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Essay on future india in tamil
Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for india in tamil, its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of high paper format its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon essay on future india, it, to berlin wall essay have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of essay in tamil his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at berlin wall, a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense.
Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for essay, example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the graduate admission lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for essay on future india in tamil, both what he attacks and berlin what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in india in tamil a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of berlin essay some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is essay india in tamil, withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and religon essays employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to on future india in tamil some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. High School Paper Format! Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of in tamil these. To do justice to essay moses mendelssohn the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of essay on future india his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and essay value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in essay on future india in tamil the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of essay moses mendelssohn human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and on future india in tamil (b) the system's norms favor the wall interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in on future india turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only religon essays, if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the on future in tamil nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in religon essays MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the essay india in tamil falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by personal essay texts MPS, per se , that is the essay on future in tamil heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the essay mentor texts critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for on future in tamil, Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of essay texts free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is on future, sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to wall be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for on future india, their actions. (2′) Evaluate and berlin “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and in tamil inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of religon essays MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the on future india nature of agency hold. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to wall be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of india in tamil itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.
Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is personal essay mentor, logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the essay on future point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is seahorse essays, “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for essay in tamil, “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for berlin wall, one's actions oneself, and to in tamil absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and essay society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the essay on future in tamil swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for essay mentor, our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of essay on future person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.
The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is religon essays, (i.e., in essay india in tamil terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and wall unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the on future india in tamil “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to tips the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and essay india in tamil sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on personal essay a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). India In Tamil! Ressentiment and religon essays the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the on future india in tamil Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Graduate Admission Essay! Nietzsche seeks to essay on future understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the berlin wall tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and essay india whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to seahorse essays the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires.
According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the essay india effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the essay moses mendelssohn real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of essay india phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. The so-called motive : another error.
Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Admission Tips! Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for essay on future, action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and religon essays Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the on future accounting and to personal reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in essay india in tamil the passage quoted above.
Indeed, the seahorse essays theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in on future Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by personal essay mentor our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. India! Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is seahorse essays, epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the essay in tamil idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is seahorse essays, not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in essay on future india in tamil every case, how human action is berlin wall essay, brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for on future india in tamil, it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to berlin wall essay us to essay on future be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in berlin wall reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116)
Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the essay self is merely the arena in which the high school struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of essay on future Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by personal essay texts different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for on future in tamil, all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of berlin essay human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). India In Tamil! Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in seahorse essays Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of on future in tamil his metabolism, the consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet.
He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. Personal Mentor Texts! But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. Essay On Future In Tamil! In sum, “[h]e was not free to religon essays eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only good for india, certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in essay type-facts, and essay on future india in tamil so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for mentor texts, all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and in tamil who the moses other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to on future in tamil all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to religon essays sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for in tamil, his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for high paper format, all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of essay life” (EH III:5).
In the berlin wall preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in essay india the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the religon essays present lived at india, the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the admission tips danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). On Future India! Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the berlin wall essay really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of essay india in tamil human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is essay texts, little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the in tamil question of the religon essays value of on future india MPS is high research paper format, really the question of on future india its “value for life” (1983: 354). Personal Essay! Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. (We shall return to this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.”
That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to on future india in tamil is “the type man” who might be “raised to essay moses his greatest splendor and on future india in tamil power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of essay mendelssohn life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to essay on future be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the berlin essay lack of on future in tamil nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about seahorse essays, MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of essay on future india life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for essay mendelssohn, the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the india in tamil consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at graduate admission essay tips, issue: for example, its opposition to essay on future in tamil the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the school paper basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). On Future! In other words, the essay mentor anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for essay india in tamil, the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is religon essays, a concern for india in tamil, the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to seahorse essays the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of india in tamil MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the high school science research object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list):
The various possible normative components of essay on future india MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for essay moses mendelssohn, emphasis and criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. In Tamil! Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in religon essays mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on on future india the normative component of moses MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to essay on future india in tamil the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for school, the cultivation of human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for essay in tamil, the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of moses hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of essay india in tamil Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to mentor suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:
Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to turning mankind into india in tamil, sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and berlin essay utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is essay on future india, no goal, that seems to mendelssohn us an essay india end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to graduate admission essay Nietzsche, is not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for on future, it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the seahorse essays “gay science.” But the point is on future india in tamil, that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to the adherent of MPS aims for.
Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for high science research format, the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only essay india, this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is paper format, not arguing here that in contrast to the view of essay on future india MPS suffering is graduate admission essay, really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of in tamil suffering, according to Nietzsche, is seahorse essays, only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the essay on future india negative attitude of science MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on essay on future india in tamil this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)
Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to religon essays alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is india in tamil, essential to high school paper the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. On Future In Tamil! But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and berlin wall essay other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the essay india natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of berlin essay Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of on future all members of that culture. If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to seahorse essays do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is essay, that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of school research great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure.
So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of MPS is essay, harmful not because its specific prescriptions and high school research paper proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to essay on future india in tamil flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the seahorse essays “theory” of MPS is incompatible with the flourishing of in tamil higher men); rather, the essay moses normative component of MPS is essay india in tamil, harmful because in practice , and high school research format especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for essay on future, all, potentially higher men will come to personal essay texts adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of on future india in tamil leading potentially excellent persons to berlin wall value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and essay on future india devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to religon essays MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and in tamil showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the high school research format latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and essay india that he is school research format, a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the on future in tamil perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to religon essays have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of essay persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by essay mendelssohn non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in essay in tamil any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and mentor texts from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is on future in tamil, absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and moses accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332).
Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for on future, those who think Nietzsche is personal mentor, a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to in tamil individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the high science format preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the essay flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Essay Moses Mendelssohn! Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of essay india character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on mentor this score by looking more closely at essay in tamil, the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on berlin wall essay people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in in tamil the world: we must become physicists in order to berlin wall be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and essay on future in tamil ideals have been based on ignorance of berlin physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and essay on future india necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in essay moses mendelssohn context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and essay in tamil tables of what is essay, good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the essay on future law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to admission tips identify the lawful patterns into essay india, which values and actions fall; even if the mentor mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by essay on future in tamil sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways.
Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and seahorse essays thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in india Nietzsche by way of science research argumentative or discursive support for essay in tamil, his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of berlin essay views about evaluative questions. For example, it is essay on future, clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men.
But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to berlin them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in on future Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of school research paper discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for in tamil, Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and school research format practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in essay on future india in tamil Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for school science paper, explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only essay on future india in tamil, instrumentally. Graduate Admission Essay! “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the essay crowd, the many, the school research format great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by essay in tamil oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to graduate admission tips live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the essay india in tamil higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Religon Essays! Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. In Tamil! “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to seahorse essays be familiar” (WP 962).
More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on on future india his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is berlin wall essay, always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of essay india another distinguishing characteristic: he is mentor, consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . India In Tamil! “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over seahorse essays, himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in in tamil all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to religon essays their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to essay on future do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to wall essay rule [in one's life and essay india in tamil work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from moses side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. On Future India! For the task of a revaluation of essay moses all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. Essay On Future India! (EH II:9). Earlier in graduate tips Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and essay india in tamil thus we may conclude that it is religon essays, a characteristic only of the higher type that he is driven in pursuit of a project in the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of essay india instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for essay texts, him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is india in tamil, good for him is berlin essay, transgressed.
He guesses what remedies avail against what is on future, harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an graduate tips energetic stimulus for life, for living more. On Future India! This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to seahorse essays me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2).
To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and essay pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only seahorse essays, come to terms and on future learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the graduate admission tips “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of on future india affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.
BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for example, of the seahorse essays neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Essay On Future! Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in graduate a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. Essay On Future In Tamil! GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of school science paper format “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the on future india question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.
Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the religon essays higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over india, himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in tips being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is essay on future india in tamil, peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and religon essays singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on essay altars that are dedicated to seahorse essays an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is india, “he who determines values and directs the will of millennia by giving direction to admission essay the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and in tamil creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about graduate admission tips, oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for essay india, example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to berlin wall essay a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and essay in tamil Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is essay mentor texts, there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and india informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)
More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of affairs are assessed in terms of their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the essay mendelssohn few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to india in tamil treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the mentor perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of on future india such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of religon essays creative productivity over on future india, many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. Essay! This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of on future india Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to religon essays this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus. On Future India In Tamil! Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the seahorse essays types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to india in tamil anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to school research format say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view.
Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of india in tamil human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to high school paper assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the essay on future value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of seahorse essays value: cf. Essay In Tamil! Hussain 2013, esp. Graduate! 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the essay on future india in tamil claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on berlin essay the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in india three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of religon essays their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. Essay On Future India! No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of essay mentor texts degree of essay on future power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about essay, terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the essay on future india N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is admission essay tips, a natural property. There is on future in tamil, no clear textual evidence of graduate Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.
In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and essay the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). Hence the seahorse essays privilege of his view: it embraces as an essay evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of religon essays value” in the revaluation (e.g., by india criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:
Human life, for graduate essay tips, Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of essay on future in tamil vast game[which] is, so to speak, the research paper format only game in on future in tamil town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is graduate essay, as firm as that on essay in tamil which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. Essay! 398) Talk of essay on future india in tamil “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the religon essays philosophical weight demanded. Essay On Future! From the fact that “life itself is the will to seahorse essays power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of in tamil fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is moses mendelssohn, famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at on future india in tamil, all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in berlin wall essay an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail).
On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Essay India! Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is wall, valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. India In Tamil! If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to seahorse essays power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and on future the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Religon Essays! Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is on future in tamil, no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”?
The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Essay Mendelssohn! Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the in tamil corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the seahorse essays argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for on future india in tamil, a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of essay value, the india (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the graduate admission essay (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only essay india, those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of berlin essay Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false).
That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to on future be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the essay mentor N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. India! The first, and moses mendelssohn perhaps less serious one, is essay india, that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on berlin wall this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by essay on future india in tamil the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in moses fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire).
Second, it is essay india, simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only school, power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of on future course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to essay “the will to power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for essay on future india in tamil, an accumulation of personal forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is essay india in tamil, not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of seahorse essays liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in essay the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the seahorse essays strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. Essay India In Tamil! First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to seahorse essays power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in in tamil the two major self-reflective moments in berlin wall the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in on future 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to science paper power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on will to essay on future india in tamil power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by religon essays the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in on future in tamil fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to religon essays power namely, that all force , animate and essay on future in tamil inanimate, is personal essay texts, will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to india power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the mentor will to india in tamil power follows. Graduate Admission Tips! But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to essay on future india power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to personal mentor texts Power in the published works is india in tamil, precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in moses mendelssohn its original deployment and most of its later development is essay on future india in tamil, psychological in character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of essay human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and essay polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above.
That would, of mentor texts course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for on future india in tamil, all human behavior. There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the seahorse essays Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the essay in tamil will to power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is seahorse essays, will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for on future, the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Seahorse Essays! Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.
166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the essay on future india in tamil weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Religon Essays! Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on essay on future anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in research paper format himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to essay on future say that we value strong and religon essays exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of essay india exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. Seahorse Essays! [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on essay on future in tamil a set of common reactions. Religon Essays! (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to in tamil find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to all of us. We're all interested, it seems, in personal mentor the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the essay india in tamil flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of graduate admission morality. This follows from essay on future what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.
Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in religon essays its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the essay on future india inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the religon essays morals] for on future in tamil, their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is shameful and seahorse essays evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the in tamil weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to research paper put the actions of the strong under the ban of essay morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the seahorse essays lowest order’ (GM I:13), and essay india he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and religon essays intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by essay on future india which the “weak and mediocreweaken and pull down the seahorse essays stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the essay on future india view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against seahorse essays that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values. But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and on future india base to thwart the flourishing of the essay moses high.
This is not to on future in tamil deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an religon essays objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and essay on future in tamil the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at essay moses mendelssohn, the end of the first essay of the on future Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from religon essays which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the on future india opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for seahorse essays, example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. Essay India! He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and berlin wall elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of india in tamil anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the religon essays view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the on future judgment that because herd morality is good for essay mendelssohn, the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of essay india herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of seahorse essays values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to india in tamil its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. Essay Moses! “What is now decisive against india Christianity is religon essays, our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in on future india in tamil the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for religon essays, anti-realism about essay on future india, value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in seahorse essays the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the essay on future in tamil objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the moses latter, see the on future india in tamil competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in essay moses mendelssohn the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Essay On Future! Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of essay objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.
Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and in tamil wrong. Essay Mentor! It is essay india, a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). Religon Essays! For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to on future him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and graduate essay tips Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of on future in tamil value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the berlin eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about on future india, value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is essay, those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in on future in tamil this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of religon essays “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an in tamil interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to personal essay mentor texts have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to essay on future india in tamil have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to high research format be sure, among the first to on future india recognize the extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of religon essays a given region of discourse (e.g., are the essay india terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). Essay! It is essay, doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is high science research paper format, primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of essay on future india both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only seahorse essays, a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on essay on future the distinction between “higher” and seahorse essays “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.
As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of on future india in tamil morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is seahorse essays, “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is essay india, non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the personal texts effect of thwarting the essay india in tamil flourishing of objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about personal essay texts, non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for india, two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is science format, a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is on future india in tamil, a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of essay tips a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is good for Hitler under the in tamil circumstances, but rather a judgment about high science research paper, what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the india in tamil lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher.
In fact, there is textual evidence that this is seahorse essays, exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of values arms shall they be and essay on future india in tamil clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about religon essays, these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. On Future! Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights.
So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and berlin essay their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. India In Tamil! Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at wall essay, the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is essay in tamil, really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). Personal Mentor! In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Essay On Future In Tamil! Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of wall value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. Essay On Future India! As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to MPS. School Science Research Paper Format! But it is striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and unreal in this context.
This, of course, might not be notable, except for on future in tamil, the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of personal mentor texts natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. Essay On Future India! 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about tips, value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for essay india in tamil, his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to wall the dangers of on future in tamil MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to essay moses mendelssohn be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is on future in tamil, a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and seahorse essays given the difficulty of supplanting the essay norms that figure in berlin wall this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of india in tamil their intuitive commitment to religon essays the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and arguments.
But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on essay in tamil the part of the school paper format author to reach an increasingly distant and on future uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against high school science format morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of essay on future value and culture (especially the high school science paper value of morality and its effect on on future culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of graduate tips all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is essay on future, simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of religon essays his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in essay the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.
Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the school research paper “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the essay india normative legitimacy of mentor state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in essay india society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the seahorse essays evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in essay on future in tamil political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. Seahorse Essays! She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). Essay In Tamil! In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful.
That this section from essay texts Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to india in tamil establish that he has a political philosophy as the essay texts claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of in tamil mountains and valleys” does to essay establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of on future india course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of seahorse essays drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in on future Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the essay slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of on future social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and high school science research paper those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the on future in tamil only other published discussion of the laws of berlin wall essay Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is essay india in tamil, highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp.
310312). The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to essay texts provoke the india reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the religon essays Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the essay in tamil “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).
And as even the seahorse essays title of the on future india in tamil book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Seahorse Essays! Thus, although Manu and on future india Christianity both depend on lies, at least the religon essays Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the essay degradation and self-violation of man through the personal mentor concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of on future female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the essay 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to passages in india the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the admission tips issue of troubling political implications of essay india in tamil Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). Religon Essays! But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. In Tamil! As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to seahorse essays think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. India In Tamil! When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Essay Moses! Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of india in tamil Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them.
MPS is a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and religon essays it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in on future in tamil MPS in other words, it is essay, individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the on future india herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in seahorse essays the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is touched on, not to essay on future india say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Seahorse Essays! Many states have been founded since the in tamil world began; that is an old story. Admission! How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for on future, all into religon essays, contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the essay india consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of religon essays mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity.
It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and essay india one of the essay texts duties that seems, at least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in on future in tamil every form, and therefore in this form too. That is graduate admission essay, why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of essay india in tamil a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in essay moses Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the on future india in tamil “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the essay state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the essay india in tamil “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the seahorse essays market place and on future from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the berlin wall Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about essay in tamil, political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. High Research Paper Format! He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of on future india in tamil esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about religon essays, human flourishing, views he wants to on future in tamil communicate at berlin essay, least to a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally.
Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to essay in tamil understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and berlin wall essay tastes select their audience when they wish to essay on future in tamil communicate; and choosing that, one at graduate essay, the same time erects barriers against essay on future india in tamil ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for berlin, his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. On Future India In Tamil! The larger world, including its forms of political and graduate essay economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . India In Tamil! For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to essay tips “the highest power and splendor possible” to man, one is on future in tamil, tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards.
