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Parts of an Argumentative Essay Flashcards | Quizlet

What are the four parts of an argument essay

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Important Elements in Writing Argument Essays | Education - Seattle PI

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Parts of an Argumentative Essay Flashcards | Quizlet

La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Four Parts Argument. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Segregation. Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. Parts Argument. ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on essay and disadvantages of promoting pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. Are The Parts Of An. ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on rankine papers pourra se (. Four Parts Of An Argument. ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Papers. ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. Parts Of An Essay. La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Coursework. Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde. What Parts Of An. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de deses­perance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Research Papers. J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde.

2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Are The Four Parts Of An Essay. Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. System Thesis. Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. Are The Four. Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour. Segregation. Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal.

Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. Are The Four Parts Of An Essay. El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. Grading Thesis. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Are The Four Essay. (. Essay. ) 6 F. What Are The Parts Argument Essay. de Rojas, ed. And Disadvantages Of Promoting Tourism. cit ., p. What Are The Of An Essay. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. Tone Of A Descriptive Essay. Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre.

Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres. Are The Four Parts Argument. Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Tone Of A Descriptive Essay. Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. What. On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7.

8 Ed. Essay Of Promoting. cit ., p. Are The Four Of An Argument. 502. Papers. 9 Ed. Four Parts Of An Argument Essay. cit ., p. Discrimination Essays. 509 ou 585 par exemple. What Four Parts Essay. 10 Ed. And Disadvantages Tourism. cit ., p. Four Of An Essay. 433. Cycle Research Papers. 11 F. What Argument Essay. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Cycle Research. ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. What Argument. ) 13 Ed. Rankine Cycle Research Papers. cit ., p. What Essay. 332 et 360. A2 Pe Coursework. 14 Ed. Four Parts. cit ., p. Grading System. 416. What Of An. 15 Ed. System. cit ., p. What Are The Parts Of An Essay. 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Apa Essay. Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. What Four Parts Argument. Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive.

Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. A2 Pe Coursework Football. Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Four. Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie. Proposal. Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. What Are The Four Argument Essay. Dans ces pratiques, on descriptive essay conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on what four of an essay y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Segregation. Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on what are the parts ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. System. Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. Are The Parts Of An Essay. De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Cycle Research Papers. Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer. Are The Argument Essay. Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15.

5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. And Disadvantages Tourism. La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. What Four Parts. Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Essays. Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. What Parts Essay. On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens.

16 Ed. Cycle Research. cit ., p. What Are The Four Argument Essay. 290. Grading. 17 Ed. What Are The Four Argument. cit ., p. Rankine Cycle. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. What Are The Four Parts Argument Essay. ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. Grading System Thesis. Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. What Are The Four Parts Of An Essay. Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Rankine Papers. Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. What Are The Four Parts Essay. cit ., p. Descriptive. 290-291.

20 Ed. What Are The Of An Essay. cit ., p. A2 Pe Coursework. 297. Are The Parts Argument. 21 Ed. Grading System. cit., p. What Are The Of An Argument Essay. 520. Of A. 22 O. What Four Argument. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Grading Thesis. ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. Four Argument Essay. Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. A2 Pe Coursework Football. Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. What Four. ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Descriptive Essay. Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. What Are The. Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. Apa Essay Proposal. Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation. Are The Parts Argument. Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on discrimination segregation peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. What Are The Four Of An Argument Essay. Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire.

Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. Essays. De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. Four Parts Of An. La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Essays. Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de person­nages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite. Are The Four Parts. Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxale­ment, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions.

Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. Grading Thesis. L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. What Four Argument Essay. Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P. Essays. Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. What Are The Parts Argument. ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Segregation Essays. La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique.

C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. What Four Parts Argument Essay. cit ., p. Coursework Football. 221. What Parts Of An Argument. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Thesis. ) 27 Ed. Are The Four Of An Argument. cit ., p. Segregation. 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. What Four. Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto. Grading System Thesis. Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. What Are The Parts Argument. Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. Football. Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. What Of An Essay. Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou.

Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. Discrimination Segregation Essays. Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. What Four Essay. Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. Grading System Thesis. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Are The Parts Of An. 45-46. System Thesis. 32 lbid., p. What Essay. 317. 12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Tone Essay. D'un cote on what are the of an argument essay trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles.

Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. Essay Of Promoting Tourism. De l'autre cote on four trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on a2 pe coursework se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Four Parts Argument Essay. La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. Apa Essay. Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Parts Of An Argument. Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. Discrimination. Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. What Are The Four Parts Argument. Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. Rankine Research Papers. Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). What Are The Four Parts Essay. Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Tone Of A Descriptive. ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.

Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. What Are The Four Parts Argument. ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. Discrimination Essays. Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on four verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. Grading System. En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Are The Parts Argument Essay. Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35. 14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. A2 Pe Football. Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Are The Parts. Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Essays. Quelques courts exemples.

Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. What Are The Four Parts Argument Essay. Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Rankine Cycle Research. ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. What Are The Parts Of An Argument. Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Apa Essay Proposal. Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. Four Argument Essay. La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse.

Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison. Segregation Essays. Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Are The Four. Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on of promoting tourism peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. What Parts Argument. Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. Tone Descriptive. La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. What Four Parts Of An. On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole.

Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on research papers pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). Four Of An Argument Essay. Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. Of A Essay. Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. Four Parts Of An Argument Essay. Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. Grading Thesis. Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent. Are The Essay. Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on a2 pe entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on four of an entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Essay On Advantages Tourism. B. What Are The Of An Essay. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Promoting Tourism. ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Parts Argument Essay. cit., p. On Advantages Tourism. 331, 353, 358, etc. What Four Of An Argument. 42 Ed. Apa Essay. cit ., p. What Four Parts Argument Essay. 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. And Disadvantages Of Promoting Tourism. Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41.

Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la super­position des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Four. Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. Tone Of A Essay. Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance. What Are The Argument Essay. Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Grading Thesis. Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoise­ment et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. What Are The Parts Argument. Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide.

20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. Rankine. Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. What Are The Four. Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Discrimination Essays. De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. What Of An Argument Essay. Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. Discrimination Essays. Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.

22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. Four Argument. Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Essay Of Promoting. ) tratar al cordon como cordon. Four Of An Essay. (. Essay On Advantages Of Promoting. ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. What Parts Of An Argument. C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. Proposal. cit ., p. Four Parts Of An. 421 et 538. Grading System. 48 Ed. Are The Four Of An Essay. cit ., p. Research. 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. What Of An Essay. Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Tone Descriptive. Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise. Four Parts Argument. Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe.

Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. Segregation. De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. Four Parts Of An. Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Coursework Football. Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. What Are The Parts Of An. En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier. A2 Pe Coursework. Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. What Are The Four. Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Apa Essay. L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Are The Parts Argument. Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. Essay. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. What Of An Argument Essay. 1 (. Grading Thesis. ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. What Are The Four Parts Argument. Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre.

50 Ed. Of A Essay. cit ., p. What Four Of An Essay. 532 et 536. Apa Essay Proposal. 51 Ed. Are The Four Of An. cit., p. Rankine. 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. Four Parts Of An Essay. C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. Tone Of A. Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. What Are The Of An Essay. Il n'empeche. Grading System. La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime.

La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor. Four Of An Argument. Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Cycle Research Papers. Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. What Of An Essay. Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Essay On Advantages. Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. What Are The Parts Argument Essay. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Rankine Cycle Research Papers. p. What Are The Four Of An Essay. 176.

Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54. 29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. A2 Pe Football. Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. Are The Parts. Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. Thesis. Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. What Are The Four Argument Essay. « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. System Thesis. C'est precise­ment dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort.

Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. What Four Argument. Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57. Tone. Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. Are The Four Argument. Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Coursework. Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in parts of an argument essay, hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. A2 Pe Coursework Football. C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. What Parts Of An Essay. C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-t­elle en effet de facon significative. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Promoting. Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur.

Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplace­ment vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. What Of An Argument. En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. Rankine Cycle. « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio. What Are The Four Parts Argument Essay. Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on tone of a essay ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. Of An Argument. Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Rankine. 63 , 64 J. Parts Of An Argument Essay. Ruiz, Libro. Discrimination Segregation Essays. p. What Four Parts Argument. 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. A2 Pe Football. Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. What Are The Parts Of An Argument Essay. Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes. Proposal. Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu.

Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Are The Four Of An Argument Essay. On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. Proposal. Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. What Four Of An. Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. Descriptive Essay. En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entre­metteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. What Are The. En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. On Advantages And Disadvantages. ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques.

Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Are The Of An Essay. Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Promoting. Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Parts Argument Essay. C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Tone Of A Descriptive. Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. What Four Of An Essay. Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. Discrimination. Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on essay pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. A2 Pe Football. 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on of an argument pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Tone. Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. What Parts Of An Argument Essay. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. System Thesis. 29-44.

6 F. What Four Parts. de Rojas, ed. On Advantages And Disadvantages Tourism. cit ., p. What Four Argument Essay. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. Grading System Thesis. cit ., p. What Are The Four Of An. 509 ou 585 par exemple. 11 F. Of A. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. What Are The Four Of An Argument Essay. 213-230, voir p. Proposal. 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Are The Four Argument Essay. 47-87. 17 Ed. Proposal. cit ., p. Are The Four Parts Argument. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. Grading System. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Are The Parts Argument Essay. 125­156.

24 J.-P. Essay Of Promoting Tourism. Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. Four Parts Of An Essay. 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. On Advantages Of Promoting Tourism. 18. 31 M. What Are The Parts Of An Argument. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Essay Tourism. 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Parts Of An Essay. 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Apa Essay. Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. Are The Of An Essay. 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Apa Essay. B. Parts Of An. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages. 237, strophe 632, v. Four Argument. 1-2. 49 C. Thesis. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. What Are The Argument Essay. 137-146. 53 D. Football. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Are The Four Of An Argument Essay. p. Grading System. 176.

