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Graham turnbull essay competition 2012

business plan spb ru We are glad to present you the second issue of the St. Petersburg International Legal Forum Digest. To subscribe to regular mailing please follow the link. New rules in the notary legislation: “The new law corresponds to all the modern tendencies and pushes Russian notariat to the next stage of essay 2013, progress” Adviser to the Minister for Justice of the Russian Federation. - In the interview for the 1st issue of the St. Petersburg International Legal Forum Digest Yuri Liubimov, Secretary of State, Deputy Minister of Justice of the Russian Federation, described the Forum as the setter of regulatory trends. What trends appeared after the Forum 2013 in the field of notarial legislation? What positive changes can you mention? - Topics addressed at write plan, the Forum 2013 have really become trends of legal regulation this year. They also appeared in graham 2013 the notaries’ activity. Generally, we pay much attention to notariat and in military essay its development as it is related to all the spheres of our life. Graham? We go to a notary to have power of attorney, or everyday documents and copies reviewed and signed. These things are often inconspicuous bur they form an important part of our life.

Besides, we go to a notary to essays smoking, open the essay inheritance and to make complex transactions. Since the transaction is checked by a notary, we are usually sure that it is legal, that we are informed on transaction’s main points and legal consequences, that identity is proved and so on. Discipline In Military? At the Forum 2013 the panelists debated the opportunity of using electronic technologies in notariat. Obviously, they are not as wide spread in graham Russia as, for instance, in Europe or in the USA. Russian notaries are just starting using them in and ethics essay their everyday activity, e.g., they deal with e-documents while receiving information from the public registers. We touched on this issue at the Forum as we wanted to graham essay 2013, know how electronic technologies keep developing not only in discipline in military the narrow sector but in the notaries’ activity in general.

For example, in graham turnbull 2013 the foreign states they use electronic document flow actively; notaries attest copies of documents and perform transactions in discipline essay electronic format using electronic signatures, and a document signed electronically has the turnbull same legal effect as the traditional one. In connection with an active introduction of electronic document flow, at the Forum 2013 we discussed shift in Russian notaries’ functions and the role they would play after the new rules of document execution would have been introduced. The results of this discussion were taken into business plan sample, account at drafting new bills. This year in the framework of the Forum bilateral meetings with colleagues from France and Hungary took place. The delegation of the Ministry of Justice and Russian notaries also visited Italy. Without exception, the most important issues to discuss concerned information technologies and their integration into the notaries’ activity. - Maria Arkadievna, could you please tell us more about the new bill?

What changes will the electronic document flow bring into the notarial activity? - The federal law ¹379-FZ adopted by the State Duma and approved by essay the Federation Council of the Russian Federation changes rules of notarial documents execution considerably. It allows notaries to use electronic technologies both at attesting documents and their maintenance and research record keeping as well as getting information on notarial activity. As soon as the new law comes into essay, effect (it will be partly effective from February 1, 2014 and enters into discipline in military, full force and effect from July 1, 2014) every notary will be able to attest any document in electronic format the electronic signature being fulfilled by parties or a grantor. It will be also possible to transfer any document from essay a paper format into an electronic one and vice versa. In other words, the essay new law corresponds to all the modern tendencies and pushes Russian notariat to the next stage of progress. The law also enacts the universal notarial data system where notarial registers will be kept in electronic format. This contributes considerably to notarial activity’s effectiveness and turnbull essay allows lowering the number of disputes, for values and ethics in the workplace essay, example, of graham turnbull, those connected with inheritance. Besides, a part of the data will be available online on an open access basis, e.g. short information on pledges on movable property and cancelled powers of attorney. Moreover, with the help of the universal data system notaries can interact with governmental information sources through online communication. This opportunity gives new prospects and allows notaries to turn to the most crucial question, to wit transactions with real estate.

Involvement of notaries into the real estate transactions could become a breakthrough in the whole process of acquisition of real property rights. While attesting the real property transaction a notary guarantees its legalness, to wit effectiveness of making decisions on such transactions will increase dramatically. Being an applicant a notary can also submit transaction documents to the state registration on his own behalf and then receive a certificate of no no boy essay, registration of title in electronic format. Therefore, the procedure of real property rights state registration will become much easier. It is turnbull essay 2013 also worth pointing out that the whole process of a notarized transaction’s state registration will take only 5 days and could be carried on in e-format exclusively. - Did you address issues related to the data system security? - Of course, we did. The universal data system will have all the necessary protection equipment. Firstly, safety and consistency of operation are crucial for any information source. Secondly, notarial activity is protected by notarial secret kept by the Federal Notarial Chamber, owner of the universal data system. It is worth mentioning that experience of Germany, Austria, France and many other countries in using e-documents we discussed at the last Forum helped us to puzzle out and places get a position on important legal issues in using the new technologies. For example, we had a long discussion on whether documents can be asserted in notary’s absence while the turnbull essay electronically signed documents are simply sent him or her. In this matter Russian notaries agreed with their foreign colleagues as even at using an electronic signature along with all the smoking modern communication facilities it’s highly important to essay 2013, preserve the role of notary which concerns not only attestation but more witnessing the free will of transaction parties and explaining them the main points and legal consequences of a transaction.

Thereby the law states that the personal presence of a notary at witnessing electronic documents is indispensable. - Today the programme of the no no boy essay SPBILF 2014 is being shaped. Do you plan to hold a roundtable on notarial issues? - Surely, and the roundtable is already being prepared. In 2014 we decided to address matters related to the cross-border inheritance, the topic being very important today for many people. The smooth blurring of the national borders under the pressure of economic globalization and large-scale migration of population in search of more comfortable conditions for a family life and international business development requires completely new skills in transferring property from essay generation to generation. Legacy transfer procedure demands solving complex contentious questions of competence and values and ethics in the workplace essay substantive law. When a few legal systems with their own viewpoints on transnational inheritance regulation collide, these issues become really essential as they impact a concrete legal result important for turnbull essay, legal successors, creditors and other parties involved.

I think this topic will be interesting not only for notaries but also for practicing lawyers and advisers facing this problem in their own practice. The coordination of notaries’ activity and paper safety comprehension of different countries’ legacy transfer legislation will be addressed at the appropriate panel in turnbull essay 2014. In Europe, for instance, they already use electronic system which helps notaries from the research paper on electrical EU to graham turnbull 2013, interact in respect of inheritance issues. Research Paper On Electrical? I believe the presentation of the system will be a matter of discussion at the Forum. Graham Essay? I do hope our invitation will be accepted by leading experts from Germany, Switzerland, France, Spain and values Great Britain. Having adopted the new law we have already reached the new stage in the Russian legal system development in its notarial part. We don’t plan to graham essay 2013, stop though and will continue advancing in the most important fields. No No Boy Essay? I’m happy that in the year 2014 we’ll have a chance to meet with colleagues from Russia, CIS countries and foreign states and essay discuss the most urgent issues at the IV St. Petersburg International Legal Forum. We would like to bring to your attention unique materials on the online marketing by in military essay The National Notary Magazine. Experts’ tips will be useful both for notary offices and 2013 advocates or start-up law firms.

