or ACT composite score from natural essays on the of american, a test administration without writing.

Will it hurt my candidacy to take standardized tests multiple times? No. However, standardized testing should not become one of on advantages tourism your extracurricular activities! We'd rather see you spend your time pursuing your curiosities and interests, and most students don't see significant score improvements beyond their second or third sitting for a given test. If I took the SAT or ACT before high school, can I use these scores in natural on the of american environmentalism, my application?

No. Only testing that is taken in high school will be considered in the admissions process. If I have taken Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate examinations, what role do those scores play in for science, the admissions process? Should I report those scores officially? We value those scores when available as demonstrations of subject mastery to complement your academic transcripts. You should self-report these scores in your application. We will require an official score report from students who matriculate at Duke who wish to use those scores for credit or placement.

I had my test scores sent to natural protest on the history environmentalism, Duke before I applied. Fair Project. Why don't I see them in natural protest essays of american environmentalism, my Duke Application Checklist? If your test scores were released to Duke prior to submitting an political science thesis, application, and natural protest essays of american environmentalism you only recently applied, please allow several business days for us to connect your scores to your application materials. If after that point your scores are not displayed on help your checklist, and you have verification from the protest on the of american environmentalism, testing agency that they've been received, you may call our office or send us an email. We will investigate and then respond to your inquiry. We strongly recommend that candidates take all required SAT or ACT exams no later than the month prior to essay, their application deadline, and applicants should submit all test scores necessary to fulfill the testing requirement by the application deadline (November 1 for protest essays on the history environmentalism Early Decision; January 2 for prejudice in america Regular Decision). Early Decision candidates may submit new or additional scores from the November 4 SAT and the October 28 ACT, and Regular Decision candidates may submit new or additional scores from the December 2 SAT and the February 10 ACT.

Tip: you don't need to rush report scores to Duke, but if you are taking any tests after the application deadline, you should request a score report to Duke at the time you sit for your exam. Applicants who do not use English as their primary language must demonstrate the protest essays, ability to undertake a rigorous, fast-paced academic program in English. As Duke students must have the ability to read quickly and to express themselves clearly both orally and in saudi arabia essay, writing, applicants must be fluent in written and spoken English at the time the application is submitted. If you are a non-native English speaker or if you are not currently studying in an English-medium curriculum, we recommend but do not require that you take one of the natural history environmentalism, following English proficiency tests. Any applicants who feel their English proficiency test scores might represent their English ability better than their SAT or ACT scores do also may choose to political science, take the protest essays on the, IELTS, PTE Academic, or TOEFL test. If you take the tests more than once, we will use your highest scores. We do not have any preference among the three tests. We will consider all of your test scores along with the essay, essays, recommendations, and other parts of the admissions application to evaluate your proficiency in English. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) Duke’s school code for the TOEFL is history environmentalism, 5156 Minimum scores expected: 100 on on tree drive the internet-based TOEFL 75 on the revised TOEFL Paper-delivered Test.

Both the Common Application and the Coalition Application include a one-page personal essay. In addition, both include short essay questions that are specific to essays of american environmentalism, Duke and that offer you the opportunity to tell us about your personal and intellectual interests. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages. You can submit short writing with or after the other student portions of the application, no later than the essays, application deadline. 2017-2018 Common Application Prompts. All applicants who complete the on tree, Common Application will choose to respond to one of natural history of american seven essay prompts.

The personal essay length is capped at 650 words. 2016-2017 Coalition Application Prompt. All applicants who complete the physics, Coalition Application will choose to respond to essays on the, one five essay prompts. The personal essay length is capped at on advantages of promoting 550 words. Tip: These open-ended prompts are intended to foster your creative energy, not restrict it. If you're stuck, try thinking first about the characteristics you want to convey to the admissions committee. Brainstorm stories that display those qualities or values; then pick the prompt that best fits your story. The following question is required for Engineering applicants . • If you are applying to the Pratt School of Engineering as either a first-year or transfer applicant, please discuss why you want to study engineering and why you would like to study at Duke. History Of American. (150 words maximum) The following question is required for Arts Sciences applicants . • If you are applying to thesis, the Trinity College of Arts Sciences as either a first-year or transfer applicant, please discuss why you consider Duke a good match for you. Is there something particular about natural protest essays environmentalism, Duke that attracts you? (150 words maximum) The following question is optional for all applicants to Duke University.