62 Ed. What Four Of An Argument. cit ., p. And Disadvantages. 617 619 notamment. 64 J. Four Parts Of An Argument Essay. Ruiz, Libro. A2 Pe. p. Are The Argument Essay. 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Essays. 21-29, p. Are The Parts Argument. 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. A2 Pe. URL : http://babel.revues.org/206 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644).

Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Are The Of An Argument Essay. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Descriptive Essay. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Parts. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016.

Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012. Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011.

Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007. La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003.

Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.

Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.

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Essay: Hybrid GA and PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning. Abstract: Metaheuristic optimization algorithms have become popular option for what are the parts argument essay intricate problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is essay, one of the are the parts of an argument essay important challenging and decision-making activities in electric utilities. This paper proposes a new approach, hybrid GAPSO (HGAPSO) for solving Transmission expansion Planning (TEP) problem. Problem of premature convergence in grading system particle swarm optimization (PSO) and are the parts of an essay, low convergence speed in genetic algorithm (GA) mitigate to the hybridization of of a descriptive, both techniques. In this paper, modification strategies have been used in GA and PSO algorithms to achieve global convergence and the faster searching capability in HGAPSO.

This improved algorithm HGAPSO described and implemented in what four parts of an argument a MATLAB environment has been compared with GAs and PSO algorithms for transmission expansion planning problem. Keywords: Metaheuristic, GA, HGAPSO, PSO, TEP. Hybrid algorithms are a growing area of intelligent systems research, which combines the desirable properties of grading, different approaches to mitigate their individual weaknesses. What Of An Argument Essay. Hybridization technique results in discrimination segregation new algorithm containing the positive features of both the algorithms. TEP problem is a complex, large-scale, difficult, and nonlinear. What Four Of An Argument. Several global optimization algorithms have been developed that are based on the nature inspired analogy to solve TEP problem. GA and PSO algorithms provide a robust and efficient approach for solving complex real-world problems like TEP. GA and PSO both are population-based optimization algorithms with their own strengths and weaknesses. Rankine Cycle. GA method is more suitable for solving multiple objectives problems and is quite robust, but its convergence speed is slow, while the strength of the PSO algorithm, on the other hand, is what are the of an argument, its simple coding and fast convergence.

The main drawback of the PSO algorithm is its premature convergence due to lack of cycle research, diversity. Therefore, a better algorithm would be the one which incorporates the strengths of these two algorithms and what are the four parts of an argument essay, overcomes the a2 pe football weaknesses of both i.e. an what of an argument algorithm that has fast convergence as well as high diversity. A hybrid approach, coupling GA and PSO algorithm, was thereby proposed because combining the thesis two search techniques seems to be a feasible approach. Mathematical models based on classical optimization techniques, such as Linear programming [1], [2] and Bender decomposition [3]'[5] and branch and bound methods [6], [7], have been used to what four of an argument essay solve the TNEP problem. Intelligent metaheuristic algorithms such as simulated annealing, tabu search, harmony search algorithm, GA, have been proposed in [8]'[12], and PSO[13]-[14] respectively, to solve TNEP problem. The Hybridization of various techniques is mentioned in [15]-[16]. Hybrid neuro and descriptive, fuzzy approach [17] for TEP have been introduced in past decades.

The paper focus on HGAPSO technique to solve TEP problem. The article has been divided into four subsections. In the next section, formulation of TEP problem has been described. The subsequent section gives the overview of the GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithm with the implementation to argument essay TEP problem and in the last section, results obtained by the application of the HGAPSO algorithm for TEP are discussed, and its comparison with the results obtained from of promoting tourism, GAs and PSO algorithms are presented. 2. Mathematical Formulation.

In this paper, static TEP problem can be formulated by using a classical DC power flow model which is what parts of an essay, a nonlinear mixed-integer problem with high complexity, especially for large-scale realistic transmission networks. The objective function is formulated as follows: where O,’ c’_(ij )and ‘ n’_ij represent, respectively, investment cost of the transmission, circuit cost, which is a candidate for addition to proposal the branch i’j and the number of are the parts argument, circuits added to the branch i’j. Here ‘ is the set of on advantages of promoting tourism, all candidate branches for expansion. The objective function (1) represents the capital cost of the newly installed transmission lines, which has some restrictions. These constraints must be included in mathematical formulation to ensure that the obtained solutions satisfy transmission line planning requirements.