Do's And Don'ts For Your Social Media Strategy. By Moses Keshishian. (Originally published in architecture+doctoral the March 2013 issue of The National Notary magazine) Social media has become an almost indispensible tool for any independent entrepreneur. But boosting your Web presence can be a challenge. Whether you’re a social-savvy mobile Notary who stays logged onto your Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn accounts all day long, or a social media newbie who panics over graham turnbull essay 2013 every status update, there are steps you can take to make the most out of your social media profiles and show the best side of your business. Here are some “dos” and “don’ts” from and ethics essay social media experts across the Web. Do: Separate Business And Pleasure. As a best practice, you should keep separate profiles for your professional and personal life, according to social media blogger Sara Carter. It is important to essay, have a business presence on social media sites, but don’t undermine your professional image with sharing pictures of your vacation and posts about how to write business sample crazy nights on the town.

Make sure to keep Facebook, Twitter, and other social profiles separated for your business and graham 2013 personal use. Making a social Web presence work requires a consistent and no no boy essay on-going commitment, says Crystal Balker, a social media expert and writer. She recommends that you set aside a certain time slot daily or weekly to update your social media sites, profiles and updates. Have it become part of your work schedule. Being consistently active on social media lets people know that you are paying attention and are accessible. Graham Turnbull? Consequently, it can help you develop your business by bringing in new leads, increasing awareness, improving brand recognition and enhancing the retention rate of your existing clients. Do: Promote Your Social Pages. Too often, business owners fail to grasp the importance of creating buzz about their social media pages, says Jillian Chopin, Senior Web Presence Professional for ReachCast. You can spend hours creating and optimizing your social media pages on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, or blog, but your customers won’t even know they exist if you don’t tell them. So, promote them.

Include your social media icons on your website, business cards, email signatures, newsletters, and other communications. In Military Essay? And don’t forget to graham turnbull 2013, ask clients to connect to your business online. Turning an values in the, existing customer into graham, an online fan or follower is easier than you would think…if you just ask. Don’t: Push Your Way Into People’s Social Feeds. The most successful companies in business today have something in smoking places common.

Instead of treating customers as passive targets, they treat them as active participants, said Mark Bonchek, social business strategist at Orbit Co. Where traditional companies push out messages and products, these companies pull customers in. To determine where you are on the push/pull continuum, take a good look at essay, your social media strategy, Bonchek advises. Are you using social media as a channel for discipline essay, delivering messages to your audience? If so, you may be stuck in the push mindset. If you’re using social media as a way to turnbull 2013, listen and learn, to create an authentic relationship, and to essays smoking in public, deliver value beyond the products you sell, you are well on your way to creating an environment that pulls customers into your orbit. Turnbull 2013? You’ll go beyond customer loyalty to building customer gravity. © 2013 National Notary Association, http://nationalnotary.org. All rights reserved.

Four Keys To Online Success. Promoting your Notary services effectively online requires a comprehensive approach that encompasses a wide range of Internet venues and no no boy essay activities. Creating a consistent tone and appearance for your online presence can increase your brand recognition in the public marketplace and can help you present a polished and professional image for current and prospective clients. Essay? By establishing a cohesive online presence for your Notary services, you can increase your customer base and your income level to a significant degree. Here are four basic guidelines for creating an effective and appealing online presence for yourself and your Notary services. Fun with the fundamentals. Your company logo and color schemes are the basis for your future branding efforts and should reflect your own personal style as well as a clean, professional image for your company.

In some cases, you can design your logo yourself; those with less artistic talent, however, may want to enlist the help of a professional graphics designer to achieve the most attractive results. Be sure to ask for discipline in military essay, a digital copy of the finished product; you can upload this file for use on all your web pages and social media sites. The first step in establishing yourself online is to turnbull 2013, create your website. Integrating your logo and your chosen color scheme into these Internet venues can provide added brand recognition. A number of no no boy essay, online sites provide easy, step-by-step templates and graham turnbull essay instructions for creating and designing your own website; alternatively, you can hire a professional to ensure that your site provides the functionality and professional appearance necessary to no no boy essay, boost your sales and increase your visibility in the consumer and business marketplaces. Establishing your credentials. Once your website is in place, it is time to work on your public image. Writing and publishing informative articles about your line of work can help to graham essay, establish you as an authoritative source for no no boy essay, consumers interested in graham turnbull essay 2013 the Notary field. A number of websites allow users to and ethics workplace essay, publish their articles online at no cost.

For even more Internet exposure, consider submitting a few guest blogs to graham, legal and Notary sites around the web. These guest appearances can make you a major star in the online community. Building connections with social networking. Social media sites like Facebook and Twitter offer exceptional access to potential clients and essays in public places can provide you with convenient venues to announce your activities and promote your services to the public. Twitter is turnbull essay best reserved for short bursts of how to write sample, information due to the limited length of communications on this social network; Facebook posts, by contrast, can be longer and graham turnbull essay 2013 may incorporate images and how to plan sample graphic designs to reinforce your points and graham turnbull 2013 promote your services in these online communities. Maintaining these sites regularly and providing fresh content for your followers and friends can ensure that you retain and expand your audience in the world of how to write, social networking. These four strategies can help you jump-start your online marketing campaigns and provide you with added visibility and name recognition. Your online reputation can reinforce your credibility and add to your success as a Notary in the competitive marketplace. © 2013 National Notary Association, http://nationalnotary.org. All rights reserved. Effective Business Development For The Notary Signing Agent.

By Chrissey Ladd. (Originally published in the November 2012 issue of The National Notary magazine) For any business to succeed over graham 2013 the long run, it must create and follow an effective business growth plan. This is just as true for independent Notary Signing Agents as it is for research paper on electrical, the CEOs of multinational conglomerates. Whether you are just starting out or are a seasoned NSA, the best approach is to graham essay 2013, develop a growth plan focusing on business development activities designed to architecture+doctoral, reach specific, concrete financial goals. Then you should follow the plan. A good way to create a business development plan is to apply the turnbull essay acronym SMART — Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely — to essays smoking places, your goals. Your plan should consist of very specific activities that are measured, realistic to attain, and take place over a specific time frame. Instead of saying, I will earn more money this year, decide how much money you want to make, say $60,000. If you earn an average of $100 per closing, that's 600 signings a year.

That might seem ambitious, but break it down into manageable, attainable pieces. Divided into 50 weeks, that's 12 appointments a week. You now have your SMART Goal: I will earn $60,000 this year by completing 12 loan signings each week. This goal is specific, can be measured, is attainable, realistic and has a set time frame. In a tough economy, even this goal can seem intimidating. But look at your appointment history. Say you average 10 appointments from your various network boards, registries, and turnbull essay social media outlets. All you need to do is essays smoking in public find two more appointments to graham, meet your weekly goal. That's the essays smoking in public gap between what you currently are producing and your goal.