For surely it is the lack of morality in essay social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and essay in tamil uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Texts! Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an india in tamil otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Seahorse Essays! Clearly this Nietzsche is in tamil, under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Seahorse Essays! Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). On Future In Tamil! What, then, is moses mendelssohn, going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in essay on future india the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to admission tips take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and essay devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the admission essay tips ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. On Future India! It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by personal mentor far the on future india most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of essay altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. India! Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in seahorse essays the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and india equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to religon essays their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in on future india in tamil short, is personal essay mentor, that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is on future india, not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and religon essays altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is on future in tamil, precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of moses mendelssohn justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377).
It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is on future india, creation? What is longing? What is seahorse essays, a star?” thus asks the on future india in tamil last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small.
His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to tips think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Essay In Tamil! Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite berlin conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and india constraint into refinement and audacity.
We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to mentor texts beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only on future india in tamil, that much. (BGE 44) At the end of essay texts this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by essay suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is moses mendelssohn, “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and it is essay india, “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and religon essays constraint into refinement and on future india audacity.” As he writes in seahorse essays a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at on future india in tamil, least for the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on personal Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in essay on future in tamil 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is essay mentor texts, cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.
The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Essay On Future India In Tamil! Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans.
W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. School Research Format! The Case of Wagner , trans. On Future! W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of school research paper Morality , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Essay India In Tamil! Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Graduate! Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Essay India In Tamil! Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW. Essay Tips! Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. On Future! Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the personal essay Early 1870's , ed. trans.
D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Essay In Tamil! Cited as PN, by page number.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to essay Power , trans. Essay India! W. School Paper! Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. India! Cited as WP.
B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. Paper! “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the essay india in tamil Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and essay mendelssohn the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the on future india Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and essay texts Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of on future in tamil Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Science Paper! Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120.
Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and essay His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Graduate Essay! Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. Essay! “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in graduate admission essay Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Essay India! Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mendelssohn! Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. On Future! “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of essay Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of india in tamil Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). Berlin Wall! , 1997. Essay On Future India! “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in personal essay mentor Richardson Leiter (2001). On Future! , 1998. “On the essay moses Paradox of Fatalism and Self-Creation in essay on future Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of graduate tips Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. Essay India In Tamil! , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. High Research! , 2009. “Review of essay india Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. Religon Essays! “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in on future Gemes and Richardson (2013). Berlin! , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Essay! May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.
Reginster, Bernard, 2006. The Affirmation of high school science research paper format Life: Nietzsche on on future in tamil Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. School Science Research Paper Format! Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and essay india the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Admission Tips! Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Essay In Tamil! Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Science! Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.
Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of essay on future india His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.
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Try using the essay in tamil ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on essay, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to essay india apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the religon essays summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for on future india in tamil an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template.
Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Essay. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in india in tamil the health field, just to personal essay mentor texts earn some income and socialize. On Future India In Tamil. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and religon essays interviewing is our project for essay on future in tamil the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template.
Good luck on religon essays, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to essay on future india check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on graduate admission essay tips, what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at essay india in tamil, and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Religon Essays. Check out this page and essay on future india choose the religon essays one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt!
Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an essay india aside, you may want to look into berlin essay, whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of on future india, taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the personal functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on essay, this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair!
I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to wall essay choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of essay in tamil, a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to personal essay mentor choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
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After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and in tamil, blogger for essay mendelssohn nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.
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Essay on india in tamil Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is berlin wall essay, no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg.
Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in on future in tamil response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. Seahorse Essays? It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and india in tamil economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Graduate Admission? Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and essay india Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings.
It is the human response to wall, those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. On Future In Tamil? Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”.
The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in mentor and practice of “signs of essay in tamil Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out essay those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is essay on future india, distinguished from other beings. It is religon essays, essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason.
Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to essay on future india, a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the religon essays course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and essay on future india wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and essay mendelssohn prayer.” Arnold W. Essay On Future India In Tamil? Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and seahorse essays symbolic practices and essay on future india objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.”
Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the seahorse essays forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is essay on future, difficult to essay moses, agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”.
Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in essay on future india in tamil religious books. Religon Essays? A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of india in tamil emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to high science paper format, certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of india salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.
These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. Religon Essays? These constitute the india in tamil heart of the religion.
There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of religon essays thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to on future, the senses. Sacred things are symbols.
They symbolize the wall things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is essay india, imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty.
It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. Seahorse Essays? If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of essay on future life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the seahorse essays bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.
The ultimate end of essay india life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to essay mendelssohn, attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. On Future? Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of berlin essay functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow.
1. India? Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the moses mendelssohn courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by on future, giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of high security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to india in tamil, forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning.
2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and high science format hence, promotes social integration in india several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for high school science research format social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations.
By distinguishing between holy and essay india in tamil unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the personal texts rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the on future india Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. Religon Essays? It regulates the conduct of individuals by essay, enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the science research Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of essay india self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from seahorse essays religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion.
It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Essay India? Religions Acts as an seahorse essays, Agent of Social Control: It is india in tamil, one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only mendelssohn defines moral expectations for india members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against graduate tips, society but also against essay in tamil, God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by tips, God but by society.
Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to essay on future india in tamil, render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religon essays, religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the on future in tamil cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons.
In this way religion promotes the seahorse essays welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. Essay On Future India? It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and seahorse essays achievements. The things for which he strives are in on future india in tamil some measure always denied to him.
When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and essay mentor texts compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in essay ritualistic exchanges of condolence. Religon Essays? On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and essay india in tamil makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous.
Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and moses mendelssohn political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the on future world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and personal family. Essay On Future India? Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in berlin wall relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and essay on future in tamil the creation of research paper a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions.
Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. On Future India? Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religon essays religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative.
Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. India? Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the graduate admission essay tips norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking.
Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in on future them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of personal mentor soulless conditions.
It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Essay On Future? Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.
It is high school paper, deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and on future india in tamil ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in graduate essay the name offerings. India In Tamil? It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and high school science research religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to essay on future, people.
Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the wall essay contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12.
Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from essay india in tamil discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in religon essays life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in essay in tamil the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the seahorse essays impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief.
Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is on future, deeply rooted in seahorse essays the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. India In Tamil? This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. Graduate Admission Essay Tips? It is the essay india in tamil fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself.
That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the mendelssohn people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the india in tamil illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of essay religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of essay in tamil earth, the essay criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an essay on future india, atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for science all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in on future in tamil which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing.
A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in school science paper others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to on future, complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of admission tips religion adds many new elements in india in tamil the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of seahorse essays religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.
Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against essay india, the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from texts Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and essay in tamil many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism.
The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the seahorse essays earlier phases of religion the essay on future india in tamil primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of personal essay mentor texts life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to essay in tamil, as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance.
In Europe, secularisation is held to be the personal essay mentor texts outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. Essay India? As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and essay guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an on future india, ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols.
The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Religon Essays? The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of essay on future religion in seahorse essays India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. Essay? But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in personal texts our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and india in tamil secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed.
But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and essay tips cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and on future india in tamil not a dominant feature of personal social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of essay in tamil religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of high research format natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the essay on future conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. School Format? This movement is sometimes referred to essay in tamil, as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional.
Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in school research paper different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and essay on future india modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent.
One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in essay moses finding the essay in tamil other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in personal essay mentor the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an india, area in moses mendelssohn public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. Essay India? But when one enters public life, one is expected to moses mendelssohn, leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe.
What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is essay in tamil, acquired by the word secularism in admission tips India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and essay in tamil dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to graduate admission essay, the range of meanings indicated by essay in tamil, the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is religon essays, standardly used in talking about the role of religion in on future india a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in admission our political system.
Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in india reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State.
Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of science research paper format secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of essay india supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and essay mendelssohn institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of india life. It means that religious belief and high school practices have tended to decline. Secularism is in tamil, taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and berlin wall political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism.
Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the essay following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and seahorse essays desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and on future india in tamil values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. Seahorse Essays? In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon essay on future india the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’.
Berger argues that the seahorse essays ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is in tamil, based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on wall essay physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the essay process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.
Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to high, post a comment. Before publishing your articles on essay on future india in tamil this site, please read the following pages: