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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the lost names essay papers, welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. Descriptive About People. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. In theoretical ethics, the dominant issue in recent years has been how to place limits on the scope of beneficence. In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and lost essay, Benevolence.
The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is on a christmas suggestive of names, altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to short about benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of a principle or rule of beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to lost papers act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in factories, the writing good conclusions, ultimate goal of the lost essay, criticisms is usually to good obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for workers.
Whereas beneficence refers to lost names essay an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to benefit others. Many acts of scientific, beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to lost essay papers a morality of meritorious aspiration in which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is descriptive essay about people commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is names required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Such ideals of action and conclusions, moral excellence of character need not rise to the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Lost Names Papers. Even moral excellence comes by degrees.
Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky. Consultants. Examples of less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and papers, complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the extreme end of a continuum of beneficent conduct and social, commitment. This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. It is names essay papers a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. And Essays Abbreviation. The continuum runs from names essay, strict obligation (grounded in the core norms of beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of questions christmas carol, ordinary expectations of lost papers, persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of supererogation such as helping a stranger who is essay my sister lost find a desired location in a city. Papers. An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in essay people the moral life, even if not a failure of obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of supererogation such as heroic acts of self-sacrifice to benefit others. Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum.
However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on lost names essay, the continuum. A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for him at an inn. My Sister. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of heroic or saintly conduct. The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to essay papers think about beneficence and good, benevolence.
Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and moral analyses. Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of papers, David Hume, where benevolence is the central “principle” of human nature in his moral psychology, and in questions carol utilitarian theories, where the essay, principle of utility is itself a strong and demanding principle of beneficence. Beneficence in these writers is close to the essence of morality. Consultants. Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and papers, virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in dissertation statistical moral life.
He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of names essay, morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to theories of psychological egoism. Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the questions, motive underlying human action is private interest and names essay, that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on descriptive essay people, a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of human nature. Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the term “benevolence” to designate a class of virtues rooted in goodwill, generosity, and love directed at others. Hume finds benevolence in essay papers many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. On A Christmas. Although he speaks of lost names papers, both benevolence and justice as social virtues, only and essays, benevolence is a principle of human nature. Rules of justice, by contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into the principle of self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the lost, egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation. He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the social for students, mixture of elements in lost names our nature.
Principally, he sees human nature in the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and self-love. Statistical Consultants. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and ungenerous. He maintains that these elements vary by degree from lost names papers, person to person. Lacking distinctive information about a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and controls self-love, or the converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of unconvincing and incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by a single standard of scientific research abbreviation, beneficence that allows us to decide objectively what is right and lost names essay papers, wrong. He declares the principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to statistical consultants be the basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in proportion to names papers their promotion of happiness for all beings, and wrong as they produce the good, reverse. This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an action or practice is lost right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for Mill).
Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and essay questions on a, right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes. The principle of utility is presented by Mill as an lost papers, absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the essay on a, one and only supreme principle of ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of morality is welfare-oriented at its core because moral rightness is determined by goodness, which is itself to be understood in terms of the welfare of individuals. Lost Papers. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and obligatoriness of actions are established by their beneficial results. It is an aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the effects of different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over statistical consultants all persons affected. Lost Papers. Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in short about my sister a moral theory.
Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in the moral life for beneficence. He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and beneficence is one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on lost essay papers, sentimentso admired by Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the motive behind benevolent action is a motive of duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to essay my sister be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to others according to one's means, and lost names, without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby.
Benevolence done from friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Nonetheless, the limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in Kant. While we are obligated to writing good conclusions some extent to names sacrifice some part of our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on how far this duty extends. We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to dissertation statistical consultants that person's means, and lost names papers, that no one has an unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the my sister, most difficult areas of the theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to specify the limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by obligations of beneficence. Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Essay Papers. Some formulations of utilitarianism, for example, appear to derive obligations to give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of our income, to descriptive essay about people devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at names essay papers, least abstractly, by consultants, a number of moral philosophersarguably even on Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to lost names essay obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence.
We have only duties deriving from specific roles and assignments of duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. These philosophers hold that beneficent action is essay my sister virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to lost names papers act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals. The only obligations in the moral life, apart from duties encountered in professional roles and other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. In Gert's theory, the general goal of morality is to minimize the about people, causation of evil or harm, not to promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to all persons with the aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for all persons at lost, all times.
Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the actions one is obligated to perform within the roles are merely moral ideals for carol any person not in the specific role. Names Essay Papers. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at obligations of nonmaleficence. That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to them. Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the for students, goods of life,” and the like. Lost Names Essay. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and essay my sister, theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of obligation. However, the mainstream of moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the papers, distinction between the writing good conclusions, two.
This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of lost names essay, nonmaleficence, and for students, rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and essay papers, that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. By contrast, rules of essay about people, beneficence state positive requirements of names essay, action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to scientific research rescue strangers may be justifiable.
Significant controversies have arisen in both law and names papers, moral philosophy about how to formulate and and essays, defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to argue that a person P has an essay, obligation of beneficence to help another whenever the other is at risk of significant loss of dissertation statistical consultants, or damage to lost some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the loss or damage; and P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to social for students P while the benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to papers incur. 4. The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and research abbreviation, far-reaching principles of lost names, obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and essay people, contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to prevent something bad or evil from happening if it is in names essay their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and poverty, for social projects example, we ought to lost essay donate time and resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of good, comparable importance and as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at the level of names essay, local communities and political states.
This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the short, demand is placed not only on lost names papers, individuals with disposable incomes, but on all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to scientific research and essays abbreviation determine expenditures, and one is to give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished. Singer has not regarded such conduct as an enormous moral sacrifice, but only lost essay, as the abbreviation, discharge of a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and names papers, a significant departure from the for students, demands of ordinary morality. This assessment has generated a number of criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of beneficence such as the lost names essay, one proposed by Singer. Essay About. Critics continue today to papers argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and plans in order to benefit the dissertation consultants, poor and underprivileged exceeds the limits of ordinary moral obligations and have no plausible grounding in moral theory. They argue that the line between the obligatory and the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an lost names papers, aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of real moral obligation.
Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. Social Projects For Students. He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for names papers poverty relief as a failure to draw the correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces. Later in essay his series of publications on the subject Singer attempted to take account of lost names essay papers, objections that his principle sets an unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. People. He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of lost names essay papers, a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to short essay my sister more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the minimum that we ought to lost do to conform to obligations of beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to analyze and evaluate the commitments of essay on a christmas carol, a principle of beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on agents' life plans and make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to names papers a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and practical limits of donation and essay, sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence.
It only follows that establishing the names, moral limits of the demands of beneficence is social projects for students profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the limits of individual beneficence to meet global problems of need by using a cooperative principle of names essay, fairness in which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome. An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to give their fair share. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Writing Good. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by lost names, others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is intuitively attractive, but it may not have the dissertation consultants, necessary moral punch to names papers address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to essay about people suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on lost names, individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and levels.
If, as is to be expected in statistical virtually all situations of lost essay, global poverty, others fail to comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by the original calculation of a single fair share. This is research not to say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the less likely are people to comply with its demands. Also, at names, an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of short essay about my sister, beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of emphasis emerged in essay his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Carol. Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision.
Singer responds to critics such as Murphy by conceding that perhaps the limit of lost names essay papers, what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is no more than a person's fair share of about my sister, what is lost names needed to relieve poverty and the like. About. Unless we draw the line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. A fair share is a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic. Lost Papers. The emphasis on motivation is presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and limits of beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on essay questions christmas carol, our obligations than exists in ordinary morality. Essay Papers. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the writing conclusions, limits of beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to names essay papers establish precise conditions and limits of projects, obligations of lost, beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about essay about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of justifiable social control over the individual. He argues that the measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the essay papers, measure of the person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior.
Various principles commonly assumed to be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of dissertation consultants, individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the view that only lost papers, one principle validly limits liberty. Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by that person. Mill and Feinberg agreed that the principle of paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to benefit another person when the other does not prefer to writing good receive the lost papers, benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of for students, paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the lost essay, father acts beneficently (that is, in accordance with the interests of social projects, his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to lost essay make those decisions. On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the intentional overriding of short essay my sister, one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the person who overrides justifies the action by the goal of names papers, substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of beneficence.
Philosophers divide sharply over whether some restricted form of paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of statistical consultants, paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and lost essay papers, the benefits for that person decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and abbreviation, that person's interests in autonomy decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible. Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over the justification of paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at risk of a significant and preventable harm or loss of lost names essay, a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of preventing the harm or obtaining the benefit. The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the essay on a, benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts. Often health policies have the goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted.
Some percentage of the names papers, population will not support the policy, for example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is intended to benefit all members of a population without consulting the preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the imposed control that the policy exerts over research and essays their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for names papers government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in scientific research fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control. In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in light of other standards the person is regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and competent person chooses to papers do is generally the best evidence we have of his or her values. For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the dissertation, religion, his departures from dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of essay papers, his true values on scientific research and essays abbreviation, the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is papers misguided in any given case. 6. Beneficence in Biomedical Ethics.
Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of goods over inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in for students a central conceptual issue about the nature and lost names, goals of medicine as a social practice. If the end of medicine is healing, a goal of good conclusions, beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking. If so, beneficence grounds and determines the professional obligations and virtues of the lost names, physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to the end of healing and about, not to any other form of essay, benefit. The category of medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and maintenance of health and about my sister, bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.
This thesis is controversial. Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. If beneficence is a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of benefit, there is lost names essay no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in statistical consultants their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and names, could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in dying by hastening death, and the like. Carol. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in some split decisions of the U. Essay. S. Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine. The court notes that there is reasonable disagreement in the community of physicians regarding the appropriate process for determining the boundaries of social for students, medical practice and that there is disagreement about the extent to which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree.
This court opinion allows that, depending on lost essay, state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to help bring about the death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from that of the patient, but the health professional's understandings of benefits also often depend on the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and when each view is reasonable it is morally unacceptable to maintain that the notions of medical benefit and harm are objectively independent of the descriptive essay about people, patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by lost names, request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of this problem. Questions. Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of names papers, dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide.
These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is dissertation now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. This consensus began to be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to the formation of this consensus. A clear part of the consensus is that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is hastened in this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent. However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the purported distinction between killing and letting die, the issue presses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and lost papers, when a harm? Is the answer to this question determined by the method used to bring about scientific research abbreviation death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and Public Policy.
A number of controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of social beneficence were given more strength in policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an instructive example. Established legal and essay, policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the good conclusions, disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the lost names essay, shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and tissues and the inefficiency of the good, system have prompted a spate of proposals for reform of the current system of lost, procurement, with the goal of creating more space for social beneficence.
One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the routine retrieval of organs and tissues. In this system of procurement, a community is scientific research and essays permitted to, and encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the state. The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the deceased is unjustified on traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. However, advocates of the names papers, policy of routine retrieval argue that members of a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to themselves is required. That is, the short about, justification is in essay papers beneficence, not respect for autonomy.
The debate will continue for many years about whether beneficence or respect for autonomy should prevail in short essay public policy governing organ retrieval. Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of consent should retain dominance. Advocates of routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured. Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in need of papers, some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice.
Some of the most important issues in the ethics of projects for students, health and health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. However, at the hands of many writers, social justice is notably similar to lost social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is how to structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of writing, equitable levels of health and access to health care. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in names papers nature and that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in discussions of these problems in biomedical ethics. Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is on a a communal effort to advance the names essay, good of all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of writing, making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal. Lost Names Papers. His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and descriptive about people, that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on lost names essay papers, moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and writing good conclusions, Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. Essay Papers. One of Daniels' main questions is “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of on a carol, this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of “reasonable limits to resources” is closely tied to the problems of the limits of beneficence mentioned previously.
Daniels argues that because health is essay papers affected by many social factors, theories of justice should not center entirely on access to health care, but also on the need to reduce health inequalities by dissertation, improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the well-being of the essay, worst-off members of essay questions on a christmas carol, global society as the lost names, proper starting point for a practical theory of justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an argument from social beneficence. Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of global poverty and its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to the theories of Singer and Powers and abbreviation, Faden. The consequences of extreme poverty for lost essay papers health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and justice. Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the theory. They demand that persons have access to essay questions on a christmas carol basic goods of lost essay papers, housing, food, and health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice and beneficence. This type of theory focuses on scientific research and essays, distributions intended to enable persons to essay reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by social institutions, The idea is to start with an understanding of health and my sister, individual well-being and names papers, then to connect that account to basic capabilities for achieving levels of functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.
Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to scientific research and essays global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination. Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. While this list of six dimensions is in lost names essay papers some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and christmas carol, Faden reject the language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the names, target of writing conclusions, a theory of names, justice. Theirs is dissertation a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and being respected are desirable states of being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to be well-nourished, but to lost names essay be well-nourished. Justice is concerned with the achievement of christmas carol, well-being, not merely achieving the capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the lost papers, justice of societies and projects for students, of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in names essay papers their political structures and social practices.
The job of scientific, justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to alleviate the social structures that cause the corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in moral theory and social policy could also be expressed in terms of the names, role of social beneficence. Business ethics is a second area of applied ethics in which questions about beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in about people sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in business ethics. Smith argued that the wealth of essay papers, nations and the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon christmas social cooperationfundamentally, political and economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on the benevolence of moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to essay expect benevolence in descriptive about market societies.
In commercial transactions the only successful strategy in motivating persons is to names appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from my sister, a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only a regard to their own interest. Lost Names Essay. Market societies operate not by concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the role of the corporation in society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is conclusions not disputed that the purpose of lost names papers, a for-profit corporation is to make a profit for stockholders, but there is an good, intense debate about names essay whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of corporationsas Milton Friedman and dissertation, others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is lost names essay justifiable.
This question is normative, but there is also the question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An example is found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. Good. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. Names. They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to remedy the root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress.
The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and scientific research, the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to papers deal with customers and their problems. These programs, by design, make life better for various members of the research, community who have suffered misfortune. They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Essay Papers. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of statistical, benefits. It has been questioned, however, whether programs of even this description are instances of lost, pure benevolence. In the precedent U. S. case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by the A. P. Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers.
However, the judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an act taken in the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by corporations are nothing more than clever ways to maximize profits, then these actions seem to satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in the affirmative. In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to research and essays abbreviation benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders. Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and other stockholders.
Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to contribute to social awareness and names essay, public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and questions on a christmas, Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and Johnson is responsible to the communities in which it thrives, and indeed to the world community. Lost Names Essay. The company asserts an obligation to be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of civic progress, the bettering of public health, and the improvement of education. Johnson and essay questions on a carol, Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to these ends, but to essay papers many writers in business ethics this claim of obligations is either misguided or overstated. They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is often found in the practices of business and in government regulation of business. For example, many businesses require employees to deduct money from their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pay for a life insurance policy.
If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to be an appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. If an scientific and essays, employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for lost papers paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in video stores. Customers may wish to purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of on a christmas, paternalism in business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is a general principle governing sales: A buyer is papers responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and writing conclusions, is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the lost names essay papers, purchase or not make it.
Paternalistic restrictions on christmas carol, purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive. Names Papers. For example, the control and inspection of pharmaceutical products and controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by questions on a christmas carol, appeal to paternalism. Many believe that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is essay papers fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to know their products and to tell the truth about them. An enduring question in business ethics is whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to water his grove of evergreens. He loves the sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and social projects for students, cypress. Should a salesperson insist on selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice?
Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of essay, Beneficence?” in The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scientific And Essays Abbreviation. Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Lost Essay Papers. Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. R. Questions On A Christmas. McMillan (eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. Names. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628.
Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of Management Review , 20: 6591. Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Writing. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Freeman, R. Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. M. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for lost names Research with Human Subjects , pp. 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of conclusions, Social Philosophy , 35: 304317.
Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to lost names essay Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and short, On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969. Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and names papers, Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Essay About My Sister. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and David Thomasma, 1988, For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in lost names papers Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed. London: John Wiley Sons.
Pogge, Thomas W. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to research and essays the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. Lost Essay. , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and essay people, Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Lost Papers. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and essay, Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 12447.
Smith, Adam, 1776, An Inquiry into lost names papers the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Sunstein, 2003, “Libertarian Paternalism,” American Economics Review , 93: 17579 U. S. Supreme Court, 2006, Gonzales v. Oregon , 546 U.S. 243. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:
The Stanford Encyclopedia of projects, Philosophy is copyright 2016 by lost names papers, The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and social, Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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11 raisons de la transpiration excessive des pieds. Names Essay! Vous sentez que vos pieds transpirent trop ? Nous avons tou-te-s deja ressenti ce probleme et nous savons qu’il peut etre tres genant. Descriptive People! Heureusement, dans la plupart des cas, il s’agit d’un episode isole provenant d’une longue marche ou a cause du climat tres chaud. Names Essay Papers! Si ce probleme intervient de maniere recurrente, cependant, sachez que les raisons sont diverses mais que c’est generalement du a une condition naturelle. Short Essay About My Sister! Dans une minorite des cas, cela peut etre du a des facteurs medicaux et a une mauvaise hygiene. Lost Names Essay Papers! Ici, nous allons vous donner les raisons pour lesquelles vos pieds transpirent trop. Social Projects For Students! Pretez-y attention et identifiez celle qui vous concerne. Lost Essay! Si vous ne pouvez pas controler la transpiration de vos pieds, consultez un-e podologue qui vous aidera a trouver une solution. 1. Essay On A Christmas Carol! Vos pieds transpirent trop car vous portez de mauvaises chaussures. Names Essay Papers! C’est l’une des principales raisons de la transpiration excessive des pieds, mais aussi l’une des plus faciles a resoudre. Scientific Research! Les chaussures sont des objets tres importants mais nous leur accordons pas toute l’attention qu’elles demandent.
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Vous etes peut-etre une personne tres occupee et vos pieds passent la journee enfermes dans vos chaussures. Dissertation Statistical! Si vous ne prenez pas le temps d’utiliser des sandales ou des chaussures plus confortables, vous pourriez souffrir de transpiration excessive des pieds. Essay Papers! Essayez d’enlever vos chaussures quelques heures pendant l’apres-midi et le soir. Scientific Research And Essays Abbreviation! Pour eviter les lesions, il est important d’avoir de bonnes claquettes de bain. Essay Papers! De plus, plusieurs fois par semaine, portez des chaussures ouvertes et confortables. Scientific Research And Essays Abbreviation! Peut-etre que vous ne le saviez pas ou que vous n’y croyez pas, mais il y a des aliments qui augmentent la transpiration des pieds.
C’est le cas des produits piquants, des sodas et de la cafeine. Si vous souffrez d’exces de transpiration au niveau des pieds, evitez-les pendant quelques jours ou semaines. Lost Essay Papers! Si vous voyez que la situation s’ameliore, limitez au maximum ces produits. For Students! Voici d’autres raisons pour lesquelles vos pieds transpirent trop : Le diabete Les maladies qui alterent le systeme nerveux Les problemes de foie La constipation. Papers! Si vos chaussures et chaussettes sont de bonne qualite et que votre alimentation ne contient pas les produits mentionnes mais que le probleme persiste, faites un check-up medical pour ecarter ces maladies. On A! L’hyperhidrose est une condition qui doit etre diagnostiquee par un medecin.
Il s’agit d’un defaut des glandes sudoripares dans certaines zones du corps, qui fabriquent trop de transpiration sans raison apparente. Lost Names! Dans les cas severes d’hyperhidrose, on scientific and essays, peut suivre un traitement pour controler le probleme. Dans les cas les plus extremes, on lost, peut recourir a un traitement chirurgical simple. Scientific Research! C’est une raison evidente de transpiration excessive. Essay Papers! Si vous n’avez une bonne hygiene des pieds, il est normal qu’ils transpirent trop. Social! A travers la transpiration, le corps libere des toxines.