Marketing is the key to establishing and growing any business. Turnbull? If the market doesn't know about no no boy essay you, it won't give you its business. Turnbull? Established Signing Agents typically use multiple signing registries, referral services, networking organizations, and various other resources to find work. You often can increase your assignments by and ethics essay improving your marketing or sales message. First impressions often are the most important, and they usually happen fast. So it's important to be prepared with an initial sales message or pitch that identifies who you are, what you do, why you do it, when you do it and how you do it. An effective sales message can be used anywhere from turnbull essay a Chamber of Commerce reception to an elevator ride. No No Boy Essay? Developing your own message is graham turnbull simple. First, write down all the essays services and graham turnbull 2013 benefits you provide. For example: • Service: 24/7 Mobile Notary. Thesis? • Benefit: Convenience of turnbull, having your documents notarized in your own home/office. • Benefit: Excellent customer service.

• Benefit: Ethics and integrity. Next, craft the message to show your audience what's in it for thesis, them — the only thing your audience wants to hear is what you can do for them. Here's an graham turnbull essay 2013, example. Imagine you're at a business conference, and you've just introduced yourself as a Certified Notary Signing Agent to a potential client. Smoking In Public? You have 30 seconds to essay, leave an impression: Title companies rely on me to achieve their goals and provide their clients with the highest quality service and integrity in every loan closing — 24/7. When you need an experienced Signing Agent to make sure everything is done right the first time, call me. Avoid leading with statements that focus on you rather than your customer, such as, I am proud to provide excellent customer service to all my clients 24/7 with ethics and integrity.

Everyone needs a Notary now and paper then, but no one will remember you if you cannot drive home how you can serve them. You also should reinforce your message with an graham essay 2013, effective marketing kit. In Public? Avoid those expensive, gimmicky versions we've all seen at trade shows and other business-to-business events. Glossy brochures, branded poly-bags and branded trinkets might have an graham essay 2013, immediate wow effect, but they usually wind up in your trash bin or at the bottom of your desk drawer. Keep your marketing kit simple. It should consist of a cover letter that includes a schedule of your fees, your hours of operation, and several of your business cards. All these items can be placed in a large envelope, a folder or they can even be unpackaged. The purpose of your marketing kit is to keep your name and phone number front and center of the recipient so they will call you when they have a need for architecture+doctoral thesis, your services. Graham? While your bread-and-butter business comes from the mortgage industry, don't overlook the potential of other industries.

Every industry needs a Notary or comes in contact with people who do. While many companies employ Notaries, conditions change. Employees turn over, other service providers become unavailable, or they are in a new location without access to the service you provide. You could consider anything from paper on electrical convenience stores to auto services to travel and concierge services. 2013? Your options will vary depending on your location.

A good approach is to develop a list of in public, all of the potential businesses in the geographic area you serve. Then set up a tracking system to keep tabs of your outreach efforts to turnbull essay 2013, them. There are many applications for in the workplace, laptops, tablets or smartphones to do this, or writing in a simple binder notebook will work. At minimum, your tracking system should include: the name of the business and person visited, the date of each visit, and notes about any relevant conversation or follow-up appointment. Now it's time to put your plan into action.

Set aside time each week to visit potential new clients and start making the rounds to deliver your sales message and marketing kit. Keep the initial visit short — no more than two minutes in the office. This initial visit is not to sell a product; it is to turnbull essay, sell the idea of you. Ask for a business card (if appropriate) and keep it. And Ethics In The Workplace Essay? Be patient and essay 2013 repeat the same visits in two weeks. Architecture+doctoral? It is common in business development practices to make at least three visits before a sale is essay 2013 closed.

Your business is no different. Sole proprietors often behave like the worker as opposed to the CEO. You are also your own best sales rep, so it's crucial to manage yourself, track your progress, and hold yourself to research paper, your expectations. Be your own best boss. No business is successful without a dynamic sales team with effective leadership. Chrissey Ladd is the NNA's 2011 Notary of the Year. Turnbull 2013? She is active in the Notary community in New Jersey and has held commissions in three states over the past 15 years. © 2013 National Notary Association, http://nationalnotary.org.

All rights reserved. “Notary is a modern profession” President of the in public High Council of French Notariat. - We admire your active participation in graham 2013 the Forum for already 3 years and we would like to ask you whether the international events like the no no boy essay Forum are important for the notary community in France? What value do you see in such events for the legal practitioners? - There are not so many international events like the turnbull Forum. I think it’s the only one I know where so many legal systems are represented. My colleagues from the Supreme Council of how to business plan, Notaries of France participated in previous international notary congresses as CNUE whish is the European organization for notaries. I really think that St. Petersburg International Legal Forum is graham turnbull very specific. It tends to be new because it is unique and it gathers lawyers from many countries. - How do you see the evolution of St. Petersburg International Legal Forum in the past years? What would you suggest to the existing format? - I really think that it is essays smoking in public places becoming a must.

It’s the place where people must be. I didn’t participate in the II Forum but I have been on the first and the third one. Graham? I really think that the format of the Forum is good. I would suggest that it shouldn’t become a big market of law. I think that law is not there where merchandise is. Essay? The law is an expression of culture, of civilization. That’s why I wouldn’t like the Forum to become a big market. - France has a rich history of graham turnbull, expansions throughout Europe and essays in public places the world.

Due to this, we may see now many French traditions in the legal systems and frameworks used in Spain, Italy, Portugal and even South America. Russia is also not an exemption. How would you describe the turnbull 2013 key similarities we have in the regulation of the notary? In your opinion, how can it help in strengthening the relations between the two countries in the legal area? - France has a long legal system tradition. Most of architecture+doctoral, civil codes in the world have taken an example of French Civil code of Napoleon of 1804 year. “La loi de Ventose” which is the law that concerns notaries was published at the same time as the Civil code. It has been a model for many countries and it is still applied in France and several countries. So we can say that France is like the birthplace of modern notariat. That is essay 2013 why French notariat is often a reference for other countries. Thesis? Our law is a civil law. In accord with the law French notaries are appointed by the Minister of Justice and the ideas they produce are strong as judgments of courts. This system provides legal security, regulations.

I think the same legal system in graham turnbull essay 2013 France and Russia builds a platform for successful economic transitions and discipline in military essay investments. Graham Turnbull Essay? As for notaries, the same notary system is like speaking the same language. It gives us plenty of opportunities to strengthen the relations between two countries. - French notary is well known for being at the edge of the innovations, for example in the e-document management. At the same time, the legal profession is more often called traditional than innovative. How do you ensure the inflow of new ideas in your areas? How do you sustain the innovative mindset in your community? What advice can you give to the Russian notaries to how to plan sample, succeed in this field? - I certainly agree with the idea that the legal profession is more traditional than other fields. This impression is created by our functions which are old. But I really think that the notary is a modern profession.

Notaries use new tools, new technologies and learn something new every day to be adaptable to innovations. If I had to say something to Russian notariat, I would just say dare, only dare, and try to build the most secure technical system for notaries. 2013? Our system is based not only on Internet solutions. It is more secure. For the notaries we must have very secure system. - Attracting young talents to the profession is one of the key focuses of the notaries around the world. From your experience and perspective, what are the most important steps to keep the profession young and dynamic? What would you suggest to your Russian colleagues? - Young notaries in France are among the best students in law. French diplomas of notaries are highly valued. But a student should work hard in order to become a notary. I think the in military essay best thing we can do for our young notaries is to give them good and difficult studies. And when they come to work, they practice all what they have learned during their studies and become really good professionals.

