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bibliographic essay [Posted here on 31 January 2002, with kind permission of the author and CHOICE: current reviews for academic libraries (Middletown, CT: Association of College and Research Libraries) July/August 2001, Vol. 38, No.11/12, pp. 1899-1909 ( copyright by the American Library Association )] Author's Note: The following essay was written for Choice, the journal of the American Library Association, and includes books in the English language only. Clearly there are many more excellent works in other languages in the history of cartography, which is truly an international field. Interested readers should search the bibliographies of Imago Mundi for references to these, or consult the bibliographies on the Education pages of the Groupe des Cartothcaires of LIBER. This essay provides an over-view of recent developments in the history of cartography, beginning with general works and resources, followed by an account of the age of discoveries, a watershed in the history of maps.
The study then looks back to the precursors of the medieval and classical periods, reviews non-Western maps and the colonial period, and concludes with the technological revolution in mapmaking of the present time. Most works are drawn from the last fifteen years, which have been dominated by proactiv the publication of the winkle literary, multivolume The History of Cartography , edited by J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. Maps are now such commonplace objects and geographical forms so standardized in our minds that it is hard to imagine a world in solution essay, which this was not so. For example, we recognize the shape of a familiar landmass like Africa, whether it appears on a map, a coffee mug or on the back of essay papers a teenager's partly shaved head. When our standard view is challenged, we are disturbed and angry. Showing the Australian map of the essay, world with south on top provokes a roar of outrage from a college history class: Turn it right side up! But there is a history of cartography, a history of the development of mapping, and it is not a simple story of forward progress. And there will be a history of future mapping, which may take forms as yet unimagined by of schizoprenia essays us. The field of the history of cartography has been transformed in the past two decades. A map has been traditionally defined by geographers as a representation of things in space, a definition that implies a certain level of physical correspondence.
A new definition, according to Harley and Woodward, reads thus: Maps are graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of proactiv essay things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in the human world. This definition takes one away from of schizoprenia essays seeing maps as objective representations of physical space into considering them as human documents with all their attendant biases and failings. Such artifacts as diagrams of imaginary cosmographies, landscape paintings, and proactiv solution essay mental maps may now be considered maps. The working out of this definition is seen in its widest form in Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian and Pacific Societies (volume 2, book 3 of History of Cartography ), which discusses the dreaming diagrams of the Australian aborigines, the cosmographic calendars of the Mayans, and ritual sand paintings of the Navajos. These works are not maps in essays, the traditional sense, but they do incorporate spatial relationships and individual places, often in terms of spiritual significance. Proactiv Solution Essay! Traditionally, the history of cartography had been dominated by geographers and was viewed as a triumphal march toward the increasingly accurate, measured maps of the present. Such a story culminates in the use of precise tools, aerial surveillance, satellite mapping, and Geographic Information Systems. The maps of the past tended to be discounted as crude and clumsy approximations of real space.
Not that these early map historians were slipshod-despite the changes in the orientation of the field, classics, such as books by animal essay Raymond Beazley ( The Dawn of Modern Geography ), George Kimble ( Geography in the Middle Ages ), and proactiv essay John Wright ( The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades ), still have much to teach us in their careful examinations of individual maps. As historians of cartography have moved away from education geographical accuracy as the chief quality of essay a map, they examine instead maps in themselves. What was the mapmaker intending to show? Is it possible that measurement was not particularly important and that some other consideration shaped the map in question? Editors Harley and Woodward address these questions in Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean (volume 1 of The History of Cartography ), which appeared in of argument, 1987 and pulls together the research of many scholars of the preceding decades. Its effect can hardly be underestimated, judging from the burgeoning research that has followed its publication. Volume 2 is published in three parts: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, Cartography in Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies , and the book on solution essay traditional non-European societies cited above. Volume 3, on the cartography of the European Renaissance, will be issued shortly. Subsequent volumes will take the history up to the present time.
The field of the lost essay, history of cartography has attracted scholars from a number of essay academic fields. Art historians, literary theorists, and political historians have joined geographers in studying and analyzing maps of the past. Art and Cartography , a selection of essays edited by Woodward, is a particularly interesting illustration of the cross-fertilization of academic fields. At present there is of schizoprenia essays, no comprehensive one-volume history of cartography. Leo Bagrow's classic History of Cartography , enlarged and revised by R. A. Skelton in 1966, was the proactiv essay, last attempt, and now the multivolume History of Cartography , cited above, appears to be its replacement. The best brief introduction is by Norman J. W. Thrower, who recently published a new edition of his Maps and Men , having changed the rip van literary, title to Maps Civilization . Thrower, a geographer and cartographer, is most insightful on the modern period, where his mastery of the techniques of mapmaking is supreme.
The book includes a helpful appendix with a glossary of mapping terms. Peter Whitfield's The Image of the World: 20 Centuries of World Maps is proactiv, less scholarly but has an excellent selection of color illustrations. John Snyder's Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections is a general book about a more specialized subject. Snyder deals with the eternal problem of representing a more or less spherical Earth on my favorite essay a plane surface and describes various solutions that have been found. This is an excellent introduction to an important subject in cartography, since the type of projection chosen can radically alter the appearance and meaning of the map. Catherine Delano-Smith and Roger Kain's English Maps: A History serves as a good overview of the field, although its subject is limited to maps made in England or for English use. The authors offer a comprehensive view of solution essay mapmaking and map use from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century, putting maps into their cultural and political context. For reference there is the useful Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900 , edited by Helen Wallis and Arthur Robinson.
The book is made up of causes of schizoprenia a series of proactiv brief essays on the terms, each followed by a bibliography. General categories include types of maps, maps of human occupations and activities, maps of natural phenomena, reference systems and geodetic concepts, symbolism, techniques and media, methods of duplication, and atlases. Individual essay topics include such subjects as satirical maps, wind roses, and longitude. Another good reference book is the rip van winkle literary, regularly updated Who's Who in the History of Cartography , edited by Mary Alice Lowenthal. Primarily a guide to people working in the field, it also includes a useful introductory section, including a general bibliography, a list of important research centers and proactiv solution essay map collections, and animal tiger essay a list of journals. Since the history of proactiv essay cartography is an international field, one expects many of essays these sources to be in proactiv solution, languages other than English.
Top of page. The flagship journal in lost names papers, the field is the proactiv essay, venerable Imago Mundi , founded in 1935 and now into its 53rd volume. Published annually, it includes scholarly articles, book reviews, an annual bibliography, and a calendar of events in the field, such as lectures, conferences and exhibits. A list of the contents throughout its history can be found at definition of argument essay the Imago Mundi Web site. Among other useful journals is Terrae Incognitae , published by essay the Society for the History of Discoveries. Literary! It emphasizes the discoveries themselves, but many of the articles concern historical maps. The product of the Smith Center at the Newberry Library in Chicago, Mapline carries brief articles along with news about proactiv lecture series and information on literary essay the library's collections.
The Washington Map Society publishes The Portolan , which is issued three times a year, and includes longer articles and an excellent annual bibliography. A more popular publication is the bimonthly Mercator's World , which absorbed the journal Map Collector in 1996. It publishes nonacademic (i.e., no footnotes) articles on a wide range of map-related topics, with color illustrations. Though the publication has an impressive board of directors, the articles are not always carefully edited-caveat lector! Mercator's World is directed at collectors as well as scholars and contains information on map auctions and sales, an important inclusion since map collectors play a significant role in the field of the history of proactiv essay cartography. Some are scholars in causes, their own right, and some have generously supported the academic world with lecture series, fellowships, and gifts to map libraries.
The main discussion list on the Internet is MapHist , founded in 1994 and proactiv monitored by David Cobb, librarian at Harvard University. Copies of the complete discussions on CD-ROM, with convenient index, are sold periodically. . The list broadcasts announcements of conferences, fellowships, and new books, as well as lively debates on map-related topics. Participants include map dealers, librarians, college and definition essay university professors, graduate students, and essay amateur enthusiasts. The Web has two principal gatekeeper sites that provide links to template writing nursing study many other sources. The first, Map History/History of Cartography, is established at proactiv essay the Institute of Historical Research at the University of London. This site includes a general introduction to the subject as well as news and guides to library collections and map dealers. A recently added link directs one to articles and books posted on the Web. There is also an e-journal, MapForum , which has published ten issues so far. The other site, Top of page. New theoretical approaches to the history of cartography can be found in The History of Cartography , particularly Harley's opening essay in my favorite animal tiger, volume 1. Harley is also the author of Maps, Knowledge and Power in proactiv solution, The Iconography of Landscape , edited by Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels.
Here he makes clear the way that maps, rather than being objective sources of information, can be used to definition establish control, a theme now being expanded on by writers in specialized historical fields. Books by Mark Monmonier ( How to proactiv essay Lie with Maps, Drawing the Line ) apply these ideas with mostly modern examples, written in a breezy, popular style. Mappings , edited by Denis Cosgrove, includes a selection of articles across the historical spectrum, mostly incorporating postmodernist theory. Soon to appear in English translation from the University of Chicago Press is Christian Jacob's L'Empire des Cartes: Approche thorique de la cartographie travers l'histoire [Editor's update, May 2008 - the details are: Christian Jacob, The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography throughout History . Translated by Tom Conley. Edited by education dissertation Edward H. Solution! Dahl. (University of names essay Chicago Press, 2006)]. Trained as a classicist, Jacob ranges over the entire field of cartography, drawing examples from every period of history. The term mapping is proactiv solution essay, sometimes used so broadly by literary scholars in particular that a geographer would hardly recognize his original artifact. An example is Tom Conley's The Self-Made Map . This work, set in early modern France, does discuss such cartographers as Oronce Fin, but it ranges into the cartographic writing of Rabelais, the education dissertation titles, arrangement of words on a page in printed texts, and the design of capital letters. An event that did much to establish a new view of map history was an exhibition titled The Power of Maps, by the Smithsonian Institution in 1992-93 and curated by Lucy Fellowes and Denis Wood.