• Duke University seeks a talented, engaged student body that embodies the wide range of online human experience; we believe that the diversity of our students makes our community stronger. Natural Protest Essays History. If you'd like to share a perspective you bring or experiences you've had to arabia essay, help us understand you betterperhaps related to a community you belong to, your sexual orientation or gender identity, or your family or cultural backgroundwe encourage you to do so. Real people are reading your application, and we want to do our best to understand and appreciate the real people applying to Duke. (250 words maximum) The Common Application will only show you the essay prompts that apply to you; there's no need to spend time sifting through extra questions! Note that this means you must select your desired undergraduate school--either the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences or the Pratt School of protest essays of american environmentalism Engineering--before you will see the corresponding version of the Why Duke? prompt to which you will respond. Tip: Be sure to saudi, craft your short writing as carefully as the longer personal essay. Every piece of your application matters! Recommendations give us another way to learn who you are. We require three letters of recommendation for on the history of american each applicant: one recommendation from your guidance counselor and two recommendations from teachers who have taught you in major academic courses (English, mathematics, social studies, sciences, foreign languages), preferably within the essay plantation, last two years of secondary school.

If you are applying to the Pratt School of Engineering, at least one recommendation should be from a math or science teacher. If your school requires printed or downloadable recommendation forms, you may find Common Application forms available below. If your recommenders choose not to submit their letters online, they can send documents by protest history of american environmentalism fax, email or postal mail. Fax: (919) 668-1661. Office of Undergraduate Admissions. 2138 Campus Drive. Durham, North Carolina 27708.

Additionally, applicants may submit one Personal Recommendation. This recommendation is optional, and saudi arabia essay can come from a peer, a coach, a director, a teacher from an elective course, a family member, or anyone else who knows you well and will give us a better idea of who you are. This optional information will be considered in our understanding of you as a person, but will not be formally evaluated as part of your application. If you do not submit the information, your chance of admission will not be affected. There is no required form for this recommendation. Just ask the individual to submit a one-page letter to our office through the Common Application recommendation process. We will also accept letters by fax, email or postal mail.

Fax: (919) 668-1661. Office of Undergraduate Admissions. 2138 Campus Drive. Durham, North Carolina 27708. Tip: Make sure that the recommendation letter includes the protest essays on the of american environmentalism, applicant's full name, date of birth and current high school so we can add it to the correct file! At Duke, alumni interviews are an optional component of the essay of promoting, application process. When present, an interview report provides the admissions committee an additional source of information and perspective about natural essays on the history of american environmentalism, your potential fit for for science Duke.

Just as importantly, the interview offers you the opportunity to learn more about the of american, university from someone who has lived and studied here. Interviews are typically conducted in a central location (e.g. a coffee shop or your high school guidance office) and last 30-60 minutes. We recommend that you dress in business casual attire and that you come prepared to physics, talk about your interests and activities and to ask informed questions about natural on the of american, Duke. Students are matched with alumni volunteers on a first-come, first-served basis. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages. We encourage students who wish to natural protest on the history environmentalism, interview to submit their application by political the Early Decision deadline (November 1) or the Regular Decision priority interview deadline (December 20). If you submit your application, including the Duke Writing Supplement, by the appropriate deadline and essays history of american environmentalism there is an alumni interviewing committee in in america essay, your local area, a committee member will contact you via phone or email to arrange an interview . Unfortunately, we don’t have alumni volunteers everywhere.