These constraints can be formulated in the following (2) ‘ (7). 2.1 DC power flow node balance constraint: The conservation of power at each node is represented by this linear inequality constraint: Where P, d and B are respectively, the real power generation vector in the existing power plants, the real load demand vector in all network nodes and the susceptance matrix of the existing and what are the four argument, added lines in the network. Here ?? is the bus voltage phase angle vector. 2.2 Power flow limit on transmission lines constraint:

In order to limit the power flow for each path, the inequality constraint is as follows: f_ij'(n_ij^0+n_ij ) f_ij^max (3) In the DC power flow model, each element of the branch power flow in constraint (3) can be calculated by using (4): f_ij=((n_ij^0+nij) )/x_ij *(??_i- ??_j) (4) Where f_ij, f_ij^max,n_ij, and on advantages and disadvantages tourism, n_ij^0, x_ij represent, respectively, the total branch power flow in the branch i’j, the maximum power flow in the branch i’j, the number of circuits which is to be added to what are the of an the i-j branch, the number of apa essay proposal, circuits in are the four essay the original base system and reactance in system thesis the i-j branch. What Are The Four Of An. Here ??_iand ??_j are the voltage phase angle of the terminal at on advantages ith and jth bus respectively. 2.3 Power generation limit constraint: The limit of what are the parts of an argument, power generation has to be included in the TEP constraints and is represented as follows: where’ g’_i,g_iminand g_imax are the real power generation at node i.e. the lower and upper real power generation limit at discrimination segregation essays node i respectively. 2.4 Right-of-way constraint: It is important for an accurate TEP that planners need to know the exact location and capacity of the newly required circuits.

So this constraint must be included for consideration in the planning expansion problem. In Mathematical form, this constraint defines the new circuit location and the maximum number of circuits that can be installed in a specified location. It can be represented as follows: where n_ijand n_ijmax represent the total integer number of circuits which is to are the four of an argument essay be added to the i’j branch and the maximum number of circuits that can be added to the i’j branch respectively. 2.5 Bus voltage phase angle limit constraint: The bus voltage magnitude is not a factor in cycle research this analysis since a DC power flow model is used. The voltage phase angle is included as a TEP constraint and the calculated phase angle should be less than the what are the four parts of an argument essay predefined maximum phase angle: 2.6 Fitness Function: Fitness Function F for the TEP problem is as follows: k is number of constraints. V_i is grading thesis, violation of ith constraint in percentage. pf is the penalty factor. 3. What Of An Essay. Overview of GA, PSO #038; HGAPSO Algorithms. This section gives overview of apa essay, GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithms and their implementation to TEP problem.

3.1 Genetic Algorithm. GA belongs to a family of computational models inspired by are the of an evolution [19].These algorithms encode a potential solution to a specific problem on apa essay a simple chromosome-like data structure and apply recombination and what are the parts argument, mutation operators to these structures so as to discrimination segregation preserve critical information. What Are The Of An Essay. GA generally includes the three fundamental genetic operators of reproduction, crossover and mutation. System Thesis. These operators conduct the chromosomes toward better fitness. The goodness of are the four parts, a solution is typically defined with respect to the current population. The genetic algorithm can be viewed as two stage process. It starts with the current population. Selection is applied to the current population to create an grading intermediate population. Then recombination and mutation are applied to the intermediate population to create the next population.

The process of going from the current population to the next population constitutes one generation in the execution of a GA. Are The Four Of An Argument. Crossover is the main genetic operator that allows information to be exchanged between individuals in the population. Mutation operator is to prevent the permanent loss of any particular bit values (genes), as without mutation there is no possibility of re-introducing a bit value that is missing from the cycle research population. 3.2 Implementation of what four parts argument, GA to TEP Problem: The application of GA to solve static TEP problem is explained as follows: Specify input parameters with all constraints to generate chromosomes.

Specify the control parameters (population size, recombination rate, mutation rate etc.). Specify genetic characteristics of the algorithm: codification type, initial population assembly, selection type, and so forth. Initialize population (Line to be added) randomly satisfying all constraints and evaluate it to segregation essays become the current population. Assign fitness value to what are the parts essay the entire population corresponding to the objective function. Implement a selection to choose only two generating solutions. Selection operator in this analysis used is tournament selection. Implement the recombination and preserve an offspring.

Implement the mutation of the preserved offspring. Evaluate fitness of final population consisting of chromosomes of best solutions. Check generation count, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to step 5. 3.3 Particle swarm optimization. PSO incorporates swarming behaviors observed in flocks of birds, schools of fish, or swarms of bees, and even human social behavior, from which the idea is emerged [20].PSO is a population-based optimization tool, with simple implementation steps and applied easily to solve various non linear, non convex and proposal, non differentiable optimization problems. The main strength of PSO is its fast convergence and to find global optimum value of fitness function.

The PSO algorithm conducts a search using a population of particles that corresponds to individuals in a GA. In PSO, the position of each agent is represented in X’Y plane with position (s_x,s_y),vx (velocity along X-axis), and vy (velocity along Y-axis). Are The Parts Essay. Modification of the agent position is realized by the position and velocity information. Bird blocking optimizes a certain objective function. The best value so far, called ‘Pbest’, is of a, known by each agent, which contains the information on position and velocities.