The exhibition assembled an impressive collection of maps from various cultures and periods-from stick maps of the Marshall Islands and medieval manuscript maps to road maps of North Carolina-and provided a showcase for new techniques of mapping. A memorable display was an proactiv essay animated sequence showing the sea bottom beneath the polar ice sheets. There was no exhibition catalog, but Wood produced a book with the same title, describing how maps are often confused with reality, when in lost names essay papers, fact a map's selection of proactiv places and symbols transforms reality. Unfortunately, the book, a rambling personal essay, is poorly illustrated, always a drawback for a book about maps. The postmodernist approach of Wood and others was criticized as an oversimplification by Jeremy Black in essays, Maps and Politics . The crucial event in European map history was the discovery of America and the simultaneous exploration of Africa and Asia. European geographers and proactiv solution essay mapmakers found it necessary to revise their view of the world. Lost Names Essay Papers! In the preceding century, several forces had come together (the rediscovery of Ptolemy's work, the refinement of nautical maps, the improvement of solution measuring techniques) to give intimations of a more scientific approach to cartography.
Thus, as new lands were discovered, mapmakers were able to fit them quickly into the world picture. This exploratory energy continued into the 20th century, when, for my favorite animal tiger essay, example, the Northwest Passage was finally navigated and mapped. Peter Whitfield's New Found Lands , after a brief account of ancient and medieval explorers, swings into high gear in the fifteenth century, carrying the story up to the end of the nineteenth century. An interesting insight into the progress of discovery can be found in Lost Islands by Henry Stommel. He describes the persistence of nonexistent navigational hazards for years and introduces us to proactiv the fascinating 1856 catalog Rodgers' Register of Doubtful Dangers. Harley's Maps and names essay papers the Columbian Encounter accompanied an exhibition commemorating the year 1492. Proactiv Essay! Harley also produced a video of the same title, which drives home the point that Western maps were a factor in the domination and elimination of Native American cultures, overwhelming Native mapping traditions and place-names, and education dissertation titles legitimizing conquest. Walter Mignolo makes the same point in The Darker Side of the Renaissance , a book emphasizing the irrational and self-justifying myths that lurked behind the modern and reasonable facade of the Renaissance.
Two chapters specifically discuss the mapping of solution non-European countries by their colonizers. The invention of printing, which occurred almost at the same time, also had a great effect on maps, which could now be widely distributed with their uniformity maintained. The simultaneous spread of literacy meant that more people were capable of reading maps, and a market for their sale emerged. Five Centuries of Map Printing , edited by David Woodward, is a technical overview, issued on of schizoprenia essays the 500th anniversary of the first printed map. Woodward observes that, while map printing led to solution essay an explosion in my favorite, map availabil-ity, the process also limited the mapmaker in such areas as color and pictorial elements. Excellent studies of early printed maps include Rodney W. Shirley's Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700 , and Tony Campbell's Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . The first is a cartobibliography of essay maps of the world, while the latter includes all types of maps. Cartobibliographies are organized with an entry for education dissertation titles, each map. In Shirley's work, for example, each entry includes the proactiv essay, name of the dissertation, mapmaker (if known), the place and date of publication, the size, the title of the book, a brief description, and a photograph. Proactiv! These are indispensable tools for the researcher. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers , a beautifully illustrated volume by Michel Mollat du Jourdin and Monique de la Roncire, begins with the first appearance of nautical charts in the West in the thirteenth century and shows how they were modified up through the seventeenth century. R.A.
Skelton's Explorers' Maps: Chapters in lost papers, the Cartographic Record of solution essay Geographical Discovery is an older, but still informative book. Skelton closely links the various voyages to literary essay the maps that were used and those that resulted. His notes and observations on the individual maps are always valuable. The European voyages of the proactiv solution, sixteenth century led to an explosion in map production, which suddenly became a profitable business rather than a scholarly avocation. Two of the most famous sixteenth-century mapmakers, Abraham Ortelius (d.
1598) and Gerard Mercator (d. 1594), recently celebrated quadricentennials, which gave rise to a spate of conferences and commemorative volumes. Ortelius's work is described in essays written by Marcel van der Broecke and others in Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas . Gerhard Mercator's The Mercator Atlas of Europe , edited by Marcel Watelet, reproduces a copy of this cartographer's atlas discovered in 1967 along with folio sheets from wall maps of Europe (1554), the British Isles (1564), and the world (1569). An accompanying text volume provides a group of interpretive essays. This is a beautiful, but rather expensive, book. Unfortunately, the other retrospectives of Mercator's work are not yet available in English translation. The mapmakers of the sixteenth century are cataloged in Robert Karrow's Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570 . Karrow takes the eighty-seven cartographers named in a list originally published by Ortelius in 1570, expands their biographies to include modern scholarship, and illustrates many of the maps. Causes Of Schizoprenia Essays! Two thousand maps are cataloged in this useful work. Mercator and Ortelius were both natives of the Netherlands, which dominated cartography in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Kees Zandvliet's Mapping for solution, Money follows the activities of the Dutch, primarily through the East and definition essay West India Companies, which wanted accurate maps as tools to help them explore new markets.
An interesting feature of this book is the proactiv essay, section on topographical painting and paintings that include maps. Essay Papers! The painter Vermeer's works are widely known, but here one can see that he was part of a Dutch tradition that used maps in an iconic as well as practical fashion. In From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism , Chandra Mukerji discusses the solution, map of the early capitalist period as both a consumer good and a capital good, an item for display and an item for business use. An ongoing series by Gnter Schilder, Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica , offers complete coverage to selected maps from this era, with text in both Dutch and English. The four volumes published so far come in pairs, with a text volume for each volume of beautifully produced facsimile maps and atlases. Education Dissertation! Jerry Brotton's Trading Territories emphasizes the proactiv solution, commercial motives for exploration and mapping through several case studies, beginning with Portugal. The book opens with an analysis of a tapestry made to commemorate the wedding of Catherine of Austria to Joo III of education Portugal in 1525.
The sovereigns are shown with a globe turned to essay reveal the overseas possessions of Portugal, the king's scepter resting on Lisbon. This book also emphasizes the role of the essay, Ottoman Turks in the evolution of sixteenth-century maps. Sixteenth-century world maps dealt with the increasing knowledge of the Americas as they were explored. Many books cover this interesting phenomenon, showing how the solution, now-familiar geographical shapes of the Western hemisphere emerged from the fog of the unknown. Of Argument! Worthy of special mention is Philip D. Burden's Mapping of North America , a cartobibliography of proactiv essay maps, 1511-1670.
A projected second volume will include maps from 1671 to 1700. Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Rip Van! Ehrenberg's The Mapping of essay America is winkle literary analysis, less inclusive but covers the entire period from 1500 to the present. This is an proactiv excellent general overview. A more specialized work, William P. Cumming's The Southeast in Early Maps , has recently been reissued in a revised edition by Louis DeVorsey. Template Writing Nursing Study! This book, with 450 maps, covers the period from discovery to the American Revolution and the area between the essay, northern border of Florida and the southern border of Virginia.
The new edition includes an interesting chapter by DeVorsey on Native American maps of the region. Dora Beale Polk's The Island of California: A History of the Myth examines the perennially interesting problem of my favorite essay mapping the California coast. The survival of numerous maps showing California as insular has been a great boon to the map trade. Governments began to use maps as tools not only for foreign conquest and proactiv solution economic exploitation but to establish control at home and for purposes of national defense. Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe , edited by David Buisseret, is a collection of articles dealing with England, France, Spain, Austria, Italy, and Poland. This is the essay papers, published version of the 1982 Nebenzahl Lectures, held annually at the Newberry Library in Chicago. The essays explore, as the subtitle indicates, the increasing use of maps for proactiv solution, political purposes. Josef W. Konvitz's Cartography in France, 1660-1848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft is a more extensive work on France. Konvitz traces the winkle literary essay, state sponsorship of cartography from the administration of Colbert under Louis XIV, through the eighteenth century, when France completed the proactiv solution essay, first national mapping project in Europe, conducted by successive members of the Cassini family.
Konvitz shows how maps began to be used for military purposes, for designing canals and roads, and for economic and social programs. As governments took over the making of maps, the maps became secret documents, forbidden to lost fall into the hands of the enemy. Maps had become a weapon in international competition, whether of a military or economic nature. The mapping and commercial career of another French cartographic family is ably described in Mary S. Proactiv Solution Essay! Pedley's Bel et Utile: The Work of Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . The maps that preceded the age of essay discoveries have been treated as curiosities, studied originally for their distortion of the world as we now perceive it. In the works of Raymond Beazley, George Kimble, and John Wright (mentioned above), medieval maps were ridiculed for their simplicity and religiosity. More recently, the same maps have been analyzed in proactiv solution essay, their own terms and found to be eloquent expressions of a worldview that might inform our own. Chapters by David Woodward, Paul D.A.
Harvey, and Tony Campbell in of schizoprenia essays, volume 1 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and Woodward, are a good place to proactiv solution start. Paul Harvey also wrote Medieval Maps and Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map , which are brief, well-illustrated essays that provide a good overview. The new encyclopedia Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages , edited by J. B. Friedman and others, includes many map-related entries. Rip Van Winkle! Evelyn Edson's Mapping Time and Space covers the early period to essay 1300, examining the way medieval maps are often constructed to represent time (historical, theological) as well as space. A general work on the subject of measurement is Alfred W. Crosby's The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600 . Crosby considers the development of a devotion to measurement a crucial element in the West's rise to world domination.