Candidates who do not hear from an interviewer by the second week of November (Early Decision) or the protest essays of american, second week of February (Regular Decision) are welcome to submit an additional recommendation in place of the interview. This additional letter isn't required, but we want to be sure that those students whose applications won't include interview reports have an opportunity for an additional voice of support in their files. Your chances of admission won't be affected adversely if we are unable to offer you an interview, nor will they be affected if you choose not to send an extra recommendation. Due to the high volume of applicants we receive from China, Duke will accept admissions interviews from InitialView for essay of promoting students attending school in China. These interviews will serve in lieu of alumni interviews. We encourage interested students in essays history, China to arrange an interview with InitialView as soon as possible in order to secure an appointment. Political Help. All interviews must be submitted to Duke by December 1 for Early Decision or March 1 for Regular Decision. All interviews are conducted in person by alumni volunteers in students' home areas. We do not conduct on-campus interviews. If you have exceptional artistic talent, you may submit supplementary material to be evaluated by Duke faculty.

Our faculty review submissions in dance; film, video, and digital media; music; photography; theater; and protest essays on the history visual art. You do not need to plan on a major or minor in your artistic discipline(s) to submit a supplement, but you should have interest in remaining engaged with the essay on tree plantation drive, arts in environmentalism, college. All supplementary artistic materials must be submitted by November 1 for Early Decision or January 7 for essay on tree Regular Decision. Protest On The History Of American. Transfer applicants may submit artistic materials between February 15 and March 20. We accept artistic supplements submitted through the online SlideRoom portal. Saudi Arabia Essay. Students applying through the Common Application may use the direct link provided through the application.

Students using the Coalition Application should go to natural essays history of american, duke.slideroom.com and political thesis help select the Coalition Application program for the specific art form(s) they intend to submit. Do not mail artistic submissions to our office; those materials will not be formally reviewed. If you decide to submit an artistic supplement after having submitted your application, please go to protest on the history, duke.slideroom.com and follow the instructions. We do not accept creative writing samples for faculty review. Thesis Online. A brief creative writing sample of no more than two pages, labeled with your full name and date of natural of american environmentalism birth, may be sent to undergrad-admissions@duke.edu. This will be reviewed by the admissions committee along with your application.

We are interested in seeing your technical, performance and choreographic abilities. As you prepare to submit a video that displays those abilities, please observe these guidelines: Dance setting: Solo or small group work is ideal. If you must include a large group dance, make sure you can be easily identified. We would like to see you in essay project, a performance situation, however, excerpts from a technique class are acceptable.

Video quality: It is not necessary that the video be professionally produced, however, it should be of the highest possible visual quality. Length: 10 minutes is ideal. You may excerpt sections of works in performance and/or rehearsal. It is very helpful if the work you want viewed is edited together in natural protest on the history environmentalism, succession in the same 10 minute section. Style: If you are proficient in more than one style of dance, submit a supplement for physics thesis each style separately. You may submit up to 10 minutes per style. Natural Essays On The History Of American Environmentalism. Style options are: African Dance, Asian/Indian Dance, Ballet, Contemporary Dance, Jazz Dance, Modern, Other styles/mixed styles and Tap Dance. Choreography in each of physics online these areas is welcome. Include a written description of the website link providing the following information about the recording : Title of works, choreographer, and music/sound accompaniment Date of the recording Length of the pieces/excerpt If it is an natural protest essays of american, ensemble, a description of yourself Any other information you feel is in america essay, pertinent. Please also submit an on the of american environmentalism, abbreviated resume in the Additional Information section of SlideRoom with any pertinent dance or dance-related experience. You may also include a short narrative statement about the role that dance has played in your life and the role you see it playing in your college career, your experience in on tree drive, different or multiple dance styles, your choreographic interest and natural essays on the environmentalism experience, community involvement, and essay for science anything else you consider important about environmentalism, your dancing.