Si elles se sentent enfermees dans vos pieds, elles cherchent une maniere de se liberer via la transpiration excessive. Lost! Il est donc important de : Bien se laver les pieds Bien les secher Changer de chaussettes chaque jour D’utiliser du talc. Abbreviation! L’une des raisons pour lesquelles vos pieds transpirent trop peut etre votre moral. Dans les situations ou vous vous sentez tres nerveux-se, enerve-e, effraye-e, stresse-e ou excite-e, vos pieds peuvent se mettre a transpirer. Lost Names! Si vous traversez un moment ou vous ne parvenez pas a controler vos emotions, essayez de vous calmer pour eviter la transpiration excessive. Dissertation Statistical! Parfois, la transpiration excessive vient de la genetique. Names Essay Papers! Avez-vous remarque que les membres de votre famille transpirent a l’exces ? Si c’est le cas, vous n’aurez pas d’autres choix que de vous procurer des produits cosmetiques et d’hygiene qui controlent ce probleme. On A Christmas Carol! Les infections trouvent dans les pieds l’endroit parfait pour se developper, s’ils ne sont pas bien entretenus. Lost Names Essay! La proliferation des champignons est le resultat d’une maceration de bacteries et affecte aussi bien les ongles que le reste du pied. Dissertation! Si vous souffrez de cette condition, vous pouvez appliquer des cremes contre les infections. Ces cremes se trouvent dans les supermarches et sont bon marche.
Vous avez une paire de chaussures que vous ne lachez plus car vous les adorez ? Vous utilisez les memes chaussures plus de deux jours d’affilee ? Si ces chaussures vous plaisent particulierement, achetez-en deux paires. Names Essay Papers! Ainsi, vous pouvez en profiter tous les jours et en avoir plusieurs couleurs pour aller avec tous vos looks ! 8 usages meconnus du miel. Essay! 7 exercices faciles pour prendre soin de vos yeux et eviter le mal de tete.
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Copying Machines Used to Make One or a Few Copies of New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. Tilden's Message to lost papers, the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875.
James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of US manufacturers, including E.W. Frost, New York, NY, and John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Prices at that time were $6.50 for 9x12 to $105 for 10.5x16.
Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Short. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the most common machines found in photographs of late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Yates (Ch. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to make copies of outgoing letters in press books at least from the late 1850s to 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in 1901 (p. 226), that the Scoville Manufacturing Co. was still using copy presses and press books for lost names essay papers, outgoing letters in 1913 (p. 181), and that the Hagley Museum and questions carol Library has press books that were used in the 1930s (p. 283). The last U.S. President whose official correspondence was copied on a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug.
2004, p. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in lost essay papers, 1950, and Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in the late 1950s. (W. Conclusions. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. 32) Because of the size and weight of letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for pressing loose copies and copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an office was selecting a press like those in Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the handle was heavily weighted at the ends to insure proper spinning. “This is essential to lost names papers, a screw copy press; for unless one pull will serve to raise or to depress the plate, much time is lost.” In addition to the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to a thousand pages of tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the new press, the office had to scientific, decide how to organize its letters. Production of copies was easiest if the user copied its letters into a single letter book in chronological order. In that case, the user needed to make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved. Alternatively, the lost essay papers, office could organize its correspondence by client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day.
Although copies could be made up to dissertation statistical, twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the names essay, number of letters to be written during the next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the clerk wanted to copy 20 one-page letters. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into the copying book in front of the first tissue on which he wanted to make a copy of questions carol, a letter. He would then turn 20 sheets of names essay, tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. Essay. The paper should be saturated and damp, not wet.” To dampen the tissue paper, the clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. The damper had a reservoir for lost names, water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the cloth over the tissues on which copies were to be made. (See Plate 5A ) As an alternative method of dampening the christmas, tissue paper, in 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the essay, claim that it does away with the use of the brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the paper sufficiently by a single roll of the research abbreviation, machine. Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. Lost. The copying clerk arranged the portion of the letter book to be used in the following sequence starting from the front: a sheet of oiled paper, then a sheet of letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against statistical the back of the tissue on which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in all cases placed next the damp paper, to prevent the ink forcing beyond the paper intended to receive it.”
Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the copy will be properly taken, and may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the fire.” Based on experience, the names, clerk could adjust the press time. If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only scientific research a second or two was needed to make a good impression. When the letter book was pressed, some of the ink transferred from the letters to essay, the moist tissues in scientific abbreviation, the book. Lost Names Essay. Because the ink penetrated the tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the writing conclusions, tissues. Prior to lost names essay papers, the introduction of inks made with aniline dyes, the quality of copies made on letter copying presses was limited by the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in conclusions, 1856, and numerous aniline dyes were invented in names essay, the following two decades. Bedini (p. 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in Germany, which coincided with the earliest importation in 1868 of thin papers manufactured in Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.
On the Racine press, the screw wheel was used only to descriptive, adjust for the thickness of the book. Pressure was applied with the lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Copying Press. Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851.
Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851. Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Lost Essay Papers. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of Ohio, c. Good. 1900. By the late 1870s, an improved method for moistening pages in copying books had been invented, and by lost papers, the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Scientific Research And Essays Abbreviation. Rather than using a brush or damper to lost papers, wet the tissues, the people, clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and the following tissue.
A supply of lost names, moist pads was prepared in advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to scientific abbreviation, remove excess water from copying pads. The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by lost essay papers, Globe-Wernicke Co. in the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. To prepare a supply of conclusions, moist pads using the lost essay papers, Ideal bath, the clerk removed the writing, tray from the bath, poured water into the pan, and replaced the tray. Also, the clerk sprinkled a set of pads, let them stand overnight, and lost names then placed them in research abbreviation, the tray. Names Essay Papers. “The evaporation from the water underneath will generally be sufficient to social projects, keep pads damp enough for lost names, ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in front of Letter Copying Press. Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads.
Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. Patent No. 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and writing good conclusions Instructions, Samuel C. Tatum Co., patented and advertised in lost essay, 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of good, Business History and Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad. Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co.,
Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology.
Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press, John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. 1889 ad.
Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in 1902. Names Essay Papers. This machine was similar to roller copiers but copied onto loose-leaf paper . Essay About. The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the Cylinder Letter Press and the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in 1903 and names 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press, Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters.
Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the 1870s. Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in court. Carbon paper became more important after the research, late 1870s because of the lost essay, introduction of the essay questions, typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Unlike the earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side. Typewriters were able to produce up to ten carbon copies along with an original.
Carbon paper for use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. Essay. among others, was advertised in 1886 (A.C. Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. Social Projects For Students. 1886. Hagley Museum and Library). Yates reports that in 1912 a government report stated that by the almost universal practice of business concerns, the names, carbon copy has supplanted the press copy as a record of good, outgoing correspondence. According to Yates (p. 48), This statement was based primarily on large businesses: many smaller companies continued to use the rolling copier and even press books for lost names essay, some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to statistical, Make Many Duplicates.
Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Lost Essay. Until the descriptive essay about, mid-1870s, offices had two options for making many copies. They could go to lost names papers, a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the writing good conclusions, 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and circulars. (Harold E. Sterne, Catalogue of Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. 217) Yates (Ch. Lost Names. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of items such as circulars, and that it continued to use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to consultants, be distributed to the public rather than for internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in the US as early as the lost papers, 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and consultants business stationery. Sterne (p.
203) reports that The fine detail and unusual calligraphy needed in this work was beautifully reproduced through the lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on or transferred to a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is names essay created on a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and then transferred to the stone. Next, printers ink is essay about people applied to the stone. This ink adheres only to the crayon or lithographic ink. The stone is then covered with a sheet of lost papers, paper, and statistical the stone and paper are run through a press to lost names papers, make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Dissertation Statistical. Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to lost names essay papers, transfer a document image to writing conclusions, a smooth limestone block. A second example that was exhibited in lost names essay papers, 1855 and described as suitable for short essay my sister, the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by Waterlow and Son of London in 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of these Presses have now been sold, and are being successfully used in all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and lost Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in the United Kingdom. Writing Good. The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at all, in offices in the US.
William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in Boston, MA, by 1857. A lever press is a table-top hand-operated version of the larger foot-operated platen press used by commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in essay papers, 1870 and exhibited them at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. Essay. A. Kelsey Co. began to market small lever presses in 1872 and continued to sell them for over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4). Lost. To the left is an illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in a wide range of sizes by numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co.
Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No. 2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines.
Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by the Edison Electric Pen and writing good Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. Lost. It was exhibited at the 1876 International Exhibition in on a, Philadelphia.
In 1876, the Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. 10, 1876, p. Lost Names Essay. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold. Scientific Research And Essays Abbreviation. However, sales were constrained by the fact that many office clerks did not have the skill or motivation to maintain the complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the 1880s. Late in 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for names, several years. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the development of questions on a, competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and Hektograph.
There were, however, some people who preferred the Edison system. According to an 1885 testimonial, It may be of lost names papers, interest for one who has used the papyrograph and the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to Edison's electric pen as the neatest, readiest, and in on a christmas carol, every way the most satisfactory copying system. An experience of eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of names papers, other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by foot-powered bellows. Essay Christmas Carol. According to lost essay, one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the Edison electric pen.
It is descriptive people certainly lighter to write with, and lost requires no battery, with its acids, to spoil clothing. This is on show by Ward Drummond. ( Christian Union , Oct. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the exception that the motive power is supplied by clockwork, have made their appearance in England. while a far more expensive and complicated method consisted of an induction coil which can produce a spark of sufficient power to perforate paper, which is short essay about my sister made to pass continually between a pen of metal partially insulated and a metallic plate upon which is laid the perforated paper. ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888.
Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884. Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for writing by hand on duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of lost names essay papers, Mimeograph stencil paper is placed over the finely grooved steel plate and written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in the line of the writing so made, the stencil paper will be perforated from the under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to writing good, each other that the names papers, dividing fibers of paper are scarcely perceptible. After the operator has written a few lines, the operator moves the stencil upward over the writing plate so that a new portion of the stencil is on top of the descriptive about, writing plate. After the stencil is completed it is placed in papers, the printing frame, by which the stencil is firmly held taut and in essay on a, a position for rapid printing. After inking the roller on the slate furnished for lost papers, that purpose, pass it over the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over short essay, 1,500 copies from lost names essay papers, a stencil.
A. B. Dick claimed to social, have sold over 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on size and whether they included the items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of stencils. Essay. Edison Mimeographs continued to be sold in the early decades of the 20th century. The model numbers denote different sizes and features. In 1889, the models used for handwritten stencils were identified as No. Social. 0 to names essay papers, No. 5; the model for typewritten stencils only was No. 12; the models for both types of stencils were No.
20 to No. 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad. Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to social projects for students, an 1887 product review, the names essay, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to 200 copies from a set of essay christmas, two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.
The Rapid Duplicator is essay papers illustrated in the top image to essay questions carol, the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of very thin paper resting on top of each other. Behind each of these sheets he then put a sheet of carbon paper with the carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on its back. Next, he fastened one of the stencils on the large roller on the machine, with the carbon paper ink facing the outside. He inserted at the left end of the machine blank sheets of paper that were to be printed. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the right. Lost Names Papers. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the dampened sheets.
The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by being pressed against the stencil. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the machine. My Sister. If three stencils were made, the names papers, first was able to print around 75 sheets, the second between 50 and 75 sheets, and the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad.
Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904. Plate 30A . Edison Mimeograph No. Social Projects. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad.
Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. Courtesy of Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. Names. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30. Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of purple inked paper, and that thick cover.
The tray was only 1/4 deep). I bought one from McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to run a classroom newspaper. It was a whopping one column, one page. Descriptive Essay. I ran it weekly for three months, until I ran out of gelatin and couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in essay, the U.S. Social. (W. H. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in Germany in 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of paper coated with gelatin, glue, and glycerin.
This paper was feed from one roller over a flat surface to names, another roller ( Plate 34 ). The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the same roll as the gelatin pad in dissertation consultants, the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. Lost Names Essay Papers. The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by Duplicator Mfg. Co. Research Abbreviation. during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to names, have used a similar technology to produce up to 100 copies of a document from the original itself written in duplicator ink. For Students. ( System , Sept. 1913, front advertising section) Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the papers, Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to the right. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine.
When preparing the original, hard bond paper and essay about people a special kind of ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. The original is lost placed face down on the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the research and essays abbreviation, hand or a roller. It is then lifted off, having left its impression on the gelatin. The blank sheets are placed one at a time on the gelatin surface and allowed to papers, remain a few seconds until the imprint is made. The Ditto machine in Plate 34A was $200. In 1925, other models were $117 to short about, $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in 1923 and which was marketed for several decades, evolved from the hektograph and Ditto machines described above. Lost. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc. The Ditto process involved the creation of masters and the transfer of ink from masters to copies.
A Ditto carbon consisted of short about my sister, a sheet of slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of a second sheet that had on lost names essay papers its face a coating of paste-like ink. When one typed or drew on essay the front of the master, a reverse image in heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the master. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to the drum of a rotary press with the names papers, inked surface outward. When the statistical consultants, drum was rotated, the inked surface of the master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to essay papers, wet the ink, and until the statistical, ink was exhausted impressions were made on essay papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. R. Essay On A Christmas Carol. Holcomb Co. Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad. The illustration shows three gelatin trays.
Plates 33C-D , Bottle for Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. Photo below shows instructions on back of bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of Bell Howell, c. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and 12 in names essay, circumference, containing a composition to descriptive essay, receive a negative of lost essay, pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Social Projects For Students. Duplicate copies were mae by running the roller over lost essay, blank papers. The maker claimed that the device would make 50 to 75 copies of letters written with a typewriter and 100 to social, 125 copies of letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator,
In the 1880s, a number of office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by lost essay, a zinc plate or even parchment. According to an 1880 description, the process of using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on ordinary writing paper, and when dry this original is dissertation statistical consultants placed ink-side downward upon [a sensitive plate], and left for two or three minutes. It is then removed and a negative impression, in lost, perfect and beautiful relief, will be found on the plate. Questions Christmas. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is names now passed over the negative, and it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. A sheet of paper being laid upon this impression is smoothed over with the conclusions, hand, and on removing it a perfect copy in permanent jet black will be obtained.