This information is the analogy of personal experience of each agent. Each agent also knows the best value so far, in what four of an argument the group Gbest among Pbest .This information is the analogy of knowledge, how the other neighboring agent shave performed. Each agent tries to proposal modify its position by considering current positions (s_x, s_y), current velocities (vx, v_y), the individual intelligence (Pbest), and the group intelligence (Gbest). The following equations are utilized, in of an argument computing the position and velocities, in the X’Y plane: v_(ik+1)= ”?v’_ik+C_(1 )??rand_1??(P_besti-s_ik )+C_2??rand_2 ?? (G_best-s_ik) (9) where v_(ik+1) is the velocity of (k+1)th iteration of ith individual, v_ik is the velocity of kth iteration of ith individual, ?? is the inertial weight, C_(1 ), C_2 are the positive constants, having values [0, 2], rand_1, rand_2 are the random numbers selected between 0 and 1, P_besti is the best position of the grading system thesis ith individual, G_best is the best position among the individual (group best) and s_ik is the position of ith individual at kth iteration. The velocity of each agent is modified according to (9) and argument, the position is essay and disadvantages of promoting tourism, modified according to (10). The weighting factor ?? is modified using (11) to enable quick convergence: ?? =??_max-(??_max-??_min)/iter_max ??iter (11) ??_max is the four argument initial weight, ??_min is the final weight, iter is the cycle research current iteration number and iter_max is the maximum iteration number. 3.3 Implementation of what are the of an essay, PSO to TEP Problem. This section provides application of PSO algorithm to solve Static TEP problem as follows: Define input parameters with all constraints for the swarm. Initialize the position (Line to be added) for all particles randomly with satisfying all the constraints.

Calculate the fitness value (cost) of each particle in coursework the swarm using equation (8). Compare the what fitness value of each particle found in step 4 with Pbest of each particle. Update Pbest of a particle if its fitness is greater than its Pbest. Update Gbest if any particle has greater fitness than fitness of current Gbest. Update the inertia weight ”?? by using (11). Modify the velocity of each particle by (9). Modify the position of discrimination, each particle by using (10) with the updated velocity in step 7. Check iteration counter, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to step 3. The swarm that generates the latest Gbest in step 5 is the optimal value. 3.4 Hybrid PSO with GA.

The drawback of are the four parts of an argument, PSO is that it suffers from premature convergence and the local optima trapping. In addition to this, PSO performance is problem-dependent. GA has so many operators and takes large computational time as compared to coursework football PSO. To overcome the limitations of GA and PSO. The GA-PSO algorithm was proposed by Kao and Zahara [21].The basis behind this is that such a hybrid approach is expected to have merits of PSO with those of GA. This hybridization results in high diversity and parts, optimum convergence. There are three different hybrid approaches which are as follows:

PSO-GA (Type 1): The gbest particle position does not change its position over some designated time steps; the crossover operation is performed on gbest particle with chromosome of grading, GA. In this model both PSO and GA are run in parallel. PSO-GA (Type 2): The stagnated pbest particles are change their positions by mutation operator of GA. PSO-GA (Type 3): In this model the initial population of PSO is assigned by solution of GA. What Four Parts Essay. The total numbers of iterations are equally shared by GA and apa essay proposal, PSO. First half of the iterations are run by GA and the solutions are given as initial population of are the of an argument essay, PSO.

Remaining iterations are run by a2 pe coursework PSO. In this paper, type 2 and type 3 hybrid approaches is used and is applied to solve the TEP problem. First, multiple solutions are generated randomly as initial population and objective function values are evaluated for each solution. After the are the four parts of an argument evaluation is done, the rankine population is divided into two subpopulations. One of these subpopulations is updated by what of an argument the GA operation, while the other is updated by the PSO operation.

New solutions created by each operation are combined in the next generation, and coursework football, non-dominated solutions in the combined population are archived. The archive data is shared between the GA and PSO, i.e., non-dominated solutions created by the PSO can be used as parents in GA, while non-dominated solutions created by of an argument GA can be used as global guides in PSO. Flowchart of HGAPSO [22] is shown in figure1. Fig.1 Flowchart of HGAPSO algorithm. 4. Results and Discussion. Static TEP problem is solved for three test systems Garver’s 6 bus system, IEEE 14 Bus system and IEEE 24 bus system by applying proposed hybrid algorithm and is implemented in Matlab 7.9. All the necessary data of the test systems can be found in [23]. To validate the performance of algorithm, the results obtained are compared with GA and PSO algorithm. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Promoting. The best results obtained for three test system by proposed algorithm are after 20 trial runs and 70 iterations. Penalty factor in first two test systems is taken as 2. Fig. 1, Fig 2 and what are the four of an, Fig 3 shows the cost convergence characteristic of segregation essays, HGAPSO (Type 2) for what are the four of an argument three test systems.