That is why probably our profession is now attractive for young people because they are sure they will find a job after graduation. And I think the best advice I could give for Russian colleagues is to have the best students to be notaries. - You said that you participated in the first and graham essay third Forums. In your opinion, what are the main differences between these two events? - I preferred the first Forum to the second one because I felt people came there to learn something new. Paper? Having visited the III St. Petersburg International Legal Forum I felt the atmosphere was changing. I noticed that more lawyers came from Common Law Countries. And this time they were here not to essay 2013, learn, but to say something.

I disagree with that. Architecture+doctoral Thesis? The Forum shouldn’t become a big market. On the cooperation between the Notary Chamber of the Voronezh Region and the Regional Council of Notaries of the Appeal Court in Aix-en-Provence. President of the Regional Council of Notaries of the Appeal Court in Aix-en-Provence. - Could you please tell more on essay 2013 the agreement of mutual cooperation between the Notary Chamber of the Voronezh Region and the Regional Council of Notaries of the in public Appeal Court in Aix-en-Provence which was signed on March 8, 2013? How did you get the idea of reaching this agreement? What are its main points? - In the framework of notarial French-Russian cooperation established in 2003 at the public level during the French-Russian colloquium on matrimonial regimes on September 2011 the president of the Notary Chamber of the Voronezh Region suggested twinning between the graham 2013 notaries of this region and notaries from the architecture+doctoral jurisdiction of the Aix-en-Provence Appeal Court. Regional Council of turnbull essay 2013, Notaries of the Appeal Court of Aix-en-Provence became the third region of France to sign this convention, following twinning arrangements between Paris and Moscow and Versailles and St. Petersburg. Town twinning was specified on March 8, 2013, through signing in Aix-en-Provence a Charter the business plan sample object of which is: to establish relationship between notaries from the two regions to develop interuniversity exchanges to graham turnbull 2013, simplify acceptance and exchange of trainees to develop common activity related to how to write sample, both notariats to assist in the Russian notariat modernization to turnbull 2013, compare the two notariats, followed by information exchange on respective statutes and laws applicable in the two legal systems to paper on electrical safety, simplify legal files regulation related to persons who are ethnic French or Russian or are of French or Russian descent. to promote notariat by stressing its role and economic utility in the global arena to provide exchange and fight against fraud and corruption. - Which events are held or are planned to be arranged to implement the agreement?

- Our first meeting in France on March 2013 allowed starting the graham formation of relationship between the main representatives of profession from both regions and find out the main principles and practice of this work in our countries. Delegation of notaries from the Court of Aix-en-Provence participated in smoking in public places the III St. Petersburg International Legal Forum on May 15-18, 2013, together with notaries from Voronezh. Our delegation equally came in Voronezh this late September to turnbull essay, participate in the colloquium attended by 150 notaries from the Voronezh region. After a common presentation of notaries from the two countries and fundamental rules regulating redaction of notarial acts received in architecture+doctoral thesis France, the difficulties arising for turnbull essay 2013, the reason that the Russian acts should be created on the territory of France, were still on the agenda. In Military? We plan the redaction of bilingual acts’ model types, as, for instance, letter of attorney, what would allow simplifying and accelerating the accomplishment of legal cases. Finally, we invited our sworn brothers to take part in the French Notaries Congress in Marseille in Mid-June 2014 which will be dedicated to “Professional Life and Family: Place in Contract.” - The notaries in France use the e-documentation system extensively. In particular, you have the main electronic notarial archive MICEN. What are the main advantages and risks of electronic documentation maintenance?

In Russia the issue of e-documentation integration into notarial system is actively discussed. What would you recommend, through your personal experience, for your Russian colleagues to pay attention to while working with this electronic system? - Signature of authentic electronic acts, their transfer and conservation in the Central notarial archive MICEN requires preliminary introduction of a reliable technical infrastructure meeting the highest standards and control on the part of 2013, information security experts. Since its creation the system should be able to adapt, to develop formats and data carrier while ensuring security, legibility, integrity of content and respect of in military, authenticity. The main advantages of the system are: a gain of time during the meeting what allows a notary to pay more attention to his client enhancement of efficiency due to the better office organization a gain of place and time of research. Therefore notaries can extend a very good reception to their clients who appreciate contemporaneity and convenience of the turnbull essay new signature format. So, everybody is satisfied, advantages are obvious and in spite of certain difficulties with installation I would strongly recommend this innovation. News of the Forum. On December 10, 2013 during the official meeting of A. Essays In Public? Alkhanov, Deputy Minister of Justice of the Russian Federation, with Ruben Remigio Ferro, President of the People's Supreme Court of Cuba, the 2013 Cuban delegation was invited to essays in public places, take part in the IV St. Petersburg International Legal Forum. At the IBA Law Firm Management Conference Yuri Liubimov, Secretary of State, Deputy Minister of Justice of the Russian Federation, and Michael Reynolds, President of the IBA, discussed keynote points of mutual cooperation in the framework of the IV St. Graham Turnbull? Petersburg International Legal Forum.

During the paper safety meeting of E. Graham Essay? Borisenko, Deputy Minister of Justice of the Russian Federation, with representatives of Armenian legal community in smoking in public Erevan the parties addressed the participation of the graham Armenian delegation in the IV St. Petersburg International Legal Forum. In the discipline course of their meeting A. Konovalov, Minister of turnbull, Justice of the Russian Federation, and plan sample Wu Aiying, Minister of Justice of the People's Republic of China, discussed the opportunity of the graham turnbull essay Guest Conference under the auspices of SPBILF in Shanghai in 2014. Business? Representatives of 15 states have already registered for essay, the Forum. Official delegation from Kazakhstan confirmed attendance of the IV SPBILF.

We are pleased to sample, inform you that the turnbull 2013 partner hotels of the Forum offer special prices for accommodation! We’d strongly recommend you to how to business sample, book rooms in advance: during the Wight Nights hotels are usually overcrowded. In the next issue of the digest on January 29 we will present you the interview with Elena Borisenko, Deputy Minister of Justice of the Russian Federation, as well as commentary by Oleg Shilokhvost, Judge of the Supreme Commercial Court of the Russian Federation, on recent novels in the Civil code of the Russian Federation. Graham 2013? In the Articles section you will find unique material on strategy of working with different generations of safety, lawyers within the same company and the commentary on the article with due regard to the Russian reality by graham essay 2013 Mark Rozin, President of the Ecopsy Consulting. The use of Web site materials for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited without the express written permission of “CC “SPBILF” Ltd.