This may be repeated for essay papers, a number of copies, and when they become faint the impression may be re-inked with the roller and the copies will be as at first. When the requisite number of copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. 7, 1880, p. 2) Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by 1887, used parchment secured in questions carol, a printing frame. To use the Autocopyist, one wrote on a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to lost names essay papers, the back of the paper, causing the lithographic ink to transfer to essay christmas carol, the parchment. Lost Names Essay. Printing ink was then rolled onto the parchment, where it adhered only to the lithographic ink. Next, a sheet of good conclusions, paper was pressed onto the parchment to make a lithographic copy. Ca.
1887, Autocopyists were $11 to $37, depending on size, and an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only of handwritten documents and drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Nevertheless, the market for these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the lost names essay, exception being in reproduction of drawings. An 1887 review of the Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the variety of essay people, duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the writing can be transferred to a lithograph-stone, from which any quantity of copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to a gelatine pad. ( The Office , July 1887, p. 130)
In 1932, the Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of lithography which brings, to large and small users alike, the names papers, advantages of office lithographic reproduction. The sale of descriptive about people, Multilith machines began in 1933. (1933 Annual Report) Early in 1939, the company reported that its Multilith line had developed into a large and important part of the company's business. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators.
Form letters were more likely to be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. The first commercially successful machine to produce form letters that appeared to be typewritten was the names, Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by American Multigraph Co. in 1902. The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is discussed in research and essays abbreviation, this Museum's exhibit on papers Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. Dissertation. A third technology that was used to names, produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to writing good conclusions, 6,000 letters per hour, depending on the skill of the operator.
A Multigraph used by students is pictured in the 1911 catalog of Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH. Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. Names Essay Papers. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. Dissertation Statistical Consultants. 1915 Price for these two machines was $200. ( System , Jan. Names. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. 1930s. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad.
Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by manually arranging type in a holder. In 1924, the American Manicopy Typewriter Co. attempted to raise capital to writing conclusions, produce the lost, Manicopy Machine. People. The machine was based on US patents No. 1,301,146 and No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Macomic, and was also called the lost names papers, Macomic Typesetting and Type Distributing Machine. A photograph of essay, one of these machines is immediately to essay papers, the left. Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on the Manicopy Machine. She places a piece of statistical consultants, paper in lost names essay, the typewriter and starts to write.
Plungers underneath the essay my sister, typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is lost names essay papers struck, thus setting the type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on the line bars are conveyed automatically to the printing surface where the desired number of copies is printed automatically. After the job is completed, these line bars are returned to their original positions automatically by turning a lever, and by essay on a christmas carol, turning another lever the type is lost essay papers instantly and good conclusions automatically returned to lost names essay, its proper position without the questions on a christmas carol, type being touched by hand. The company planned to lost essay, produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to questions christmas, sell them for names papers, $1,250 each.. We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the on a christmas, operator to set Multigraph type by working at a typewriter-style keyboard. The Compotype composed the body of the form letter by stamping characters on lost papers strip aluminum and automatically assembling the strips of type--a line at a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on research the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates.
In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in the address and typewrites the lost names essay, envelope, all at a single revolution of the short essay about my sister, drum. The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the Keyboard Compotype. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to users. In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of lost names essay, large quantities of blank business forms and writing good promotional materials. (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in Washington, DC, stated: Before the names essay papers, Xerox era [which began in projects, 1960], every government agency had one central filing system. When anybody needed information he went to lost names papers, that central file.
But today, with the writing good conclusions, copying of lost names essay, documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to maintain files in his own office. (John H. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in projects for students, contact with the document that was being copied. A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and ferric citrate) to prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to names papers, draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto tracing paper with black India ink. The clerk then put a sheet of photosensitive paper in the tray of a blue printing frame, covered this with the translucent original or India ink tracing, and covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the papers together.
The blue printing frame was installed so that the prepared tray could be pushed out a window into the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). Research And Essays. The clerk exposed the tray for anywhere from several minutes to an hour, depending on lost names essay the brightness of the day, and used chemicals to fix the short essay about, print. Names Essay. The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the photosensitive paper had been exposed to light and white lines where the paper had not been exposed. The blue process was time consuming and writing conclusions impractical for names essay, duplication of typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for use in the blue process was available. Frames for use in social, exposing blue prints to the sun were still advertised in 1913. However, after the development of electric illumination and installation of electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. Lost Names Papers. On these machines, the frames that held the photosensitive paper and the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. For an early photograph of and essays, one of these machines, click on the link to B. L. Essay. Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and short then click on lost essay the link to first blueprinting machines in New England . See also Plate 39A to the right.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a number of contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. Short Essay About. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in lost names papers, 1906 or 1907, and the Photostat Corp. Essay About My Sister. (an affiliate of Eastman Kodak) did so at some point during 1907-11. Rectigraph and lost papers Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and short my sister a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in 350-foot rolls. The prints are made direct on lost papers sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening.
The usual exposure is ten seconds. After the exposure has been made the paper is cut off and carried underneath the exposure chamber to the developing bath, where it remains for research and essays abbreviation, 35 seconds, and is then drawn into a fixing bath. While one print is being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the names papers, copies are removed from the fixing bath, they are allowed to projects for students, dry by lost papers, exposure to the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the original is a 'black' print; the whites in the original are black and the blacks, white. ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the good, original is names essay made by rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by essay on a, continuing to lost essay papers, photograph the black print. ( The American Digest of Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. People. files include black prints of graphs dating from 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in 1912. (Yates, p. 248, n. Names Essay Papers. 81) A System , Sept. 1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government.
In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. (Yates, p. Essay About. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to $1,050, depending on maximum print size and attachments. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c.
1890-1971) Repro. No: LC-H814-T-1578-067. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY.
Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of names, Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and 1930s. Scientific Research Abbreviation. Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. In reflex copying, a sheet of photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and names essay papers the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to light. Light reflected from the original exposed the emulsion on the front of the photosensitive paper.
In the dissertation statistical, 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and lost Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Dissertation Statistical. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. This is the sheet on which the copy would appear. Infrared light went through the translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the original, and was absorbed by the black portions of the original. Names Papers. The light that was absorbed by descriptive essay, the black portions heated relevant portions of the heat-sensitive coating on the copying paper, and this created the lost names papers, copy. This technology had numerous problems, according to Owen. It required expensive chemically treated papers, and descriptive essay about copies smelled bad, were hard to read, were not durable, and tended to curl up into tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, pp. Lost. 91-97.)
For a history of Apeco and the photocopying industry of which it was a part, see the social, Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa. Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by Chester F. Carlson in lost, 1938. Carlson patented the xerography process, which was further developed by questions on a christmas, the Battelle Memorial Institute and the Haloid Co. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in lost names papers, 1950 (Dessauer). Writing. The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. It was widely used to make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. The Haloid Co. was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in 1958.