Though not writing specifically about maps, he puts technical developments in mapping into a broader context. Local and regional maps were made in the Middle Ages, but surviving examples are rare. In Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille , Daniel Smail laments that the medieval archive of winkle analysis essay Marseille contains not a single image even remotely like a map. He goes on to describe, however, the development of a mental (imaginary) cartography that becomes more uniform as the centuries progress. His work is based on proactiv the records maintained by notaries who recorded deeds, wills, and rip van essay other property-related documents. Proactiv Essay! He shows how local identifications of place were originally based on neighborhoods or landmarks but were eventually replaced by causes the image of the city as a network of streets, leading to the standardized street address of modern times. Local maps extant from the Middle Ages are discussed in the relevant chapter by Paul D.A. Harvey in The History of Cartography , volume 1. The larger medieval world maps are rare, delicate, and difficult to study, even on site. To remedy this problem some are now being reproduced on CD-ROMs.
The Bibliothque Nationale of France has issued the multilingual Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle , featuring the solution essay, Catalan Atlas, a large world map made in Majorca in 1375, reputedly by Abraham Cresques. The visuals are good, but the CD-ROM is difficult to navigate. Essays on various topics are unattributed, and there is of argument, no index of place-names. Solution Essay! It is more suitable for browsing than research, and dedicated students would do well to seek out the deluxe book by the fourteenth-century Abraham Cresques, Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , edited by Georges Grosjean. The Hereford Cathedral map of c.1290 is the subject of Naomi Kline's A Wheel of Memory , a CD-ROM of the rip van winkle literary essay, Hereford Mappamundi, from the proactiv solution, University of Michigan. Literary Analysis! Rumor has it that the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice will soon issue a CD-ROM on their treasure, the Fra Mauro world map of 1450. Jeffrey Burton Russell takes on one of the most common misconceptions about the Middle Ages: that most people subscribed to solution the flat earth theory.
His book, Inventing the Flat Earth , proves convincingly that the lost essay papers, earth was viewed as a sphere from the solution, 6th century BCE forward. He traces the flat earth idea to Washington Irving's hagiographical treatment of Columbus in 1828, Life and Voyages of education dissertation Christopher Columbus . Russell's work is an interesting essay on the need of modern Europeans to believe in their technical superiority over other cultures, even their own past. The appearance of the Vinland map, which has produced so much controversy in the last 35 years, provided the impetus for some excellent scholarship. This map, found in a 15th-century manuscript and bound with an account of a 13th-century expedition to the court of the Great Khan, shows Vinland and Greenland as islands in the North Atlantic. Although the solution, Norse discovery of Vinland about the year 1000 is not in doubt, no early maps by these seafarers have ever been found. The map has been largely rejected by the academic world as a forgery, though it has its determined supporters, particularly at lost names essay Yale where the map is housed. R.A. Skelton, Thomas E. Marston, and George D. Painter's The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation was published in 1965 and has recently been reissued in a slightly revised edition. Proactiv Essay! Skelton's lengthy essay on the map and its antecedents is a fine introduction to medieval cartography.
The book contains a good facsimile of the disputed map. With few and fragmentary exceptions, the earliest surviving maps in the West are medieval. Titles! Hence there has been great speculation over the nature of the maps that preceded these, the maps of Greek and Roman civilization, and to solution what extent their form and content were reflected in medieval maps. Literature provides evidence that such maps existed, but what did they look like? Claude Nicolet, in Space, Geography, and Politics in analysis, the Early Roman Empire , has argued that the proactiv solution essay, Roman Empire needed maps in order to administer its wide-ranging domains.
At issue here are maps of large areas, such as the titles, Agrippa map, a public monument erected in Rome during Augustus's reign. This work is described with tantalizing vagueness by proactiv essay Pliny (in his Natural History , 1469), with little indication of its physical appearance. The widely accepted idea that this monument was a map is challenged by lost names essay papers Kai Brodersen in Terra Cognita , a work so far not translated from the proactiv solution essay, German. He lists the various forms of the map that scholars have proposed and scorns as creeping presentism the concept that one cannot govern a large empire without maps. In question is not whether the Romans were capable of surveying smaller areas, as evidenced by the surviving surveyor's manuals the dissertation titles, Corpus Agrimensorum Romanum , but whether this facility extended to essay wider horizons.
For more on Roman surveyors, see Oswald A.W. Dilke's The Roman Land Surveyors . The closest thing there is to a survivor of a Roman world map is the Peutinger Table, a large strip or itinerary map covering the known world. There is, in the National Library of Vienna, a twelfth-century copy of a fourth-century copy of a first-century original. My Favorite Animal Tiger! The Tabula has been discussed by proactiv O.A.W. Dilke in Greek and Roman Maps , but for a set of good color illustrations, one should pore over the volume of plates accompanying Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324 with commentary by Ekkehard Weber. Possibly designed for administrative purposes, the map shows the Roman roads, thoughtfully marked with baths and granaries where travelers could rest and refuel. The high point of scientific cartography in the classical world was the causes, work of Claudius Ptolemy (c.90-160 CE).
In his Cosmographia he discussed various methods of map projection and gave instructions for making a map based on a grid of latitude and longitude lines. He listed the coordinates of 8,000 places, some of them unfortunately in error. No maps survive from his day, but the maps were reconstructed in proactiv essay, the late medieval period, both in Constantinople, where his work had survived, and in the Latin West to which it was imported and translated in the early fifteenth century. The work also survived in the Arab world but seems to education dissertation titles have had little influence on mapmaking there. Proactiv! Ptolemy's work had a profound impact on Renaissance cartography, revolutionizing mapmaking and pointing it toward the more physically oriented maps of the future. My Favorite Animal Tiger! A translation of his Geographia , as The Geography , is available with black-and-white reproductions of the maps in an edition by Edward L. Stevenson. For color reproductions (without the text) there is Ptolemy's Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolomaei (Cosmography: Maps from Ptolemy's Geography) with an introduction by Lelio Pagani. Both of these editions are based on fifteenth-century manuscripts. Facsimiles of early printed editions of Ptolemy (such as the Cosmographia ) appeared in the 1960s, edited by R.A. Skelton.
For a current analysis of Ptolemy's work one should consult the chapter by O.A.W. Solution! Dilke in volume 1 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and my favorite essay Woodward. Cartography became a hobby of Renaissance statesmen and artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. The rulers of solution Italian and German cities were particularly interested in pictorial maps of their own cities. Between 1572 and literary essay 1618 a collection of 530 city maps was published in Cologne by George Braun and Frans Hogenberg. A selection of these maps is nicely reprinted by John Goss in George Braun's City Maps of Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg . The British Library's The City in Maps: Urban Mapping to proactiv 1900 , by James Elliott, offers a more general overview of city maps, including those of Braun and Hogenberg.
One spectacular product of Renaissance cartography is the education titles, gallery of maps in the Vatican, designed by Egnazio Danti in proactiv essay, 1580. Forty maps of Italy, cities as well as regions, are arranged in names essay papers, geographical order as though the central corridor were the proactiv, Appenine mountain range. Scenes of of schizoprenia saints and miracles on proactiv solution essay the ceiling are also geographically arranged, leading one to the rather medieval conclusion that Italy is the essay, New Holy Land. Lucio Gambi ably describes these murals in The Gallery of Maps in proactiv solution, the Vatican , which is illuminated by template writing nursing study luscious photographs. David Woodward takes a different approach in Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers . Proactiv Essay! He is interested not only in how maps were made but in who sold them and writing nursing study who bought them and why. The maps of the non-Western world are the subject of the solution, books making up volume 2 of The History of case Cartography , edited by Harley and Woodward.
The Western mapping tradition, with its emphasis on measurement, rapidly came to dominate the cultural dialogue over proactiv solution essay, the representation of writing space during the imperial era. Some extremely interesting recent works examine this process. In her book The Mapping of New Spain , Barbara Mundy studies a survey ordered in 1580 by solution the Spanish Viceroy of template nursing study New Spain, an area covering central Mexico. A wide-ranging questionnaire was sent out to local officials, who were also asked to provide maps of their territory. Proactiv Solution Essay! The resulting maps vary widely in form, symbolism, and content, some following a Westernized mapping style and others clearly the product of a preexisting Aztec tradition. Mundy's analysis is supported with good illustrations. Another important work is Thongchai Winichakul's Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation , which describes the intersection of writing nursing case study traditional Thai with Western colonial concepts of nationhood in proactiv solution essay, the nineteenth century, resulting in a delineation of Siam's boundaries and the formation of what the author calls the geo-body of Thailand. This process was map driven, in that the map did not represent the existing reality, but brought a new reality into being.
The traditional idea of Siam was based on papers a hierarchy of rulers rather than a delimited territory. The kingdom was focused on the center with vaguely determined edges. Pushed by border disputes with France and England, the monarchy took the mapping initiative. In the process of redefining Siam, the victims were the small semiautonomous border states with shifting and multiple allegiances. This book provides excellent and unusual insight into the role of maps in the interaction between Western and non-Western governments in the colonial era in Southeast Asia. Better illustrations, in color, of the Thai maps can be found in Thomas Surez's Early Mapping of Southeast Asia . Although European maps are the primary focus of Surez's book, there is a brief introductory section on native Asian maps. Essay! The beautifully illustrated China in Ancient and Modern Maps , edited by Yan Ping and others, covers 2,000 years of map history in a cartobibliographic format. Richard J. Smith's Chinese Maps: Images of All under Heaven is produced in a very small format and the illustrations are almost impossible to dissertation see, but the proactiv essay, text is extremely interesting. Smith's text and Yan's pictures are a good introduction to the field, more fully covered in titles, The History of proactiv solution essay Cartography , volume 2, book 2.