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Graham Turnbull Human Rights Essay Competition

My Assignment Help : Samples Case Study Review Sample. Project Risk Management Assignment Homework Review Analysis :: Australian wide taxation solutions :: PESTLE, SWOT #038; Risk Management Techniques. 1. Risk : Risk term used to define the 2013 probability of loss or situations and events that have no assure outcomes. In other word risk is probable quantified outcomes that associated with an activity or event. It’s indicated or symbol of the return or outcomes that is less than the expectation. Each and every event has some certain risk associate that can occur in controllable and uncontrollable situations. Some risk can be control through special attention whereas some risk cannot be control.

Project risk, inflation risk, currency risk, marketing risk, financial risk, functional risk and many other risk can be control through numerous approaches whereas environmental risk like natural disasters and discipline in military many other risks cannot be control are the example of uncontrollable situations. 2013! (Glyn, 2004) Risk management: Risk management is architecture+doctoral, a scientific, systematic and structured procedure which involves activities of identifying, observing, analyzing and prioritizing the graham turnbull essay 2013 different types of in the risks that associated with the events. Many people involve managing and controlling the risks and also defining numerous strategies to turnbull 2013 address these risks successfully. This is very important part of in the workplace business and this concept is introduced to manage, control, reduce and eliminate the risks. (Whatisriskmanagement.net, 2011) Risk Appetite : Risk appetite is a tool or technique that used to define the overview that provides key information about the associated risks and risk management approaches within organization. This help to identify the scope of opportunity and scope of improvement areas.

Normally the risks that an organization define or assume before an activity and also develop a action plan to control or reduce it in this situation this tool represent a balance between perspective benefits and associate threats or risks that can happen if any unwanted situation will come. Risk Capacity : Risk capacity defines the graham turnbull 2013 level of how to business sample risks that organization can able to essay take. All the resources use numerous tools and techniques to identify the risks associated with the how to write plan action in organization. Risk capacity indicates the maximum capacity or level of risk that organization can able to face. (Barfield, 2012) 2. The statement “Organizations that fail to plan, plan to fail’ is very true because planning is an important element for every organization. Today the competition is very strong and planning needs to be appropriate.

Planning helps in diversifying the strategy for the future perspectives. If the organization fails to do planning appropriately, they go in trouble situation. Planning can help the organization to grasp through huge number of opportunities and also through the competitor’s analysis and their strategy to remain competitive and stable in the market place. This company deals in the service industry that provides Australian taxations solutions to numerous segments. Turnbull! As the company size is 1500 employees and write business sample offering financial Australian taxation solutions to their clients so, it required high level of taxation and financial skill, ability and knowledge within employees to provide their services successfully. As government amendment their taxation plan and graham turnbull 2013 policies with time to time so, in this situation to perform with accuracy and no no boy essay successfully employees required update. To addresses the challenges, issues and risks and use the risk management process the organization have following advantages, difficulties and challenges mentioned below: – Proper pre plan to addresses the issues and challenges on the basis studied past data. – Identification of risks that associated with the activities that organization has to complete. – Pre planning and post analysis will provide scope of improvement and scope of opportunity areas that helps to define the graham success path.

– Organization can able to introduce the control and checks points that control, reduce, minimize and eliminate the possible risks. – As this organization required experts and high expertise to provides their services to the target groups because the organization deals in regulatory sectors that needs strong and research paper on electrical safety structured controls and checks points because small error will be cause to turnbull essay lose client. – Involve high level financial and manpower in terms of expertise risks. – Challenges to define the suitable plan and implement and execute the plan in the organization that addresses the risks associated with tasks. In the above paragraphs consists information about the nature of smoking company and different benefits, difficulties and graham challenges that can be address through the risk management procedures.

The service provider organization is providing its services in the area of Australian taxation solution that carries lots of regulation and policies. These policies and regulations are quiet strict. To provide the services successfully and minimize the risk or achieve the plan expected outcomes the risk management needs to identify the areas that require control and improvements. Through audit team, expert team, numerous training sessions the organization can reduce the different risks that associated with the activities. A part of these to provide services in the area of taxation require through and update knowledge of taxation policies within employees. It is advantageous to turnbull essay 2013 consider the stakeholder’s issues throughout the risk management process design because it helps in finding out the problems and also helps to and ethics in the understand the graham essay 2013 stakeholder’s expectations.

Risk management has to be disciplined and also it should focus on influencing to reach through the destination successfully. (Brown, 2012) As considering the own organization’s risk profile, the influence/ impact on write plan each of the following factors has on it with respect to certain factors such as:- ? Political: The political factor that impacts the organization is because of political forces that might affect the organization. ? Economic: The economic factor that impacts the organization is because of the competition in the nature and also because of the financial resources availability in the economy. ? Social: The social factors that impacts the organization is due to the fact that the organization meet with demographic changes, the new trends in essay 2013 the market and so on other possibilities. ? Legal: The legal factors include the laws and regulations, rules and discipline in military essay policies from the turnbull government’s side. ? Technological: The technological factors that impacts the essays smoking organization is the new approach and the new ways and equipments of tacking the problems. ? Policy: Thus new laws, rules and regulations creates problem for the organization. (Healthknowlegde.org, 2012) The Swot Analysis for the current risk management practices of an organization with which the researcher is familiar is known as:- Name of turnbull essay 2013 organization: The chosen organization is Wal-mart for the analysis of the same. The brief description of core function of the organization: u Support of international logistics system.

u Focused strategy for human resource management and development. u Investment in time and research paper money. u Training and retaining the employees. u Wal-mart has experienced global expansion. u No flexibility in terms of competitors. u Facing competition in North America such as Kmart. u Weak in some areas of control. u To take over with strategic alliances with other global retailers.

u Tremendous opportunities for future perspectives. u Expansion of consumer markets opportunities. u The target market or the competition. u The global retailer and political problems. The summaries and the findings of the SWOT of the described organization i.e. Wal-mart is that the company’s major strengths describes about the core competence of the company, this also focuses on international logistics management and turnbull 2013 the company is in military, producing the graham essay strategy of human resource management. The company also believes in investment of essays smoking in public time and money and they are experienced global expansion. The Wal-mart is facing huge competition with different target segments and targets. Wal-mart has huge competition with respect to Kmart and it also lacks in terms of information technology and other advantages.

They can expand and increase the opportunities and it will bring about the increase in graham turnbull number of consumer markets. Thus there are threats associated with the on electrical competition and the target market. (Bhasin, 2010) The current arrangements are not adequate because the company should focus on expanding its markets and increasing its competitive edge. – To introduce or expand the business in the right direction with experts and required resources. – Use and conduct research plans to address the actual issues and challenges that exist in the business. – Select tools and turnbull essay techniques that minimize reduce and eliminate the risks. – Define the new strategies that address the issues and challenges. – Increase the market share through expend the business size and customers. – Increase the share value.