The first plain paper office copying machine, the Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. Names Essay Papers. After 1960, sales of the for students, 914 increased rapidly and Xerox copying machines quickly became important in offices. In 1963, the company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the lost essay, Xerox 813 . In 1965, the company introduced the Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. Social For Students. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and lost names essay Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier. First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make.
copies on dissertation statistical consultants plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of essay, Practical Banking , Groombridge and Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits. (2) The Edison electric pen in Plate 15 is on display in the Information Age exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, also has an electric pen.
The Science Museum in London has a number of early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and a Cyclostyle. (3) W. B. Essay. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and B. Rhodes W. W. Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and History of essay, Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of writing good conclusions, early copying technologies. J. S. Papers. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. A. Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. Conclusions. 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and lost names essay photographs of a Watt portable copying machine and other early duplicating machines.
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essay background Points Length: 200 points; 4-5 pages (1200-1500 words) Format: Double space; include heading on the first page (top left); place shortened title and page number in the header of every page (top right); see Format Instructions. Title: Include an lost names papers, informative, interesting, provocative and/or creative title that reflects your narrowed topic (see CR , p. 247) Drafts: First draft to be copied and pasted into a forum window; final draft to questions christmas carol be submitted as an uploaded file on Canvas. The purpose of papers this essay is to inform yourself and to identify what aspects of your topic you will research for the two subsequent essays. In this exploratory essay you will present background information relating to your proposed (narrowed) topic, including relevant history, laws and policies, statistics, past and current problems, stakeholders, organizations, programs, debates, and other related contexts, etc. Remember that all three of the major essays for this course should be on dissertation statistical consultants, the same topic, though the way that you narrow it and your research question will continue to evolve throughout the quarter (contact me if you want to change your topic altogether after submitting the Background Essay). Review the Assignments page to papers get a sense of how the Background Essay fits in with the Literature Review and good the Final Research Article; a revised version of the Background Essay will become the lost essay, background section of your Final Research Article.
Introduction: The first paragraph of your essay should present some context for conclusions, your narrowed topic and introduce the lost names papers, kinds of information and issues that your paper will present. Christmas! Close your introduction with a single sentence that provides an overview of the main subpoints of information that your paper will cover. (Note that you are including an names essay, overview statement rather than a thesis statement since you are not putting forth an argument in this paper.) Body Paragraphs: You should have at least five body paragraphs, each with a clear topic sentence, that cover the following types of information. Note, however, that you are not being asked to write one paragraph per aspect. For example, you may have more than one paragraph on history, and writing your discussion of lost essay history may include statistics. historical background (including a relevant current event; may include descriptions of dissertation statistical consultants causes and effects, though keep in mind that those may be debated rather than fact); statistics; laws or policies; stakeholders (e.g., communities, organizations, groups, agencies) along with their perspectives, interests, and relative power and voice; published debates and conflicts (what stakeholders may disagree about and lost names essay why, but without taking a position in research and essays abbreviation, those debates yourself); additional information can include relevant definitions, current news stories, key figures, programs, etc.
Conclusion: The concluding paragraph should indicate any important information you were not able to essay find. Also, tell us how you intend to narrow your topic further, that is, what aspects of the topic you will continue to research. Next, propose one research question (see CR , Ch. 3) that you would like to answer about your narrowed topic. Your proposed research question should not be merely informational, opinion based, nor a good/bad, either/or, for/against, pro/con, yes/no, etc. Questions Carol! type of question; nor should it predict the future or try to solve a problem (your job will not be to papers solve a problem in the three papers but to contribute to its analysis). Explain what is significant about your research question, that is, why is it important to understand that aspect in particular?
Note that how you’re narrowing your topic and social projects your proposed research question will continue to evolve. Do not use I or other forms of first person voice in the three formal essays for this course, including here in the conclusion. Required Sources: See the Holman Library Class Guide for this course. A minimum of five substantial and diverse sources are required for this essay (at least two of which should be no more than two years old). Do not rely on any one source for the majority of your information; demonstrate that you have synthesized information from multiple sources, especially for your historical accounts. Experiment with various subject and lost essay papers keyword search terms and combinations. You should plan to sift through and evaluate numerous sources to essay on a finalize the ones that you plan to use. Essay! Your five sources must come from the three source types listed below, with at and essays least one source from each type. If you make use of lost names papers more than five sources, you may include some information from other source types, including organizational websites, documentaries, TED Talks, youtube videos, news stories, etc., but be very cautious about the credibility and authority of sources.
Online or print references : See the Find reference articles tab of our Holman Library Class Guide. CQ Researcher, Credo Reference, Encyclopedias (e.g., Britannica, etc.), social science textbooks, print materials from a library’s Reference section, etc. You may not use Wikipedia as one of your sources, though you may consult the References section of a Wikipedia article to locate other relevant sources; see the Wikipedia section of IRIS: http://www.clark.edu/Library/iris/find/wikipedia/wikipedia.shtml. Dictionary entries will not count as one of scientific research and essays your five required sources. Magazine articles : You must have at least one article that you find from the ProQuest database, which you can find from the Find magazine and newspaper articles tab of our Holman Library Class Guide. Try out a variety of search terms in ProQuest to names essay papers find relevant and substantial articles (must be longer than 1000 words); use the and essays, tabs at lost names essay papers the top of the search results (the list of article links) to sort and social view only the magazine articles.
Online magazine articles are also acceptable. Lost Names Papers! Avoid academic journal scholarly journals for this essay, which will be the main source type for your next essay (Literature Review). Longish, investigative newspaper articles may work. Books or book chapters : See the Find books and book chapters tab of descriptive about our Holman Library Class Guide. Use the online library catalog to access GRC’s holdings as well as electronic books that you can read directly from your computer. You can also look for books via WorldCat, King County Library, UW Libraries, and amazon.com. Use the lost names papers, Inter-Library Loan service to have GRC get books for good conclusions, you that Holman Library doesn’t own. Rereading America articles do not count to fulfill this required source TYPE. ***Note the difference between magazine articles (where the audience is the general public, as in Newsweek , or a particular segments of the public, as in Popular Photography ) vs. Lost Names Essay! academic journal articles (where the audience is made of scholars, such as Journal of Popular Culture or Journal of American History ). Consultants! You will focus on scholarly sources for the second major paper, the Literature Review. It can be difficult to distinguish between magazines and academic journals when you do a database search (e.g., on lost essay papers, Proquest); see Scholarly Sources to understand the difference.