For Garver’s 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system, GA pop size and swarm size is of a, same i.e. 50 and 100, Problem dimension is 8. Fig. 2 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO Fig. 3 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO.

for Garver’s 6 bus system for IEEE 14 bus system. and Mutation rate and crossover rate are 0.1 and 0.8 respectively. Are The Parts Of An Argument. Parameters of PSO such as c1 and c2 are 2, ??_min and ??_max are taken as 0.4 and 0.9 for both above mentioned systems. Similarly for IEEE 24 bus system, GA pop size and swarm size is 100, problem dimension is cycle research, 20 and all other parameters are same as that of other two systems. Pentalty factor for this test system is taken as 0.7.Maximum number of iterations in each case are 70. Fig. 4 Cost convergence characteristic of Fig. 5 Convergence characteristic of GA, PSO. HGAPSO for IEEE 24 bus system and HGAPSO for Garver’s 6 bus system.

Table 1. Comparison of GA, PSO and what four parts argument, HGAPSO. Algorithm Running time. PSO is a powerful optimization technique that has been applied to wide range of optimization problems. Its performance can be enhanced many folds with the aid of certain modifications. Discrimination Segregation. This paper emphasis on the concept of hybridization, which in what are the four of an the present scenario is a popular idea being applied to evolutionary algorithms in order to increase their efficiency and robustness. System. In this paper we present a brief review on the algorithms which is to be hybrised in which PSO is one of the main algorithms.

PSO, which is stochastic in four parts of an essay nature and makes use of the memory of each particles as well as the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, has been proved to discrimination segregation be powerful in solving many optimization problems. The proposed algorithm HGAPSO find a better solution without trapping in local maximum, and to achieve faster convergence rate. This is because when the PSO particles stagnate, GA diversifies the particle position even though the solution is worse. In HGAPSO particle movement uses randomness in its search. Hence, it is a kind of stochastic optimization algorithm that can search a complicated and uncertain area.

This makes HGAPSO more flexible and robust. Unlike standard PSO, HGAPSO is more reliable in giving better quality solutions with reasonable computational time, since the hybrid strategy avoids premature convergence of the search process to local optima and provides better exploration of the search process. ste your text in here… Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is what are the parts argument, qualified to a high level in coursework our area of expertise, and are the essay, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in research papers your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to what four parts of an essay us by coursework a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of of an argument, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Hybrid GA and PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/engineering/essay-hybrid-ga-and-pso-approach-for-transmission-expansion-planning/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to apa essay have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 09-07-17 - Dielectric performance and response on electrical charge transport of nanocomposite SPEEK electrolyte membrane for Fuel Cell Applications 05-07-17 - Design of the engine room based on dual-fuel - Progressive collapse of parts of an argument, buildings 30-05-17 - VERIFICATION OF CONGESTION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN VANETS USING FORMAL METHOD 15-05-17 - Effect of Radiations Associated With Cellular Phones on Human Health 19-04-17 - Performance Analysis 12-04-17 - A Model 18-02-17 - Fuel cells - Mobile robot - Change Data Capture and Slowly Changing Dimension. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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From ‘Lives’ to ‘Modern Love’: Writing Personal Essays With Help From The New York Times. If you’re a regular Times reader, you’ve no doubt enjoyed, and maybe even taught with, some of the 1,000-plus personal essays from the Magazine’s Lives column, which has run weekly for decades. But did you know that NYTimes.com also regularly features personal writing on parts of an argument, everything from love and family to life on campus, how we relate to segregation essays animals, living with disabilities and what are the four essay, navigating anxiety? In this post we suggest several ways to inspire your students’ own personal writing, using Times models as “mentor texts,” and advice from our writers on everything from avoiding “zombie nouns” to writing “dangerous” college essays. And since we’ve linked to but a fraction of the thousands of engaging personal pieces published in the paper over the years, we also invite you to add your own suggestions in discrimination segregation essays the comments. Seven Ideas to Inspire and Improve Personal Essays. A look at apps that help you document your daily life, through words, pictures and social media. By KIT EATON and DALLAS JENSEN on Publish Date January 6, 2016. What Of An Essay! . Watch in Times Video » Research suggests that recording our run-of-the-mill, daily experiences, rather than just our highs and lows, could bring us unexpected joy. And there are apps you can use to make doing that easier. Read “How Keeping a Diary Can Surprise You” to grading learn more — and check out what other teenagers told us back in 2011 when we asked, Do You Keep a Diary or Journal? But don’t stop at just journaling.

Go back, read over what you wrote, look for patterns and think about four parts argument what these “personal stories” reveal about you. Grading Thesis! A recent article on the Well blog suggests that writing and editing stories about are the parts yourself can help you see your life differently, and actually lead to behavioral changes: The concept is based on the idea that we all have a personal narrative that shapes our view of the essays world and ourselves. Are The Of An Argument Essay! But sometimes our inner voice doesn’t get it completely right. Grading Thesis! Some researchers believe that by what parts of an argument writing and grading system thesis, then editing our own stories, we can change our perceptions of ourselves and identify obstacles that stand in the way of better health. Read about how personal story editing helped 40 college freshman at Duke University who were struggling academically, then think about how you can use the what of an argument techniques yourself. 2. Use current events and grading, issues as a jumping-off point.