– Create benefits for the organization and stakeholders. 1. Getting people on board and keeping them engaged are a key part of managing risk. Thus the importance of getting support for risk management plans and processes is associated with financial, legal, ethical and social as well as physical risks. This will increase the commitment and it will also support and enhance the activities associated with the part of operations. This will create the safe environment and write plan sample also it will focus on experience. 2013! Thus it will measure and prioritize the accurate risk. (Vicsport.asn.au, 2012)

2. The checklist for the qualities of values in the workplace a risk management champion is as follows:- Nautilus Boat Hire: Person or groups to be consulted. 1. Risk is probabilistic outcomes that associate with each and every activity and event. These risks may be occur or may not be occur after complete of a task. 2013! All the past and futuristic data provides some probabilistic risks that can be control through introduce and essays places implement of proper plan. Research activities provide the complete information about the activities that required key steps to graham essay 2013 complete within time and no no boy essay with accuracy. To analyze the graham turnbull 2013 risks and to control those risks in appropriate manner required high level and structured research. Without research will create lots of challenges to manage the risks that are as following: – Unable to identify the risks associate with the essays particular task. – Challenges to execute the plan with risks free.

– Unable to graham turnbull distribute the work within team to reduce and minimize the risks. – Probability of risks will be high. – Challenges and criticality will be increase for smoking in public places, organization. 2. To define the 8 factors this section covers and provides information of a research that introduced to study two important areas of information systems risk and essay 2013 examine the identified risks that associated with the information systems and established relation with auditors’ system risks and values and ethics in the workplace audit test plan. The factors are as followings: – Regulatory environment ( External policies) – Competitors (Old and graham essay new entrants) that exist in the same industry. – Internal management structure. – Skill, knowledge and paper on electrical abilities of all the human resources. – Internal rules, regulations and essay 2013 policies. – Reporting structure of Information system within organization.

– Documentations. (Bedard, 2003) 3. Common methods of researching risk is an approaches that consists numerous key steps that focuses on the outcomes and associate risks that organization want to address to minimize and reduce. These methods are as followings: – Identification, observation as per characterized attributes and research paper assessing the threats. – Analysis of graham essay critical factors that associate of an places action. – Determination of the risks types and categorized them and prioritized. – Focuses on factors that reduces and control the risks. – Introduce and plan for measurement tools and techniques that help to reduce the risks. 1. The severity and likelihood matrix that has been created for Nautilus Boat Hire defines the risks in priority order with proper reasons according to graham 2013 the rankings is as discussed below:- There are different types of risks associated with the project with respect to customer risks, process risks, system risks, structure risks and also with the weather related risks. These risks are prioritized with respect to three different categories such as low probability, high probability and medium probability according to the rankings and how to write plan other possibilities.

The risk that people are not swimmers especially the children might occur sometime due to likely related risk and this can count in the probability and graham turnbull essay 2013 chances of about 41-80% and this can occur again. If the client’s houseboats are getting lost or stuck in sandbanks, it describes the risk about the very low probability and one cannot believe this might happen again and this carry the percentage of about 0-5% that is rare and cannot happens again. The difficulty in houseboats finding by the clients in high winds carries the very low very risk and it is in public places, not likely to happen thus it do not expect it to happen but it might be possible . Therefore it carries the ranking among 6-20% chances to happen. This risk could also describe as the damage related risk and turnbull 2013 causes. Weather related risks could possibly or occasionally happen and there are chances of this risk in between 21-40%.

Thus the noise related risk that is created by the customers is really expected in a high volume of number with the percentage of about 80% and this is likely to research on electrical happen in essay a regular manner. 2. Some of the problems that might encounter when trying to determine the priority of risks is as follows:- The use of risk planning to identify the potential problems that could cause problems or trouble for the project to analyze the likeliness to occur and to no no boy essay take the action to prevent the risks that can be avoided and minimized with the turnbull essay 2013 help of essays in public places useful and important information and also with the help of proper techniques and data collection methods such as the brainstorming that is the first thing that could be done properly with the team. The teams will get together to meet together for the purpose of ideas and this might help to understand the risks effectively. There are always an unexpected problems and unexpected questions in the management strategies.

The issue arises with respect to the outcomes of the graham turnbull project. These risks are expected quickly and effectively with the process of risk management strategies and also with the help of resolution of issues. Some of the problems that might encounter when trying to determine the priority of risks through the help are effectively known as suppliers and staff related risks, technical issues, material shortages risks, other issues. This also creates unnecessary conflicts and issues and also the risk that could be prioritized with the help of products deliverables. The issues and risks are associated with the same thing. Architecture+doctoral Thesis! Thus the risk is also related with the useful framework to prioritize the graham turnbull risk.

This will also create the issue associated with the and ethics in the unexpected issue. Graham Turnbull! The issue also associated is with the values and ethics in the essay gaps or conflicts. The need to provide the tool for graham, reporting and communicating deals with the issues that are raised and investigated or resolved quickly. They have a safe and reliable method to raise the issues discussed in the team. The tracking and assigning of responsibilities also is the issue related with the people. 1. The word ALARP stands “As low as responsibly possible”.

ALARP is a principle that is associated with design and research safety development of numerous program that address and graham essay focuses on risks associated with an individual, society and environment to in military essay reduce and minimize it as low as responsible possible. The HSE (Health and Safety Executive) divides its risks into three categories: Intolerable region: Chance of death is greater than 1 in one thousand, not acceptable situation. Acceptable region: Risk reduction not likely to be required. ALARP: Risk to be broadly acceptable after take each action that is graham 2013, practical to minimize. (A) Avoid the no no boy essay risk: Situation where use not to proceed or continue activity that likely to generate the risk.

In this case tester test the testing activity to avoid the risk , Using the temporary staff for testing activity or using the temporary staff to fill the requirement of essay 2013 permanent staff. (Lever, 2008) (B) Reduce the risk: Situation where reduce the factors and harmful consequences occur the risks that already going on with an activity that performing in values and ethics the project, in turnbull essay manufacturing industry to continue the manufacture process maintains the inventory. (C) Share the risk: In this case risks associated with one party whereas it’s bear by another party. Example: Insurance policies. (D) Retain the risk: in architecture+doctoral thesis this situation the risk team accept the risks and turnbull essay 2013 use numerous strategies to manage the risks successfully. Business performance in economic cycle. 3. The discussed experience came from how to business, situation when business expend business and with expansion its required marketing about the services to capture more and more customers. This was services Providers Company that deals in the area of computer maintenance and also provides in house or door to door services. As with expansion this carried high investment that had certain financial risks. To reduce the financial risks the company used fund management strategies and also define well structured marketing plan to create awareness among the target potential and existing customers with excitement offers. At the time of graham turnbull define a marketing plan the organization focuses specifically on the mediums, integrated marketing communication tools and techniques that used to approach the target groups.

Marketing research was also very important part that provided the blue print about the marketing plan. In this whole activities involves two types of risks that were financial and marketing risks and to take care of these risks the business sample organization used numerous strategies as per the requirement and situation. The two chosen risks are as follows:- The strategic and operational risk assessment and graham essay 2013 the human resources risk are the two major identified risks focused by the researcher in this activity. Action to be taken. Action to be taken. (Source: Utas.edu, 2006) 2. Risk management is an integral part of any planning process. The sorts of things should risk recovery plans encompass will be as follows:- The prepared cost and the strategic assets protect the entire company to encompass the thing.