Matthew H. Edney's Mapping an causes of schizoprenia essays Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843 deals with imperialist issues from the European side. The main subject of proactiv solution his book is the causes of schizoprenia essays, immense project of mapping the Indian subcontinent, carried out by British overlords. Control was definitely the issue here, but, as Edney points out, there was much disorganization and bureaucratic confusion. He also puts the mapping project in the context of the Enlightenment, with its positivist approach to knowledge of the physical world, a subject treated more extensively in Geography and Enlightenment , edited by proactiv David Livingstone and Charles Withers. In conjunction with Edney's book, one might watch Measuring India, the eighth segment in the film series Shape of the World from the definition essay, 1991 production by Granada TV.
Simon Berthon and Andrew Robinson wrote a book based on the film series. Edney criticizes some of the proactiv essay, assumptions made in the film's more superficial account. The mapping of Europe's colonies inspired similar projects at home. Colonial Ireland was the first part of the British Isles to be mapped, as described by J.H. Andrews in A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland , followed by England's admirable Ordnance Survey maps. In the course of the nineteenth century, most European countries, and the United States, were surveyed in national mapping projects. At the same time, new types of maps that were useful to essay reforming governments were emerging.
Thematic maps, first developed to show physical (and potentially profitable) phenomena such as mineral deposits, were adapted to proactiv essay display social and economic themes. Maps became an definition of argument effective way to present the data gathered by census takers. Arthur H. Robinson's Early Thematic Mapping in the History of Cartography is the rather pedestrian title of a most interesting and readable book. The author argues that the development of thematic mapping in essay, the early nineteenth century was a revolution in the history of cartography comparable to the rediscovery of lost Ptolemy in the fifteenth century. One of the most sensational of the thematic maps John Snow described is Robinson's 1855 map of London, marking sites of deaths from cholera. Thanks to Snow's graphic presentation, it became clear that a huge disproportion of fatal illnesses occurred within a few city blocks near the solution essay, Broad Street pump.
This work led directly not only to the closing of the offending pump but also to the understanding of the role of contaminated water in spreading the dissertation, disease. Since the essay, nineteenth century, the subject matter for thematic maps has continued to expand. Such maps are used to writing case study illustrate the geographical distribution of essay various phenomena, such as religions, languages, employment, plant species, earthquakes, and zoning regulations. By the eighteenth century, new surveying techniques made it possible to produce accurate relief maps for the first time, showing the earth's surface in causes of schizoprenia, three dimensions. A dispute arose over proactiv, the most effective way of names essay papers presenting this information, whether with some type of shading (intuitively comprehensive) or by proactiv the use of contour lines (more accurate). P.D.A. Harvey's The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys presents developments from names early pictorial maps through the various technical changes. Besides the expected coverage of proactiv solution European maps, he includes examples from Mexico, India, China, and Japan. Essays! Infinite Perspectives , a recent book by brothers Brian M. Ambroziak and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak, offers a brief history of topographical mapping, but the authors are most anxious to promote their 3-D method (glasses included).
It is not surprising to find that much of the proactiv, progress in topographical mapping took place in the challenging terrain of Switzerland. The 19th Century: Education and essay papers Literacy. The expansion of public education in the nineteenth century and the consequent increase in literacy led to greater familiarity with and use of maps. Whereas a map in the Middle Ages would have been a relatively rare document, seen by few people, a map now became a common item, seen and essay used by many. The idea of producing a map for way-finding, which seems essential to our modern idea of titles maps, was a rather late development.
Although there are examples of itinerary maps before the sixteenth century, they seem to have functioned as records of journeys already taken or possibly as planning documents. The invention of solution essay printing, however, was soon followed by the production of small, folding maps that could be carried in writing nursing study, one's saddlebag, and eventually one's glove compartment. In 1996, the essay, Nebenzahl Lectures at lost names essay the Newberry Library featured Maps on the Move, and a book of the lectures, offered by James Akerman, is slated to appear in the coming year. A brief but informative article, Twentieth-Century Highway Maps, by Thomas Schlereth, can be found in From Sea Charts to Satellite Images , edited by David Buisseret. Douglas A. Yorke and proactiv John Margolies's Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map examines the art work that appeared on road maps, with numerous colored illustrations. Maps were apparently used in causes of schizoprenia, schools from ancient times, and several geographical texts from the Middle Ages seem to have been lectures delivered while standing in proactiv, front of a map. Jeremy Black's Maps and essay papers History deals in part with school atlases, which were frequently the conveyors of nationalistic bias. Maps in bibles appeared in quantity after the Protestant Reformation, again facilitated by the invention of printing. These woodcut maps educated their readers on the subject of the travels of solution essay Paul, the disposition of the ancient kingdoms of Israel, and the possible location of the Garden of my favorite essay Eden.
An illustrated catalog of these early maps can be found in Catherine Delano-Smith and Elizabeth Morley Ingram's Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600 . Walter Ristow's American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century surveys the business of essay making and selling maps. Printed maps were first made abroad to be sold in America, but eventually the United States had its own map-printing industry. Before the establishment of the US Geological survey in 1879, most American mapmaking was in private hands. Rand McNally, founded in 1856, long dominated the field, and the firm receives a detailed history in Ristow's book. Tiger! The map as an icon, sometimes more or less informative, now appears everywhere: in books, newspapers, on television, in advertisements. The distortions that frequently mark these productions are described by Mark Monmonier in How to Lie with Maps and Maps with the News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography . Nigel Holmes's Pictorial Maps includes a number of proactiv solution essay excellent color illustrations of such maps. Of Argument Essay! This interesting book not only traces the history of cartography but gives many examples of essay maps in titles, jokes, books, tourist literature, and postcards. The text is brief, but the pictures are well chosen. J.B. Post's An Atlas of essay Fantasy features maps meant to be works of fiction, from the map in Thomas More's Utopia to more modern imagined landscapes, many of them book illustrations.
Peter Gould and Rodney White's Mental Maps discusses how maps of real places are shaped by of argument ideas and experiences, which affect distance, detail, and direction. The authors give a dramatic example of a map drawn by a young black boy of his neighborhood in Philadelphia. Though his immediate surroundings are presented in detail, the white-occupied area across the road is a blank terra incognita. Celestial maps are at least as old as terrestrial ones. Until recent times, globes were produced in pairs: one celestial, adorned with drawings of the constellations, and one terrestrial. An example is the enormous Coronelli globes made in the seventeenth century for Louis XIV. Smaller versions of these globes are on permanent display in the Library of Congress. An excellent account of Islamic celestial cartography by Emilie Savage-Smith appears in The History of Cartography , volume 2, book 1, edited by Harley and Woodward. Peter Whitfield's The Mapping of the Heavens offers an proactiv solution overview of the development of celestial maps with colored illustrations. Terrestrial globes were not commonly made in the West until the causes of schizoprenia essays, sixteenth century, but they soon became a staple of both the philosopher's study and the schoolroom. The globe clearly solved the knotty problem of map projection, but its expense and general cumbersomeness limited its use.
A good general book on the topic is Elly Dekker and Peter van der Krogt's Globes from the Western World . There seems to proactiv essay be no single book on the development of mapping techniques from the education titles, impressionistic views of the Middle Ages to the introduction of latitude and longitude in the fifteenth century and the invention of triangulation for use in surveying in the sixteenth century. Longitude has recently attracted attention thanks to Dava Sobel's best-selling book Longitude on the drama of essay John Harrison and his lifelong quest for a clock that would keep perfect time at sea. Sobel's enhanced version of this book, The Illustrated Longitude , is coauthored by William Andrewes. The intelligent captions-and pictures-add a great deal to the work. Andrewes is also the my favorite, editor of the papers from the Longitude Symposium (1993), The Quest for Longitude . Mapmaking tools were refined in succeeding centuries, up through the twentieth-century explosion of new technology. Norman Thrower succinctly covers this development in Maps Civilization . He states that the introduction of aerial photography (first balloons, then airplanes) produced dramatic changes in mapping, enabling mapmakers to extend their vision to remote, inaccessible areas of the world. In the second half of the twentieth century, satellite photography came to supplement photographs taken from airplanes. Satellites are now of even greater importance in providing reliable coordinates for the Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By providing any holder of proactiv solution essay these small, hand-held devices with exact latitude, longitude, and altitude, mapmaking was instantly democratized and way-finding made potentially easier, though many ambitious hikers have used the system to winkle literary analysis essay get profoundly lost.
Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer's Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation describes these developments. The drawing of maps has been revolutionized by proactiv the use of computers. Indeed, the leading journal in the field, The American Cartographer , has changed its name to Cartography and Geographic Information Systems . Using the appropriate software, the mapmaker can change projection, scale, or text, and print the titles, results with ease. For the possibilities of such a system one may consult the latest edition of a textbook such as Ed Madej's Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . The opening chapter describes the rapid advances in computer cartography in solution essay, the last decade but warns, You can make maps rapidly with the software, which means that you can also produce a lot of bad maps quickly. Dissertation! An overview of GIS can be found in Geographical Information Systems , edited by Paul A. Longley et al.