Avoid scholarly journal articles for the BE; if you do use one for information (rather than a report of current research), you should also make sure you have the other three required source TYPES listed above. *** You are encouraged to good find as much relevant background information on your topic as you can, so look far and wide at many different kinds of sources, but the bulk of your information should come from the three source types above. Lost Names Essay! You may even end up finding sources for the Literature Review (scholarly journal articles) or the Final Research Article, in which case you’ll be ahead of the about, game! Ask a librarian for assistance as you hunt for relevant sources and information; click the link for the 24 hour online chat with a librarian at the top right corner of the Holman Library website. Quotations (in-text citations): You must have at least one quotation from each of your five sources. Lost Names! In addition to and essays the required five quotations, you can also cite them (paraphrase or simply refer to them).
If you have more than the lost papers, minimum required five sources, you must cite all of them in the body of your essay even if you don’t quote from them. Follow APA guidelines for descriptive about, in-text citations to setup each quotation or citation grammatically with a signal phrase or attributive tag, and include a comment or explanation for each major quoted passage. Include authors' last names only, year of lost names papers publication, and writing page or paragraph numbers for EACH in-text citation. Do NOT include authors' first name, initials, or credentials in the body of the essay. Only include article title (in quotation marks) or book title (in italics) or organization name if no author is specified. This is a research writing class, so you are expected to quote from lost, multiple sources to indicate where you are getting EACH piece of information or viewpoint. However, the essay about people, quoted passages should not be so many or so long that they dominate your own essay. The majority of the names papers, writing in the essay should still be your own, not the writing good, authors’ you quote. Lost Essay Papers! You may need to indicate what source you are using more than once in a single paragraph: the reader should always know where you are getting your information from; there should never be confusion about research and essays abbreviation, whether you are stating your own ideas and lost names papers interpretations or presenting someone else’s information or views. Topic Selection and Narrowing: Before making a final topic selection, be willing to consider and even do preliminary research on more than one topic.
Make sure you are focusing on a social science aspect of your topic rather than a scientific aspect. Questions On A Christmas! For example, do not attempt to write a paper on the effects of psychotropic drugs on brain chemistry, though you might, for example, explore the policies around mental health and medication for prisoners. Even though you must narrow your topic before getting started so that you are not biting off more than you can chew, you will likely have to provide background info that is more general than just your narrowed topic. Lost Names Essay Papers! For example, if you were writing a paper on mass transit in questions carol, Seattle, it would be relevant to look at the history of lost mass transit more broadly along with the experiences of other cities. Your job will be to balance the specific information you provide about your narrowed topic and the broader background and contexts. Information, Evaluation and Analysis: Of the three major essays, this one requires the least explicit written evaluation and analysis on your part, but it is still not a data dump, in which you just throw together all the information you can find. Although there may not be any such thing as objectivity, you should seek to remain neutral. Remember that in this paper you will not be putting forth an my sister, argument about your topic, which in fact you will not develop until the Final Research Article. Therefore, do not put forth your opinion, take sides in a controversy, or form judgments about what is right and wrong, good or bad. However, you will still need to exercise and exhibit your own critical thinking, judgment and creativity in narrowing your topic. You will also need to evaluate sources for lost papers, credibility as you select, organize and scientific research and essays abbreviation present relevant information in papers, a clear, concise and meaningful way.
Voice and about Audience: Don’t use “I,” “me,” or other forms of names essay first person in the three major essays for this course. Also don’t use “you” (second person) voice. Use third person speech, but avoid awkward and unnecessary uses of passive voice. Contact me in advance if you wish to scientific research include brief, relevant personal experience that you will discuss in the context of other non-personal published research. Never use first person to give your opinion (“I think” or “I believe”) or to narrate the trivial details of your own research experience (“Then I went to the library to find some more sources!”).
For the essay papers, Background Essay and other writing in this class, your audience is NOT the general public. On A Christmas! Instead think of lost papers your audience as fellow researchers, for short essay about, example, your fellow students in lost names papers, this class. References and APA format: Citations for your five or more sources must appear in your document on a new page entitled References and must follow APA format. Good! All of your five or more sources need to lost names essay be cited or quoted in the body of your essay (with quotations from at least five of about them). Paragraph Form: Make sure each of your body paragraphs has a topic sentence that connects with the overview statement in your introduction. Pay attention to the transitions between and within paragraphs.
Paragraphs in academic writing are (usually) between 1/3 - 3/4 of lost papers a page long. Projects! If they're shorter than that, you may not be adequately developing your ideas. Lost Names Essay! If the ideas or information don't deserve to be developed further, then you might consider combining the about, content of the short paragraph with another paragraph; in this case, you would need to lost names revise the topic sentence so that it covers the combined materials. If a paragraph is descriptive essay people, much longer than 3/4 of lost names essay papers a page, you risk losing the attention of your reader as well as losing focus in your paragraph itself. Of course, there are exceptions to dissertation statistical consultants the 1/3-3/4 page guideline. Lost Essay Papers! See the Paragraph Development page for further explanation.
Information Questions: Even before you begin or as you get started hunting for good conclusions, relevant sources and information, make a list of as many information questions you can think of essay with regard to your topic. Descriptive Essay About! What is it that YOU think you might like to know or need to know about your topic? It is helpful actually to papers write these out since it will focus your hunt. As you research, keep adding to this list. Conclusions! Which information are you not able to find out? Why might that be? Whom might you ask for help in locating the answer to a particular question that you think is important but can't seem to find? Historical Timeline: Come up with a historical timeline with the dates for at names essay papers least 3-5 major events, laws, or other developments. Briefly explain the significance of each date; perhaps write a mini-narrative. Statistics: As you go through various sources, identify at least one or two statistics that are relevant for your research topic/question.
Why are these statistics relevant? Would everyone agree on what they mean, or are they the subject of disagreement and controversy? See the Misleading Use of Statistics. Stakeholders: List as many different groups or parties that are involved or affected by your research topic/question (do not say society, which is too general a category) as you can think of. Dissertation Statistical Consultants! List at least five different types of groups/parties. Ideally, you should be able to identify their distinct interests, perspectives, and relative power and names papers voice, which may motivate you to look for even more diverse sources. For example, in social projects for students, researching the criminal justice system, how might you go about researching the experiences and points of view of prisoners themselves? Debates/Disagreements/Controversies: Describe and explain at lost least two major debates or disagreements that are relevant to social your topic.
Who disagrees with whom and why? Do they disagree because of lost names essay conflicting evidence, interests, values and/or assumptions? These disagreements might be found in the mainstream media or in essay, some other sources. Problems: While your job is not to lost essay solve a real-world problem (even in the Final Research Article), you should begin trying to understand it. Good Conclusions! Think about the following questions, though you do not have to answer them for the BE: Why and when did it become a problem? Why hasn’t it been solved? How has it evolved over time? What efforts have been to solve the names essay, problem? What has or hasn’t been effective about those proposed solutions?
Who is (most) to writing blame for the problem or should get the most credit for attempted solutions? What are the main disagreements about causes and lost essay solutions? Who has the scientific and essays, power to names essay do something about the problem? What is essay on a christmas carol, a financial analysis of the problem? Who gains something from the lost names papers, problem remaining a problem?