To manage the wastes and also to manage the money of the company, thus to save the time and no no boy essay money and also to increase the recovery plan is the major thing in the recovery plan. (Roe, 2010) 3. The 3 key components of a solid risk recovery plan are to plan the recovery, publishing the plan and also to test the plan. 4. There should be the involvement of the project management team in graham essay 2013 the design and no no boy essay development of risk recovery plans for a project because of the proper communications and because of the following appropriate strategies. (Egeland, 2009) 5. The 3 areas of risk that the business will develop a contingency plan will be based on the determination of the main risks to the business, the preparation of the evacuation plan and also the communications fan-out systems. Graham Turnbull 2013! (Ward, 2012) The action plan is to be communicated to discipline in military the senior accountant management and its associated details, needs to be communicated to the accounting department as well and this could be best achieved by the help of proper insurance details and turnbull essay proper warranty of the laptop. The policies, associated procedures and person/s responsible for completing the record-keeping that the organization has in place for risk management is to create the smoking places documents on a routine basis and there are proper legal and regulatory frameworks for keeping and turnbull 2013 creating records. The record management policies and procedures must be promoted on the basis of mechanisms of training sessions, management briefings and other examples. (Records.nsw.gov, 2012)

1. It is important to research paper on electrical monitor an action plan once it has moved into its implementation phase because it helps in clear goals and visions for the ambition that needs to be achieved. It also helps to achieve the immediate goals and immediate objectives. Thus it also supports the graham turnbull enormous amount of data that could support the staff members as well as the administrative ones to support the activities of the project. (Acestools.or.at, 2012) 2. With the help of review scope and thesis frequency triangle, the 2 examples of activities that could be performed at each level is to design something very quickly and in a high standard but it is not cheap. It designs something quickly and cheaply and also it takes a very long time. 3. The monitoring aspect of a risk management plan and factors that includes in the plan is as follows:- Proper planning, proper collection of data and graham turnbull essay proper evaluation and architecture+doctoral implementation so as evaluation. Written / Oral Questions. (1) The risk management standard known as “AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009” is coding by the international organization for standardization. The rationale to define the standard coding by the international organization for standardization is to provide the essential important guidelines and principles that determine and define the risk management activities and concepts.

The role of turnbull 2013 this standard in the organization is very important because it provides generic guidelines in the areas of risks management process in terms of required designs, implement programs and maintenance activities in safety organizations. The purpose of this standard to make it applicable and acceptable for the entire public, private or community enterprises , individual or group and graham turnbull essay association to minimize and discipline essay reduce their risks that associated with their day to turnbull essay 2013 day activities. (2) The working knowledge of legislation is highly important that are involve in the business. To run business successfully in terms of business operations, managements and day to day activities required and involve numerous supportive set of actions and activities that helps to complete the tasks. To ensure that about the research on electrical activities and business that run in the market follow all the law and provide safety from the possible harsh and consequences required working knowledge of the legislation. Laws are defines to protect the customers, manufactures, buyers, suppliers or in conclude an individuals’ rights. So, to achieve and run the business successfully in the market require working knowledge of graham turnbull legislation.

A duty of care is a day to day plan or duty that used to take reasonable care in the ongoing activities, tasks and actions to essay avoid, reduce and minimize the omission and graham turnbull errors that associated with activities, tasks and actions. This is no no boy essay, one kind of tactics that individual or group, organizations and many other communities use to addresses the challenges. (Raniolo, 1997) (3) Risk management is systematic approaches and methods that used to addresses the issues and challenges in terms of risks that associated with an action, activity and task used by the management in graham turnbull essay 2013 the organization. As in each and every project carry certain probabilistic outcomes risks that occurs due to used approaches to complete the task. Some risks are controllable and how to business some risks are uncontrollable. Risk management used to reduce, minimize and eliminate the risks that associate with an action.

As the graham definition of the risk management provides complete and sufficient information about the importance of it within the organization. Discipline Essay! In the definition talked about risks management is systematic approach that consist numerous steps and a structured procedures that need to follow if organization wants to minimize, reduce and eliminate the risks. So, to achieve desired outcomes or expected result with error free the management must follow the procedure of risk management. (4) Risk assessment activity important to ensure the about the planned and 2013 predefined precaution that defined to provide protection from the risks that associated with an research paper on electrical safety action or task. Risk assessment assures that all the precaution action or steps are in place that protects the organization from the risks. – Provide scope of improvement and turnbull 2013 scope of opportunity areas. – Determine the no no boy essay risks status that will be minimizing through different possible approach. – To measure the difference between possible/expected outcomes and graham turnbull 2013 actual outcomes. – Time consuming activity. – Required investment to analyze and research activity. – Focuses on new scope that required time and cost. (Safeworkersco.uk, 2010)

The risk assessment activity carried out on the basis of occurred events and activities, past data and already complete activity that provide and indicate the gaps between expected and actual outcomes. This activity carried out on the basis of no no boy essay available resources and outcomes that come from the predefined actions and essay tasks. In Public! (Research.uci.edu, 2008) (5) There are number of acts introduced to provide special care for the disable people in the organization. Acts involves followings rights: – No direct and indirect discrimination, in case of discrimination with disability employees there will be strict termination action for non-compliance. – Equal opportunities to grow in the organization. – Eligible to gets all the benefits. – Develop different plan to provide training and educate the disable people as per requirement. – Use both writing and verbal communication to communicate them.

– Provide special care in terms of job support and other curriculum activities that organize in graham essay the organization. – Provide all the necessary equipment to them that helps to work in efficient manner like with computer provide speaker and other essential tools. – Provide modified safety equipment and trainings to face the critical situation. – Organize and business sample arrange the medical camp for them. – Special criteria to measure the performance. Turnbull Essay! (Hreoc.gov.au, 2012) (6) Business can take out variety of insurances that will provide additional benefits to their employees, employers, customers and in military essay members. There are numerous insurances services businesses or organizations provides to graham turnbull 2013 its stakeholders. These services also impact on the organization. This service provides direct and indirect benefits to the stakeholders.

Some of the insurances are as following: A) Health insurance, B) Accidental insurance. C) Insurance for employees and employers and life and health insurance from family. Part 1 – Plan for enterprise risk management: The organization’s that is chosen is Wal-mart and the current risk management policies, procedures and processes and comment on the strengths and weaknesses of these arrangements. The visible management commitment is an important factor in case of the establishment of risk related factors. The risk management is identified from the performance and the helps to lead through the advantage. The existing information controls includes strengths of system.

There is high level of dependence in the business that is the major weakness of the business. (Qgcio.qld.gov.au, 2002) The scope for risk management process that will conduct for the risk is as follows– To understand the framework of the risk management, the scope will be to in military essay define and to identify the objectives of risk management processes and activities. This establishes the proper scope of the project and also it helps to include the specific activities. (Enisa.europa.eu, 2012) The impact that each of the following has on graham turnbull essay the organization’s approach to risk management: Political environment: The political environment includes the risk with the perspectives of governmental laws, rules and regulations. The funding related issues also create the approach to risk management. Economic climate: The economic factors include employment, income, inflation, interest rates, wealth and essays smoking in public productivity, the buying behavior of the consumers and also the institutions creates the economic factors. This is the risk related approach to the management. Social factors: The factors include cultural aspects, health and safety related consciousness, population growth rate and demographics profile.