This two-volume compendium is made up of proactiv solution essay chapters contributed by different experts. At the present, mapmaking is going in two diametrically opposed directions: the titles, increasing, even finicky, accuracy of physical maps, and the quirky, cartoon-like maps that accompany advertising, journalism, and other popular media. The map is now such a familiar image that it is hard to imagine a time when most people had never seen one. The daily weather map is an example of the proactiv solution, widespread modern use of maps, whether one sees the colored version in the newspapers with its cryptic array of signs or the animated version on television with its simulated swirling air masses. It is easy to see why most histories of cartography end in 1900 or even earlier, as the explosion of new technologies, new uses for maps, and their universality in contemporary culture raise numerous questions, difficult to resolve. By studying the maps of the past, one is led to reflect on writing nursing case how each period and culture has drawn maps to suit itself, and then our obsession with physical accuracy is placed in its proper perspective. Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of his Death, 1598-1998 , ed. by solution essay Marcel van den Broecke, Peter van der Krogt, and Peter Meurer. Houten, Netherlands: HES Publishers, 1998. Akerman, James. Maps on the Move.
Newberry Library (forthcoming). Ambroziak, Brian M., and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak. Infinite Perspectives: Two Thousand Years of Three-Dimensional Mapmaking . Princeton Architectural Press, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Andrews, J.H. A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland . Oxford, 1975. My Favorite Animal Essay! Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, ed. by David Woodward. Chicago, 1987. Bagrow, Leo. History of Cartography . Rev. and enl. by R.A. Skelton. Harvard, 1966.
Beazley, C. Solution! Raymond. The Dawn of Modern Geography. Essay! P. Smith, 1949. Original ed., London, 1901. Proactiv Solution! 3v. Causes Essays! Berthon, Simon, and Andrew Robinson. The Shape of the World: The Mapping and Discovery of the Earth . Rand McNally, 1991.
The Shape of the World video produced by proactiv Granada TV (CH, Jun'91). Black, Jeremy. Maps and History: Constructing Images of the dissertation, Past . Yale, 1997 (CH, Nov'97). ____. Proactiv Essay! Maps and Politics. Chicago, 1997 (CH, Jul'97).
Braun, Georg. Essay! The City Maps of solution essay Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg , John Goss. Rand McNally, 1992. British Library. The City in education dissertation titles, Maps: Urban Mapping to proactiv 1900 , [by] James Elliott. London: British Library, 1987. Brodersen, Kai. Terra Cognita: Studien zur rmischen Raumerfassung . Hildesheim: G.Olms, 1995. Essay! London: Reaktion Books, 1997. Brotton, Jerry. Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World.
Cornell, 1998 (CH, Sep'98). Burden, Philip D. The Mapping of proactiv solution North America: A List of Printed Maps, 1511-1670. Rickmansworth, Herts.: Raleigh Publishers, 1996. Campbell, Tony. Essays! The Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . California, 1987 (CH, Oct'88).
Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to essay 1900 , ed. by _Helen M. Wallis and Arthur H. Robinson. Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1987. China in Ancient and Modern Maps , Yan Ping et al. Lost Essay! London: Sotheby's, 1998. Conley, Tom. The Self-Made Map: Cartographic Writing in Early Modern France. Minnesota, 1996 (CH, May'97). Cresques, Abraham. Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the proactiv solution essay, Year 1375 , ed. and with commentary by Georges Grosjean. Dissertation Titles! Dietikon-Zurich: Urs Graf; distrib. by Abaris Books, 1987.
Crosby, Alfred W. The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600. Cambridge, 1997 (CH, May'97). Proactiv Solution! Cumming, William P. The Southeast in Early Maps. 3rd ed. Rev. and enl. by Louis DeVorsey. North Carolina, 1998.
Orig. ed., 1958. Dekker, Elly, and Peter van der Krogt. Globes from the Western World . Zwemmer, 1993. Delano-Smith, Catherine, and case Elizabeth M. Ingram. Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600: An Illustrated Catalogue.
Libraririe Droz, 1991. Delano-Smith, Catherine, and Roger J.P. Kain. English Maps: A History . British Library, 1999. Dilke, O.A.W. Greek and Roman Maps. Cornell, 1985. ____.
The Roman Land Surveyors: An Introduction to the Agrimensores. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1971. Solution! Edney, Matthew H. Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of causes of schizoprenia essays British India, 1765-1843. Chicago, 1997 (CH, Dec'97). Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World . London: British Library, 1997.
Five Centuries of Map Printing, ed. by David Woodward. Essay! Chicago, 1975. Nebenzahl lectures of 1972. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps , ed. by David Buisseret; introd. by J.B. Harley. Chicago, 1990 (CH, Jun'91). Gambi, Lucio. The Gallery of Maps in the Vatican , tr. by Paul Tucker. George Braziller, 1997. Of Argument Essay! Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and proactiv Management , ed. by Paul A. Longley et al.
2nd ed. Wiley, 1999. Geography and Enlightenment , ed. by David N. Livingstone and Charles W.J. Withers. Chicago, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Gould, Peter R., and Rodney White. Mental Maps . 2nd ed. Allen Unwin, 1986. My Favorite Animal Essay! Harley, J. Proactiv Solution! Brian. Maps and my favorite animal tiger essay the Columbian Encounter . Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin, 1990.
Harvey, P.D.A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys . Thames Hudson, 1980. ____. Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map. Proactiv Solution! Toronto, 1996 (CH, Dec'96). ____. Medieval Maps . Causes! Toronto, 1991. The History of Cartography , ed. by J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. 2v. Chicago, 1987 et seq.
2v., 2nd vol. in 3 books (CH, Mar'93). Volume 3 (forthcoming). Holmes, Nigel. Solution! Pictorial Maps . Watson-Guptill, 1991. The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design, and Use of Past Environments , ed. by Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels. Cambridge, 1988.
Irving, Washington. A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus . A. and W. Galignani, 1828. Template Nursing Case Study! Jacob, Christian. The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography Through History; tr. by Tom Conley. Proactiv Essay! Chicago, forthcoming.
Translated from L'empire des cartes: approche thorique de la cartographie travers l'histoire . Albin Michel, 1992. Karrow, Robert W., Jr. Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and essays Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570 . Speculum Orbis Press, 1993. Kimble, George H.T. Geography in the Middle Ages . Essay! London: Methuen, 1938. Kline, Naomi Reed. A Wheel of Memory: The Hereford Cathedral Map. Rip Van Analysis! CD-ROM. Michigan, 2000. Konvitz, Josef W. Cartography in proactiv solution essay, France, 1660-1848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft . Dissertation! Chicago, 1987.
Lillesand, Thomas M., and Ralph W. Kiefer. Remote Sensing and solution essay Image Interpretation . 3rd ed. Wiley, 1994. Longitude Symposium (1993: Harvard University). The Quest for Longitude: The Proceedings of the Longitude Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 4-6, 1993 , ed. by William J.H. Causes! Andrewes. Harvard, 1997 (CH, Apr'97).
Madej, Ed. Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . Solution! Albany, NY: OnWord Press, 2001. Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle . CD-ROM facsimile of Atlas Catalan in winkle essay, Bibliothque Nationale, Paris. Codition Bibliothque nationale de France/ Opus Species; Montparnasse Multimdia (1998). Mappings , ed. by Denis Cosgrove. London: Reaktion Books, 1999. Mercator, Gerhard. The Mercator Atlas of Europe: Facsimile of the Maps by Gerardus Mercator Contained in the Atlas of Europe, circa 1570-1572 , ed. by Marcel Watelet. 2v.
Walking Tree, 1998. Mignolo, Walter. The Darker Side of the Renaissance: Literacy, Territoriality, and Colonization . Michigan, 1995 (CH, Mar'96). Mollat du Jourdin, Michel, and solution Monique de la Roncire with Marie-Madeleine Azard, Isabelle Raynaud-Nguyen, and Marie Antoinette Vannereau. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers: 13th to 17th Century , tr. by L. Le R. Dethan. Thames and Hudson, 1984. Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe , ed. by David Buisseret. The Kenneth Nebenzahl, Jr. Lectures on the History of Cartography.
Chicago, 1992. Monmonier, Mark. Drawing the Line: Tales of Maps and definition of argument Cartocontroversy . Henry Holt, 1995. ___. How to Lie with Maps . Chicago, 1996. ___. Maps with the News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography. Chicago, 1989 (CH, Feb'90). Mukerji, Chandra. From Graven Images: Patterns of proactiv Modern Materialism . Columbia, 1983 (CH, May'84).
Mundy, Barbara E. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geogrficas . Chicago, 1996 (CH, Apr'97). Nicolet, Claude. Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire. Michigan, 1991. Transl. from L'Inventaire du Monde: Gographie et politique aux origines de l'empire Romain.
Paris: 1988. Pedley, Mary Sponberg. Bel et Utile: The Work of template nursing study Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1992. Polk, Dora Beale. The Island of California: A History of the Myth Nebraska, 1996.
Post, J.W. An Atlas of Fantasy . Mirage Press, 1973. Proactiv! Ptolemy. Cosmographia. Bologna, 1477, introd. by R.A. Definition! Skelton. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1964. ____. Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolemaei, introd. by Lelio Pagani; [tr. by proactiv essay Simon Knight]. Leicester, England: Magna Books [1990?]. ____. The Geography , Claudius Ptolemy; tr. and ed. by Edward Luther Stevenson.
New York Public Library, 1932. Reissued by Dover, 1991. Ristow, Walter W. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century . Definition Essay! Wayne State, 1985. Robinson, Arthur H. Essay! Early Thematic Mapping in the History of Cartography . Chicago, 1982. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians . Praeger, 1997. Schilder, Gnter.
Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica . 4v., 1 each text and essay atlas. Aalphen aan den Rijn: Canaletto, 1986-92. Solution Essay! Schwartz, Seymour I., and Ralph E. Ehrenberg. Rip Van Winkle Literary Analysis! The Mapping of America . Abrams, 1980. Shirley, Rodney W. The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700. London: Holland Press, 1983. Skelton, R.A.
Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of proactiv Geographical Discovery. Praeger, 1958. Skelton, R.A., Thomas E. Marston, and George D. Painter. The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation. Dissertation Titles! Yale University Library, 1965. Smail, Daniel Lord. Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in essay, Late Medieval Marseille . Cornell, 2000. Smith, Richard J. Chinese Maps: Images of All under Heaven. Oxford, 1996. Rip Van Literary Analysis! Snyder, John P. Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections.
Chicago, 1993 (CH, Feb'94). Sobel, Dava. Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time . Walker, 1995 (CH, Mar'96). Sobel, Dava, and proactiv essay William J.H. Andrewes. The Illustrated Longitude.
Walker, 1998. Stommel, Henry. Lost Islands: The Story of education dissertation Islands That Have Vanished from Nautical Charts . Solution! Vancouver: British Columbia, 1984. Surez, Thomas. Early Mapping of Southeast Asia . Singapore: Periplus Editions, 1999. Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324, vollst. Faks.-Ausg.
Im Originalformat, commentary by Ekkehard Weber. Graz: Academ. Druck- und Verlagsanst, 1976. Thongchai Winichakul. Siam Mapped: A History of the education titles, Geo-Body of a Nation. Solution! Hawaii, 1994. Thrower, Norman J.W.
Maps Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society. Chicago, 1996. Revised edition of Maps and papers Man (CH, Sep'96). Trade, Travel, and Exploration in proactiv, the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia ed. by John Block Friedman, . . . [et al.]. Garland, 2000 (CH, Feb'01). Of Schizoprenia Essays! Whitfield, Peter. The Image of the World: 20 Centuries of World Maps. Pomegranate Artbooks in association with the British Library, 1994. ____. The Mapping of the Heavens. London: British Library, 1995. ____.
New Found Lands: Maps in the History of Exploration. Routledge, 1998 (CH, Dec'98). Who's Who in the History of Cartography: The International Guide to the Subject (D9), ed. by solution essay Mary Alice Lowenthal. Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1998. Wood, Denis with John Fels. The Power of Maps.
Guilford Press, 1992. Woodward, David. Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers. London: British Library, 1996. Wright, John K. The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe. American Geographical Society, 1925; Dover, 1965. Yorke, Douglas A., and John Margolies. Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map. Design by Eric Baker Design Associates.
Chronicle Books, 1996. Causes Of Schizoprenia Essays! Zandvliet, Kees. Proactiv Solution! Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998. The American Cartographer . Titles! Falls Church, VA: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1974-1989. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1990-1998. Imago Mundi. Berlin: Selbstverlag des Bibliographikon, 1935- . Solution Essay! Annual. The Map Collector . Tring, England, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1979-1996.
Absorbed by Mercator's World. Mapline . Hermon Dunlap Smith Center for the History of Cartography at the Newberry Library, Chicago, 1976- . Mercator's World: The Magazine of Maps, Atlases, Globes, and Charts . Eugene, OR: Aster Publishing Company, 1996- . Absorbed The Map Collector in 1996. Six issues annually. The Portolan. Essay! Silver Spring, MD: Washington Map Society, 1984- . Three issues annually.
Terrae Incognitae . Annals of the Society for the History of Discoveries. Essay! Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1969- . Oddens' Bookmarks: The Fascinating World of Maps and writing study Mapping.
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How to proactiv essay pass graduate aptitude tests. Aptitude tests are structured systematic ways of evaluating how people perform on tasks or react to different situations. They have standardised methods of causes, administration and scoring with the results quantified and compared with how others have done at the same tests. They are increasingly administered on a computer. University of essay, Kent Careers has established a partnership with Graduates First for practice aptitude tests. Of Schizoprenia? Register using your Kent email address at proactiv essay, www.graduatesfirst.com/cp/kent/login.aspx to essays take the solution following free tests: 3 verbal reasoning tests 3 numerical reasoning tests 3 logical reasoning tests. A work style personality questionnaire Situational judgement test Assessment centre exercises. There are the of schizoprenia following timed, free practice aptitude tests on this web site including answers and proactiv solution working out: Numerical Reasoning Numerical Reasoning: Graphs and Tables Letter Sequences (logical reasoning) Non-Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning (synonyms and antonyms) Verbal Logic Test Computer Aptitude Test Vocabulary Test Homonyms Test Spelling and punctuation test for rip van analysis essay, applications not strictly a psychometric test, but will help with verbal skills.
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The numerical was the usual extract data from graphs, pie charts. It gets more complex as you go along but from what I've seen it's not important to finish and proactiv essay more often than not you are not expected to finish given the time constraint as they also look at your accuracy. The numerical test was the interpretation of graphs and pie charts and the questions get harder as you go along. The verbal test was one of those where you are given a paragraph and you are supposed to my favorite tiger essay say if 'true', 'false', or 'can't tell' given a set of questions, and they get trickier as you go long. Practise numerical and verbal reasoning tests as much as possible. Diagrammatic and spatial reasoning are different but frequently confused. Diagrammatic reasoning (also called abstract reasoning) tests provide good measures of general intelligence.
They involve evaluating processes represented via diagrams, understanding logical rules and process diagrams and identifying causes. Abstract reasoning is used where the ability to proactiv solution essay cope with complexity and lost essay papers deal with novelty is required rather than relying on solution previous experience. Spatial reasoning tests predict the ability to essay papers work with complex plans. Solution Essay? Spatial reasoning involves mentally rotating two dimensional representations of of argument, three dimensional shapes. It is needed in engineering settings, architecture and interior design. See our practice computer aptitude test. Often if you are given aptitude tests for a computing job, these will be standard numerical, verbal and solution diagrammatic tests but sometimes you will get a programming aptitude test . Some of these use pseudocode, flowcharting, or assembly language . Of Schizoprenia? You can find information at www.psychometrics-uk.com How to pass professional level psychometric tests by Sam Al-Jajjoka (Kogan Page 2001) has a chapter called Psychometric Tests for IT Recruitment with an example assembly language test.
Ask at Careers reception to proactiv solution use our reference copy. Parity IT Aptitude Test . Very difficult test which tests your suitability for Information Systems roles by rip van probing your logical thinking and a disciplined approach to complex problems Don't need computing knowledge or strong mathematical ability just ability to proactiv essay work through complex problems. You are given five increasingly complex problems to causes do over a day. The test does not have a time limit, but you need to record the proactiv essay time the test takes you. Most people take from my favorite three to six hours to solution essay complete the test. You are free to make beverages and take comfort breaks, and deduct this from the overall time from the start of test until you finish.
Questions mix very long mathematical and education programming problems e.g. keep following an arrow in different directions, and add numbers on different lines at the same time, until you find a certain digit. The test was very much IT based. You can't do much to proactiv prepare for this test. Only one test per year can be conducted, per type of test, per person. It is very much a pass or fail test so if you do feel “under the weather” or not at your best, say before you start the essays test. Feedback from Kent students after tests at solution essay, computing interviews. I had a programming aptitude test.
Simple command line language and practice examples with answers provided. Have to do simple maths with this computer language, similar to concept of of argument, registers in the ALU. Included WRT: write to screen, STO: store, SUB: Subtract etc. Also included conditionals and loops. Proactiv Solution Essay? I was given a technical awareness test which included the following questions: What is on-chip cache?: Level 0, Level 1, Level 2; How many bytes is lost 2^20?
Where are UNIX system configuration files kept?: /etc, /usr, /opt; Lots of questions about Java, servers Multiple choice questions based on pseudocode. (AXA) UML diagram for animal/cat/dog - explain About firewalls and proactiv solution proxy servers (Phillips Research) Very challenging and probing technical questions about the skills I added on of argument essay my application form: C++, Java, Windows and Linux questions but also questions on data structures (linked lists, array lists etc) and sorting algorithms. (Morgan Stanley) They gave me random on the spot maths questions that you had to think 'outside of the box' to solve. Proactiv Solution? (Morgan Stanley) Abstract test, finding patterns etc. (AXA) Wireless internet standards: advantages of WAP over WEP Decide the next letter in a sequence e.g. a - c - e - g . ? See our Letter Sequences test. These are used in order to determine your typical reactions and attitudes to a range of situations . They ask about writing nursing your preferences and proactiv solution try to identify how well you get on with others, your normal reaction to lost names essay papers stressful situations or your feelings about the kind of people you like to work with. They assess how you do things whereas ability tests assess how well you perform tasks. They help the selector find out your style and proactiv way of doing things. Names? Sensible organisations will use the questionnaire in conjunction with your application form, interview and essay other information to template study make decisions rather than in isolation. It is unlikely that these questionnaires will be timed or indeed have right or wrong answers. Do not let this lack of proactiv essay, exam conditions fool you. Some employers will know precisely what they are looking for in terms of an ideal Personality Profile and it is up to writing case you to meet their expectations.
Don't think too long about your answers, as your first reaction to proactiv essay a question is often the most accurate. It is unwise to try to my favorite essay fake the answers. These questionnaires usually have some type of internal checking where the same question is asked with different wording early and late in the test to try to detect dishonest answers. You may also be interviewed about your answers, and dishonesty may be found out during the interview. Ultimately, there is little point in pretending to be the kind of employee a firm is looking for if you are not right for them. Solution? Find something else you will enjoy doing! A Situational Judgement Test (SJT) allows recruiters to gain an causes of schizoprenia essays insight into the candidates decision-making within the relevant environment. Proactiv? SJTs also give candidates clear understanding of the role and kind of work situations they may encounter. There is usually a minimum cut-off score.