For any other questions please feel free to call the fair project, Dance Program at 919-660-3354 or email dance@duke.edu. You may upload work showing significant levels of achievement in a film, video, or digital medium, including documentary, narrative, experimental or animation. Submissions should be no longer than 10 minutes in length. Please label your website clearly with your legal name, an indication of your role in the production (e.g., director, screenwriter, editor), project title and year completed. In cases of collaborative projects, please include a one-page description of the role you played in natural environmentalism, the production as part of physics thesis online your application. While musicians of natural protest history environmentalism every level are welcome at Duke, only prejudice essay, those who demonstrate outstanding ability in natural essays history environmentalism, performance or composition should submit supplemental material. On Tree Plantation. Recordings uploaded to a website should be up to 10 minutes long and include at least two movements or pieces representing contrasting styles or periods. Each selection must be an unedited solo performance.

If possible, include piano accompaniment where appropriate. Natural Protest Essays History Environmentalism. Composers should submit a score of their work as part of their application in addition to an uploaded recording. Please label the website clearly with your legal name, address, high school and works performed. You should have at least three years’ high school/extracurricular experience in photography. Upload no more than 5 groupings of images (8 to 20 images total) and label all material. We encourage you to upload work that shows your depth as a photographer, that depicts work you’ve shown in saudi essay, exhibitions, and that has received awards. Please include a one-page resume detailing your high school experience in theater.

In addition, you may upload to Slideroom one of the following examples of recent work: A video recording with a brief introduction and two contrasting monologues (solo performance only) OR one monologue and one song, not to exceed two minutes in length each. Excerpts from productions will not be considered. A theater-related critical essay or a one-act play that you have written A portfolio with photographs or illustrations of your set/costume design or your technical work; A one- to two-page statement about a play you have directed, discussing approach, process and natural protest essays on the of american environmentalism result. If you have questions regarding format or content, please e-mail theater@duke.edu.

Upload a group of ten images that show your serious commitment to making art during your high school experience. You may combine multiple images into on tree drive, collages to create the natural essays history, ten images requested. Do not include work done prior to high school. Your portfolio should include work that has been developed thematically, showing a visual and intellectual concentration in science thesis help, specific areas. We encourage you to natural on the of american, include work that displays your depth as an artist, that depicts work you have shown in exhibitions and shows and that has earned you awards and saudi essay recognition. Please remember that your work is being evaluated for its artistic design and natural essays on the of american intellectual merit, so your portfolio should include only work that shows your serious commitment to for science fair, art. Also, please note that you should not include Manga or cartooning in your fine art portfolio. What does Duke look for in an natural protest on the history environmentalism, applicant? Every year, thousands of the world's best students apply to Duke. They come from public, private and parochial schools, and physics thesis online from all points on the economic, political, and geographic spectrum.

Most have graduated in natural history of american, the top 10 percent of their secondary school class. These top students are attracted to Duke for its academic challenge, stimulating campus environment, and reputation for educating men and women of saudi arabia essay influence and achievement. From those students, Duke's Admissions Committee selects a first-year class of about 1,700 women and men. First, please understand that we do not have a minimum required score for either the history environmentalism, SAT or ACT, nor do we have a minimum required GPA or class rank. We do not report average SAT or ACT scores, but you can view the for science, middle 50 percent range for standardized test scores of last year's admitted students here. Natural Of American. Likewise, we do not quote an average GPA.

We ask for a student’s GPA and class rank, when available, but we also realize that many schools consider GPA on different scales and some schools do not consider GPA or class rank at all. We consider this information in the context of on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism what guidance counselors tell us about their schools. Your secondary school record should include the most challenging courses your school offers. We recommend four years of English and at least three years of mathematics, natural science, foreign language and social studies. We also encourage you to enroll in natural protest essays on the history of american environmentalism, advanced-level work in essay on tree plantation drive, as many of these areas as possible. We generally expect students to natural of american, enroll in five academic courses per year, and if a student does not take four years in a particular subject area, it should be replaced with an academic course of equal rigor. If you are applying to the Pratt School of Engineering, calculus is required before you enroll. We also strongly recommend, but do not require, that you have taken physics.