That’s what we’ve done every school day since 2009 with our Student Opinion question: we find an what of an essay, interesting article in The Times, pose a question about it, and grading thesis, invite any teenager anywhere in the world to answer it. In fact, we’ve just published a list of 650 of those questions that ask for personal and narrative writing, on topics like sports, travel, education, gender roles, video games, fashion, family, pop culture, social media and what are the four parts argument, more. Visit the collection to get ideas and to access related Times articles to help you think more about each. Then, ask you yourself, what issues and current events do you care most about? How do they impact your life? What personal stories can you tell that relate to grading system thesis them in some way? For instance, maybe the impact of technology on our lives concerns you. In our collection of prompts, you can find nearly 50 different ways we’ve taken that topic on, each linked to a Times article or essay on what are the four of an argument, the topic.

For just one example, though, you might read Gary Shteyngart’s essay “Only Disconnect”: With each post, each tap of the screen, each drag and apa essay proposal, click, I am becoming a different person — solitary where I was once gregarious; a content provider where I at least once imagined myself an artist; nervous and constantly updated where I once knew the world through sleepy, half-shut eyes; detail-oriented and productive where I once saw life float by of an like a gorgeously made documentary film. Does it surprise you to essays realize this essay was written in what are the four parts of an argument essay 2010? Do you think his observations are even more true today? What stories do you have to tell about life online?

Another excellent place to glean ideas is the Op-Ed page, where writers respond to the news of the rankine day with occasional personal essays. In this one, a classic from 1999, a teenager reacts to what the Columbine school shootings — then blamed in part on school cliques that made some feel like outsiders — with an essay headlined, “Yes, I’m in a Clique.” Or read this week’s “How to Vote as an of promoting, Immigrant and a Citizen,” an what four parts of an, Op-Ed by the novelist Imbolo Mbue about what it means to descriptive her to vote on November 8 and, for the first time, have “a say in what four parts essay America’s future.” Other great places to look for ideas other than our daily Student Opinion question and the Op-Ed page? Check the Trending lists, or visit our monthly Teenagers in The Times series. Our lesson plan, Writing Rules! Advice From The Times on Writing Well, compiles nine guidelines from many different Times sources on everything from “listening to the voice in your head” to cycle papers writing with “non-zombie nouns and verbs.” But for one-stop shopping on the personal essay in particular, you might just read “How to Write a Lives Essay,” in what are the four argument essay which the author asks the magazine’s editors for a “single, succinct piece of advice” for getting an discrimination segregation, essay published in the long-running column devoted to personal stories. Here are a few of the answers, but read the whole post to see them all: • More action, more details, less rumination.

Don’t be afraid of implicitness. And the old Thom Yorke line: “Don’t get sentimental. It always ends up drivel.” • Meaning (or humor, or interestingness) is in specific details, not in broad statements. • Write a piece in which something actually happens, even if it’s something small. • Don’t try to fit your whole life into one “Lives.” • Don’t try to tell the whole story. • Do not end with the phrase “I realized that … ” • Tell a small story — an are the of an essay, evocative, particular moment. • Better to start from something very simple that you think is interesting (an incident, a person) and expand upon essays, it, rather than starting from a large idea that you then have to fit into what are the four essay an short essay. For example, start with “the day the Santa Claus in the mall asked me on a date” rather than “the state of affairs that is dating in an older age bracket.”

• Go to the outer limit of your comfort zone in revealing something about tone of a descriptive yourself. • Embrace your own strangeness. How can you apply any, or all, of these pieces of are the four parts argument essay advice to an essay you’re writing? 4. Borrow an opening line for cycle research, inspiration. Back in 2011, we ran a contest that invited students to Use Opening Lines From the Magazine’s ‘Lives’ Column as Writing Prompts. What Are The Four Of An Argument Essay! Contestants were allowed to apa essay write stories, essays, plays, memoirs or poetry, and could use lines like these: It’s impossible to what parts of an essay look cool when you’re part of discrimination a tour group. (From “In Too Deep”) Mornings are not our best family moments . (From “Mother’s Little Helper”)

Cosmic forces have a way of turning up the four parts argument heat to make us change. (From “The Tractor Driver or the coursework football Pothead?” ) After you look at what are the parts argument essay, the full list of discrimination segregation essays first lines, jump over to read the what are the four parts argument essay work of cycle papers our winners, and see how they took first sentences like “I am parked in a rental car in four argument front of the house where I grew up,” and made them their own. Around Valentine’s Day that same year, we invited students to use first lines from the weekly Modern Love column as “passion prompts,” and that time we showed them how to take the basic idea from the essay and on advantages and disadvantages of promoting tourism, adapt it for themselves: We went out to the house last month to celebrate Valentine’s Day. But then the house exploded. Sentence starter: We went to [place and time] to celebrate Valentine’s Day. But then… It was just another Saturday night on Queens Boulevard two years ago when Eddie Ellis and Gladys Corcino pulled up beside each other at a red light near 65th Street. Sentence starter : It was just another [day/time of the week] on/in [location] when [name] and [name]… Scroll through all our choices from these two posts, or find your own opening line from a more recent Times essay to inspire you. What Are The Parts Of An! How can you adapt it and make it your own?

5. Use images to spur memories and ideas. We’re all about essay on advantages images as inspiration on this site, and this year we even have a new daily writing feature called Picture Prompts, and a lesson plan about what parts of an teaching with images to go with it. Scroll through the feature, and either follow the rankine prompts we suggest, or use any of the images that catch your interest to write whatever you like. What memories does it inspire? What personal connection to the content can you make? What stories from your own life does it remind you of? Other great places to what are the parts of an essay find images in of a essay The Times? • Lens, a Times site for photography, video and photojournalism.

• The Lively Morgue, a Tumblr of images from the Times archives. • Looking at Our Hometowns, a 2013 Lens project that asked, “What would happen if you asked high school students to help create a 21st-century portrait of the country by turning their cameras on their neighborhoods, families, friends and four parts argument, schools?” Clare Connaughton, a high school student from Mineola, N.Y., reads from tone descriptive, her college application essay about how shopping at thrift stores with her mother has gone from are the argument essay, necessity to cherished pastime. By Deborah Acosta on rankine cycle, Publish Date May 9, 2014. Photo by Michael Nagle for The New York Times. Watch in Times Video » Our lesson plan, Getting Personal: Writing College Essays for the Common Application, helps students explore the open-ended prompts on the Common Application, then analyze Times pieces that might serve as models for their own application essays. For example, take this prompt: “ The lessons we take from failure can be fundamental to later success. Four Parts! Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? ” Here are some first-person Times essays that could serve as models for writing about the theme of failure: • “A Rat’s Tale”: A writer discusses her failure to be the grading system thesis sister her brother wanted and what parts essay, what she learned.

• “Pancake Chronicles”: An entertaining account of of promoting a disastrous first job. • “A Heartbroken Temp at Brides.com”: After a groom changes his mind, his would-be bride, with “no money, no apartment, no job” takes a position at what four of an essay, a wedding website. Another source of inspiration is Ron Lieber’s annual contest for the best college essays that address issues of money, work and on advantages and disadvantages, social class. These essays, as he wrote in 2015, are “filled with raw, decidedly mixed feelings about what are the four essay parents and their sacrifices; trenchant accounts of the awkwardness of straddling communities with vastly different socio-economic circumstances; and plain-spoken — yet completely affecting — descriptions of what it means to make a living and grading system, a life in America today.” You can find them all, by year, here: 7. Learn from more Times models on popular themes. What we’ve compiled below is just a very, very small taste of the thousands of are the four of an essays you can find in of a essay The Times on these topics. Please preview any that you assign to what four parts of an argument essay students to make sure they are appropriate. Most of the cycle research papers selections below are from the long-running Modern Love column, and begin with some winners of their college essay contest. You might also want to read some observations from the editor on “How We Write About Love” and his selection of are the parts essay “The 10 Best Modern Love Columns Ever.” And a Few Extras that Don’t Fit Neatly Into Any of the Previous Categories . Places to Find Personal Essays in The New York Times.

Lives: A place for true personal essays, this column has been running weekly in the Magazine for decades. Modern Love: A series of weekly reader-submitted essays that explore the joys and apa essay, tribulations of love. On Campus: Dispatches from college students, professors and what of an argument essay, administrators on higher education and university life. Ties: Essays on segregation, parenting and family from Well. Essay series from The Opinionator (some no longer taking submissions): • The Couch: A series about are the of an psychotherapy.

• Private Lives: Personal essays from writers around the globe, on the news of the world and the news of individual lives. • The Stone: A forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. • Draft: Essays by grammarians, historians, linguists, journalists, novelists and others on the art of writing — from the comma to the tweet to the novel — and grading system, why a well-crafted sentence matters more than ever in what four of an essay the digital age. • Townies: A series about system life in New York — and occasionally other cities — written by what parts of an the novelists, journalists and essayists who live there. • Disability: Essays, art and opinion exploring the lives of people living with disabilities. • Anxiety: This series explores how we navigate the worried mind, through essay, art and memoir. • Menagerie: Explores the strange and diverse ways the human and animal worlds intersect. Metropolitan Diary: Short anecdotes about life in New York City. Complaint Box: Discontinued in 2013, this column was part of the City Room blog and tone essay, simply asked New Yorkers, “What Annoys You?” More of Our Lesson Plans on Writing Personal Pieces. We’re interested in your feedback on this page.

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