A typical question may ask If you saw your line manager stealing at work, what would you do? and then there would be three options to choose from. These tests are becoming increasingly common and are used by Accenture, PWC, McDonald's and many others. I'm not personally convinced of their reliability in recruiting the right graduates as often the answers are very ambiguous in these tests. Practice situational judgement tests: University of Kent students can take a Graduates First Situational judgement test. Register using your Kent email address at www.graduatesfirst.com/cp/kent/login.aspx Assessment day www.assessmentday.co.uk/situational-judgement-test New situational judgement test http://situationaljudgementtest.org.uk completely free. All participant data is anonymous Practice Aptitude Tests www.practiceaptitudetests.com/situational-judgement-tests www.psychometrictest.org.uk/sjt www.jobtestprep.co.uk/practice_situational_judgement www.cubiksonline.com/FastStream/Assessments/Views/Assessment.aspx.
See our Choosing a Career and Skills pages for a variety of tests Personality Type Tests What animal are you? Take a very interesting version of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator test http://icould.com/buzz/ It will tell you your personality type and rip van essay suggest some careers that would fit your personality. Team technology www.teamtechnology.co.uk/tt/common/contents.htm the proactiv Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - discover your personality type. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter http://keirsey.com Personality questionnaire with instant feedback on personality types Another good Myers-Briggs test www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp Personality Test Center www.personalitytest.net A collection of free professionally developed tests that help users discover their personality type and rip van winkle literary essay individual personality traits Outofservice www.outofservice.com fun personality tests Windmills Programme www.windmillsprogramme.com exercises to help you manage your career. Career Development Profiler www.testing-direct.com assess your personality, motivation and work interests. Tips and comments from Kent students. The Motivation Questionnaire was multiple choice, the title is misleading. This is more like a ‘Personality Questionnaire’.
You must choose in each case between two options. Proactiv? If you cannot decide you must pick the closest fit. Be careful what you choose. Rip Van Winkle Analysis? They say that this has no bearing on their decision. However, if this is the case why bother doing it, and when you see the result at the end I think you will feel as I did that it must be taken into consideration. Statements were of the type: ‘a job that requires a great deal of concentration on detail and the following of processes or rules with no opportunity for taking the broader view you may find to be boring, restricting or stressful’. Test taking itself is a skill which can be improved! Practice makes perfect. Evidence suggests that some practice of similar tests may improve your performance on actual tests but don't spend too long practising. Brush up on your exam technique and proactiv perhaps become more familiar with the types of test you may face.
Our practice tests (see the column on the left) should help. Even word and my favorite number puzzles may help you become used to the comprehension and proactiv solution essay arithmetic aspects of some tests. Listen to template writing study the instructions you are given and proactiv essay follow them precisely. Many people make errors because they've misunderstood what they have to definition do. Proactiv Solution Essay? Check the essay amount of time you have and the number of questions you have to answer in that time. You have to get a good balance between speed and solution accuracy : work quickly during the analysis essay test , but pay attention to your accuracy. Proactiv Essay? Don't panic if you can't complete the test as not everyone will be able to: most candidates find these tests hard!
Do try to answer as many questions as possible though. If you have time left at the end, check your answers. You can only score points for questions you answer, not for those you don't. Education? Often there will be a lot of questions in essay, a short time. Try not to get bogged down on any one question: leave it until the end of the test, but remember that questions may get harder as you proceed. Lost Names? Educated guesses are worthwhile . In multiple choice tests, you may be able to quickly rule out obviously wrong answers and concentrate on those that are left. In maths tests you may be able to essay estimate the answer rather than working it out precisely, to save time. Some older tests (for example an IBM programmer test), those used by the FSA and some investment banks use negative marking where marks are deducted for incorrect answers so random guesses don't work. In non-negatively marked tests a box ticking monkey could get a 20% score! Negative marking is not used in many tests: you could ask the test administrator if negative marking is used but they may choose not to tell you!
If you have a numerical test coming up and haven't done any maths since school then brush up on your numeracy - try BBC Skillswise Stop using a calculator for everyday calculations, practice your multiplication and division, ability to my favorite tiger essay calculate percentages, and to read graphs and tables. Our numeracy tests (to the left) have answers with full working out shown. Solution Essay? Similarly if your English is weak brush up on template writing nursing case this. Personality tests don't have right and wrong answers. Be honest and essay open when answering these. You'll do your best if your adrenalin is flowing slightly, so don't worry about education dissertation worrying! But try to stay calm and focused and try to enjoy the experience. Increasingly tests are on-line. Again try our on-line practice tests to gain familiarity. Make sure you are in a quiet place where you won't be disturbed and in a good frame of mind. If the test was taken unsupervised on essay the web you may be asked to sit another, shorter test at the interview stage to make sure you didn't get someone else to causes of schizoprenia essays do it for you.
Treat it like an interview: get a good night's sleep, plan your journey to solution essay the test site, arrive on time and literary analysis essay appropriately dressed. Tiredness and alcohol can affect your ability to do well! Before the actual test, you will be given practice examples to proactiv try: make sure you ask questions if anything is unclear at names essay, this stage. Solution Essay? Take a calculator with you: most maths tests now allow a calculator. If so you will be given one, but may be allowed to use your own. A number of books on the subject of tests, including many practice examples, are available for reference in of schizoprenia, the Careers Service building. How to Pass Graduate Psychometric Tests Graduate Psychometric Test Workbook How to Pass Psychometric Tests You’re Hired! Psychometric Tests. Ultimate Psychometric Tests Ultimate Aptitude Tests Verbal Reasoning Tests How to Pass Numerical Reasoning Tests Advanced Numerical Reasoning Tests.
For more details of all the above books, see our online shelf at www.librarything.com/catalog/UniKentCareers. How to Pass Numerical Reasoning Tests Brilliant Verbal Reasoning Tests: Everything you need to know to pass verbal reasoning tests. Take free tests at essay, www.graduatesfirst.com. University of Kent Careers use Graduates First for practice aptitude tests. Students can sign up to rip van winkle analysis use the essay tests themselves using their Kent email address. Register at www.graduatesfirst.com/cp/kent/login.aspx to take the following tests: 3 verbal reasoning tests 3 numerical reasoning tests 3 logical reasoning tests. Template Writing Nursing Case Study? A work style personality questionnaire Situational judgement test Assessment centre exercises There are the following practice aptitude tests available on this web site . Numerical Reasoning Numerical Reasoning: Graphs and Tables Letter Sequences (Logical thinking) Non-Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning (Synonyms and Antonyms) Verbal Logic Test Computer Aptitude Test Vocabulary Test Spelling and punctuation test for applications not strictly a psychometric test, but will help with verbal skills. Essay? Lateral (Creative) Thinking Quiz Second Lateral Thinking Test Riddles: another way of Lateral Thinking Lateral Logical Mathematical Test SHL Direct www.shldirect.com Free examples of lost, ability test questions and essay personality questionnaires and timed practice tests with feedback on how you compare to other applicants. PracticeSHLTests.com www.practiceshltests.com Profiles companies to understand how each of them use aptitude and psychometric testing in their recruiting processes and of argument gathers information about their assessment centres and proactiv essay interview procedures. Saville Consulting www.savilleconsulting.com/products/aptitude_preparationguides.aspx downloadable verbal, numerical and diagrammatic example tests. Assessment Day www.assessmentday.co.uk Free numerical and verbal graduate aptitude tests that mimic the type employers use - very good!
Practice Reasoning Tests http://practicereasoningtests.com new aptitude test website, designed to help students find out about employer's aptitude tests. Job Test Prep www.jobtestprep.co.uk includes a practice situational judgement test Institute of rip van essay, Practitioners in Advertising Diagonal Thinking Self-assessment Tool Morrisby examples of ability tests. www.Morrisby.com Top Employers Numeracy tests sponsored by JP Morgan and based on graduate numeracy/data interpretation tests. Psychometric Success www.psychometric-success.com non-commercial site is aimed at providing student job seekers with the practice material they need to solution essay pass psychometric job selection tests. Over 100 pages of essay, free information on psychometric and aptitude tests and has over solution essay, 50 free downloadable practice tests. Writing Case? Online Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Test http://giqtest.com Spatial/non-verbal/diagrammatic reasoning questions. Can try the questions for free, but have to pay to get the results.
Psych Press www.psychpress.com.au/html/PsychometricTestGuide.asp free trials of numerical, verbal, abstract reasoning and other tests. Solution Essay? QueenDom www.queendom.com Offers a variety of personality, aptitude and intelligence tests List of companies offering practice tests www.psychtesting.org.uk/directories/practice-tests.cfm GRE Test Examples www.ets.org/gre GRE are american university entrance tests. Template Writing Case? GMAT Test. This is the proactiv solution Graduate Management Admissions Test often used by lost names papers business schools to select for MBA courses. Solution? It involves critical and verbal reasoning, data sufficiency, reading comprehension, sentence correction, and problem solving plus written essays. See Graduate Management Admission Council www.gmac.com/gmac/default.htm if you are interested in applying for MBA courses. Fulbright Commission London office www.fulbright.co.uk has test information for study in the US www.mba.com/mba/TaketheGMAT has some example questions and case study free tests if you register. www.getfeedback.net/products/psy/wgcta_ranra.html has practice tests www.gmattutor.com/links.html for links to free practice tests.
Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Test www.getfeedback.net Designed to find out how well people can reason analytically and logically. It is a very demanding test which is used to test staff who will be involved in complex decision making (policy formulation, strategy planning etc). It tests inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretation and evaluation of arguments. For each test, it gives a brief statement (which you are to regard as true) and follows these by proposed inferences/assumptions etc. Proactiv Essay? which you rate as true, probably true, insufficient data, probably false or false. You respond to both neutral and controversial items. The controversial items are designed to arouse attitudes, opinions and biases that can interfere with the ability to think critically. These refer to my favorite tiger essay political, economic and essay social issues which provoke strong feelings Employers giving the essay test should give candidates the practice booklet. It is similar to the GMAT Test (see above). Solution? Educational Testing Service www.ets.org give access to practice questions for GMAT, GRE and of argument the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). www.markparkinson.co.uk/psychometric_links.htm links to lots of practice tests on the web. Solution? 10 minute IQ test on-line www.intelligencetest.com Career Test www.3smartcubes.com/pages/careers.asp collection of tests related to causes of schizoprenia career and career development plus many other IQ Personality tests. BBC Skillswise Improve your numeracy and literacy www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise Maths Centre www.mathcentre.ac.uk includes a maths test you can print off.
EMPLOYER SELF SELECTION TESTS Civil Service www.faststream.gov.uk GCHQ www.gchq.gov.uk. What can I do with my degree. These pages are copyright of the University of Kent Careers and Employability Service. The information and proactiv advice given in these pages is primarily for lost names papers, the benefit of University of Kent students and graduates. You are most welcome to link to these pages but should not use content in other ways without our permission.
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9 Ways to Make Speech Therapy Homework Work for proactiv essay You. Nursing! There are many benefits of doing speech therapy exercises at home. More practice usually means faster improvement 1 , and therapy with software 2 at home or with a volunteer 3 has been shown to be effective. But do you or a loved one find yourself going home from the speech therapist’s office with the best of proactiv solution, intentions only to lose enthusiasm after a day or two? Don’t get discouraged! This may be the first time you’ve had to animal, do “homework” in years and proactiv essay you may need to (re)establish good homework habits to lost names essay, set yourself up for success. Here are some tips to solution essay, help you get started: Put homework on the calendar like any other important appointment.
Pick a time of day when you have energy and can focus. Schedule your speech therapy exercises for that time every day to establish a habit. If your goal is an essay, hour of practice every day, don’t feel that you have to do it all at proactiv solution once. Rip Van Analysis Essay! You can break up homework into 20- or 30-minute chunks to help prevent mental fatigue and boredom. Proactiv Solution! Remember: consistency is what matters. Literary! Just 20 minutes a day for 4 weeks #8212; that#8217;s all it took for every single participant with aphasia to show improvement using our Language Therapy 4-in-1 app at home in a research study at Cambridge. If your speech-language pathologist (SLP) doesn’t give you a specific set of exercises, it may be up to you to decide what you’re going to do each day and when. It’s a good idea to make a “sandwich” of proactiv essay, difficulty. That is, start with something that’s not too challenging to definition, warm up the brain, then move to the harder tasks, then finish up with something a bit easier to leave yourself feeling confident.
Find a place in your home that’s comfortable, but not too comfortable to do your work. If the solution essay, couch or a recliner leaves you too relaxed, your focus may relax too. Sitting at the kitchen table or at a desk is a good idea, as it can put you into a work mindset. Of course, if sitting upright in a chair is physically uncomfortable, you won’t be able to focus on causes essays, your work either. Background noise makes it difficult to focus, so turn off the TV or radio when you do your homework. Proactiv Solution Essay! Silence the alerts on definition of argument, your phone and proactiv solution computer. Pick a time when family members aren’t all in the same room.
Sometimes a peaceful background of music can help you focus, so experiment with what works for you. Literary Analysis Essay! A communication partner can be a big help with speech therapy exercises. Proactiv! A helper can let you know whether an answer is correct or clear, provide cues when you’re stuck, or engage in conversation to dissertation, help you practice a strategy. They may be able to offer technical help, should you need it, if you’re practicing with a computer or tablet. Having your helper attend some of your speech therapy sessions can be useful too. The helper will learn tips from the therapist that they can reinforce at home. Homework helpers can join you via Skype, Facetime, or phone as well, so your loved ones can still support you even if they don’t live nearby. Proactiv! One way to start is by using Conversation Therapy, an app designed to be used by two or more people.
The interesting topics and of schizoprenia essays structured questions encourage discussion and back-and-forth communication to help you work on speech and language goals at home. Even couples who can seemingly read each others#8217; minds will find something new to talk about using this app. If you find yourself getting angry or frustrated while you’re practicing, stop. Take a break. Breathe deeply and calm down. Practice is supposed to help you get better.
If the speech therapy exercises leave you feeling frustrated, they’re probably too hard or you’re too tired. Essay! Ask for help. Causes! Or pick an easier activity or setting. If you start to associate homework with negative emotions, you probably won’t stick to your schedule. You need to watch out for negative feelings, and change what you’re doing the instant you feel them. It’s important to essay, set goals for yourself, and just as important to reward yourself when you reach them. Simply sticking to your practice schedule is a huge achievement, so give yourself credit for education titles that. The number of proactiv, items you get correct doesn’t matter as much as the fact that you’re trying. Template Case! Your efforts will pay off over proactiv solution time, and that can be its own reward. 8) Use your Skills Outside Homework Time.
The point of home speech therapy exercises isn’t to get good at home exercises—it’s to education dissertation titles, improve your thinking and communication skills while you’re engaged in activities that matter to you. This is what SLPs call “carryover.” It isn’t always easy, but carryover is the goal of any exercise. Practice your homework strategies throughout the day. If you’ve been working on describing words, for example, try to describe the words you can’t think of during dinner conversation. Ask family and friends to proactiv, encourage you to use your strategies as you go about your day. Lost Names! Nobody likes being corrected all the time, though, so it’s okay to set times when you want reminders and times when you just want to be left to speak as you please.
Make sure you’re clear with friends and families about solution essay which times are which. Essays! Try combining these tips with an solution, app that’s specifically designed to help adults recover their language skills after a stroke or some other type of acquired brain injury. Writing Study! Tactus Therapy apps are designed by a Speech-Language Pathologist to allow you to practice the proactiv solution essay, same skills you work on literary, in therapy, at home. You can trust that the speech therapy exercises are based on techniques known to help adults with acquired communication disorders. We want you to succeed! With a Tactus Therapy app, you can get in proactiv solution essay more repetitions and practice between therapy sessions—and this can help speed up your progress. Try any or all of our apps for FREE by downloading the Lite versions. Start with Language Therapy Lite, a sample of our best-selling app for aphasia, on the App Store or Google Play. Answer a few simple questions and you#8217;ll be shown the best apps for rip van winkle literary essay you with our App Finder wizard. Then you can try them for free! Do you have clients who would benefit from receiving these homework success tips?
Download this handout and share it with them. Proactiv Essay! 1: Bhogal, SanjitK., Robert Teasell, and titles Mark Speechley. #8220;Intensity of proactiv solution, aphasia therapy, impact on of schizoprenia essays, recovery.#8221; Stroke 34.4 (2003): 987-993. Full Text. 2: Palmer, Rebecca, et al. #8220;Computer Therapy Compared With Usual Care for People With Long-Standing Aphasia Poststroke A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.#8221; Stroke 43.7 (2012): 1904-1911. Full Text. 3: Brady, Marian C., et al. #8220;Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke.#8221; Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5 (2012): CD000425. Full PDF. Top 10 Dysphagia Education Resources for Clinicians. Best practice in swallowing disorders is changing quickly as the science evolves.
Don't let your . read more. Essay! 10 Tips for Leading an Aphasia Writing Therapy Group. Learn about writing impairments (dysgraphia) in aphasia and how to treat them. Papers! Guest SLP Megan . read more. Swallowing disorders are serious business, and the speech-language pathologists who assess and treat them need . read more. Comments are closed. Proactiv Essay! We r so busy this fall!
Working on a new #slpapp, updating older apps w/ cool new features getting ready 4 #ASHA17! What r ur projects? © 2011 – 2017 Tactus Therapy Solutions Ltd. | All rights reserved.
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Adolf Hitler , Fiction , Foreshadowing 1395 Words | 4 Pages. Shaheed Awati Ms.Pindar ENG2D April 17, 2015 The Book Thief Essay The Book Thief written by solution, Mark . Zusak, which is narrated by Death who is also a character in the story. Death states, ? “It’s just a small story really, about, among things: A small girl, some words, an essays, accordionist, some fanatical Germans, a Jewish fist fighter, and quite a lot of thievery” (Zusak 5). ? Humans are capable of both great compassion and great evil based . Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Jews 1833 Words | 7 Pages. ?Art is always in the eyes of the proactiv solution beholder. Education Dissertation Titles. Only posterity has the right to point out our mistakes. 1 Three Works in Black and White Photography: A . Visit to MoMa, 10 July 2013 The Floor Plan and Guide brochure provided by the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) suggests for proactiv, self-guided visits to concentrate on a section or artist for short visits . Considering the winkle essay museum's vertical sprawl of proactiv solution essay six upper levels and two lower levels, this is a sensible consideration. The class assignment led to the third. Edward Steichen , Eye , Gender 1081 Words | 3 Pages.
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One could almost see the solution essay desolate conditions of the slave boats and feel the pain of every person brought into slavery. Lawrence Hill created a compelling story that depicts the hard ships, emotional turmoil. Africa , African , African people 1281 Words | 4 Pages. love someone whose not loveable compared to someone who is. It embodies a hidden message made by Markus Zusak about love, through the use of Death, Hans, and . Liesel, in his book about a family, the Hubermanns, taking in a foster child, Liesel Meminger, during the Holocaust in Nazi Germany. In Zusak’s historical fiction novel The Book Thief, he promotes his theme of education titles love is proactiv more powerful than anything else in analysis essay the world.
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