Successful Duke applicants typically have significant extracurricular commitments, all of arabia essay which we value. Most students admitted to Duke have demonstrated, in a word, impact. In some venue they have made a difference. It might be in the classroom, in the community, or on the athletic field. It could be doing one thing brilliantly, or several things exceedingly well. Will visiting campus or contacting the Admissions Office influence my odds of admission? We do not track the number of contacts or visits to campus an applicant has made. Although we are always glad when students visit campus, demonstrated interest is not an advantage in the admissions process.

We prefer to focus on a student's strengths and accomplishments. Does Duke accept Advanced Placement and protest on the history International Baccalaureate credits? Duke recognizes the plantation drive, Advanced Placement Program of the natural protest essays history, College Board and grants a limited amount of saudi arabia elective credit and placement into advanced courses for scores of 4 or 5 on most AP exams. AP exams may not be taken once students have enrolled at natural protest on the of american Duke. Entering students who have completed internationally recognized college-level examinations with high scores will receive international placement credit in essentially the same way that credit is awarded for AP exams. Does Duke accept resumes, research abstracts, or media files as part of a student's application materials? We hope to get to essay plantation drive, know you through the documents we require as part of our application process. Therefore, Duke will not be accepting activity resumes, research abstracts, and media files for the 2017-2018 application process. We are happy to accept artistic supplements. We will accept additional letters of essays history environmentalism recommendation should you choose to submit them. If you have information that you need to science, share with us that will not be reflected elsewhere in your application, you may add it to protest essays on the environmentalism, the Additional Information section of the application.

When and how should I schedule a visit to Duke? Visit our Plan Your Trip section of the saudi arabia essay, site to learn more. Does Duke offer preprofessional majors? Because of Duke’s core commitment to a liberal arts education, Duke does not offer premedicine, prebusiness or prelaw majors, minors or certificates. Instead, we offer a number of natural protest essays environmentalism robust preprofessional advising programs through the Office of Health Professions Advising, Prebusiness Advising and Prelaw Advising. The Duke University Career Center also provides students with counseling and networking opportunities to help them develop their personal, educational and professional goals. Through our advising programs, students have tremendous flexibility to study what they want while still receiving strong preparation for on advantages and disadvantages professional school. Our medical school and law school acceptance rates are 85% and natural protest of american 98%, respectively, and many of our alumni go on to be leaders in medicine, business and law. Where can I find information about campus safety? Our goal is to provide a safe and secure campus that allows for as much individual freedom as possible.

Some of the many safety and security programs and initiatives at Duke include: an on-campus police force with round-the-clock patrol, a system for locking residence halls 24 hours a day and using Duke cards for entry, emergency notification systems and hundreds of help phones located around campus. The Duke University Police Department operates a 24/7 emergency dispatch center. If you have an emergency, dial 911 or (919) 684-2444 to request assistance from our emergency dispatch center. The Annual Security and fair project Fire Safety Reports include institutional policies concerning campus safety and history of american environmentalism security, and for science project statistics for the previous three years concerning reported crimes that occurred on Duke University and protest on the history of american environmentalism adjacent public property and fires that occurred in residence halls. A copy is available online or upon request to the Duke Police Department at 919-684-4602. View your application status Confirm receipt of required documents and test scores Change your decision plan Change your college of interest Update your name, address, email and more Update your financial aid status View your admissions decision.

If you have earned new honors or awards since you submitted your application, you may send any updates you would like us to review to the address noted below or to undergrad-admissions@duke.edu. Saudi Essay. (Please note that we are not accepting activity resumes for the 2016-2017 application cycle.) All written updates must include full name, date of birth, and high school name. The deadline for submission of application updates for Early Decision is November 15, 2016 and for natural essays of american Regular Decision is February 25, 2017.