Legal factors: This factor includes the rules and regulations, legislations from one country to essay other country. Technological advancements: This factor includes innovation and technologies related factors. Policy context: This creates issues with respect to essays smoking change of essay climate and other variations. The document critical success factors, goals or objectives for area included in scope are to understand the organizational background and to define the paper on electrical safety goals and objectives and to turnbull achieve it. Each of the internal and external stakeholder groups and the list of their issues are related with planning and the business part. The internal stakeholders groups are known as the board members, the staff members, the volunteers and many others. The external stakeholders groups are known as clients, community partners and the members in the organization and many others thus the issue is associated with the key individuals with respect to the desires and destinations.

To communicate with each of these stakeholder groups, the details are as follows: Key messages: The key message will be based on creating the awareness and providing appropriate messages. Delivery strategies: Through the best communication plan and promotion techniques. The input/ participation will be encouraged by the help of proper timelines and proper delivery. The level and type of support that need in order for risk management plan to discipline in military essay be effective will imply with the help of turnbull essay 2013 proper and accurate strategic plan and the strategies that will be used in order to obtain that support provides extraordinary incentives and gains. (Strategiestactics.com, 2006) With the help of SWOT diagram, the risks that face the in military company most is the environmental risk and HRM related risks. u Core competence, information technology. u International logistics system. u Investment in graham turnbull essay 2013 time and money. u Training and and ethics retaining the employees. u Wal-mart has experienced global expansion.

u No flexibility in terms of competitors. u Facing competition in North America such as Kmart. u Weak in some areas of graham control. u To take over with strategic alliances with other global retailers. u Tremendous opportunities for future perspectives.

u Expansion of consumer markets opportunities. u The target market or the discipline competition. u The global retailer and political problems. The HRM issues in this organization build the cultural and the environmental risks that ascertains through many challenges. The likelihood of the risks occurring is associated with the HR risks that creates the low cost workers, creates inflexibility and long working hours in the organization.

This also creates the employee’s biasness. Thus the environment does not remain healthy and friendly. The impact or consequence if risks occur impacts the graham turnbull 2013 overall goals of the business along with the reputation. People related issues. Structure (Management issues)

Goals unable to met. The major risk is associated with the human resource department that depicts no change and this increase the working hours, decrease in flexible shift timings and also the pay related issues exists in the work place that de-motivates the employees. Part 4 – Selection and implementation of treatments: The most appropriate option/s for treating the top 3 risks that you have identified is HR risks, people related risks and systems risk. The action plan for no no boy essay, implementing those risk treatments is as follows: Action to be taken. The action plan will be communicated with the sharing of proper and accurate information to graham the relevant parties so that no miscommunication can exist in the plan or purpose. The documentation that is needed will be based on the management and it will be completed and stored by the help of senior level of management.

The steps that will take to implement the risk management action plan are the identification of the work, then the allocation of the work and control and checkpoints etc. No No Boy Essay! It also requires completing on time with proper cost. To monitor the action plan and to ensure that it meets its identified goals is with the graham turnbull essay 2013 help of various tools and research paper on electrical techniques especially with the help of graham essay 2013 information technology. To evaluate the process that has been used to manage these risks is required proper planning, proper tools and research on electrical proper strategies and actions. Receive assured help from our talented and expert writ ers!

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Advice for Students on Topics for graham turnbull the New Common App Essays. College advisor Alice Kleeman joins us today in our ongoing series on the changes to the Common Application with some excellent guidance for and ethics essay students and turnbull essay 2013 how to think about the new essay prompts and an entertaining look back on values in the some of the graham 2013 essays that have been favorites in her twenty years advising students. The five prompts that will appear on the “new” Common Application should allow for nearly any topic you might choose. Below are some suggestions for academic, extracurricular, and personal topics that might fit neatly into a response for each prompt. How To Write Business Plan Sample! Of course, these are just suggestions, designed to jumpstart your thinking, provide a gentle nudge if you feel stumped, and to help you decide which prompt might provide the best opportunity for graham you to show the admission office who you are. Your response to architecture+doctoral any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal and one that only you could write; these examples are just to get your essay juices flowing!

Some students have a background or story that is graham essay so central to thesis their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. “background,” “story,” “identity,” “incomplete without” • Have you moved from one school to turnbull another in order to workplace essay pursue greater academic opportunities? • Has your pursuit of academics been influenced by your parents’ lack of formal education? • Is your dedication to a particular academic area shaped by essay 2013 your life experiences (for example, has your interest in medicine stemmed from growing up with a sibling with chronic illness?)? • Is your identity entirely tied up in the music you’ve been composing and playing since you were five? • Has your ethnic background led you to participate deeply and fully in the dance, spiritual, or culinary traditions of your culture? • Do you spend your free time participating in activities through a cultural organization related to your family background? • Do you come from a bicultural family? Who are you today that you would not be without those different influences? • Have you grown up in a family that has been challenged by research on electrical safety poverty, illness, or other obstacles? How has this influenced your identity? • Have your extended family’s values been transmitted to you in a unique and graham turnbull essay 2013 particularly powerful way over architecture+doctoral, the years? Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. Graham Essay! How did it affect you, and what lessons did you learn? “incident,” “failure,” “effect on research paper on electrical you,” “lessons learned” If you choose this prompt, after describing the “failure,” be sure to turnbull show the positive changes that emerged from the on electrical situation! • Did you challenge yourself in graham turnbull 2013 an academic area that is not usually your forte, and find that it didn’t go the way you hoped it might? • Did you seek a summer internship in an academic area you thought you’d like to explore more deeply, and find that you weren’t engaged in the way you wished? • Have you submitted your writing, art, or lab results to paper on electrical safety a professional journal for publication, and graham turnbull 2013 received your first rejection letter? Or have you received what seemed to on electrical be negative feedback from a teacher and graham turnbull essay 2013 had to approach the subject in a new way? • Did you believe that the thesis serious injury you experienced in turnbull essay your sophomore year would derail your athletic career?

Or did you fail to make the team in your sport of smoking in public choice? • Did you dream of continuing your horseback riding or sailing when your family moved, but find there were no opportunities available or your parents could no longer cover the costs? • Did it seem like a great idea for graham turnbull you to follow in values in the workplace essay the footsteps of an older sibling and participate in his or her activities of choice, but then learn it didn’t work out so well for you? • Did you challenge yourself to a resolution, goal, or personal promise, and find you weren’t able to graham turnbull essay 2013 stick with it? • Did you make an effort to reach out to people you hoped would become your friends, only to find they didn’t welcome you? • Have you ever taken a close look at your character traits and personal qualities and hoped to make fundamental changes, but then realized those traits and qualities were inextricably tied to and ethics in the who you are? Reflect on turnbull a time when you challenged a belief or idea. And Ethics In The Workplace! What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again? “challenged,” “belief or idea,” “prompted,” “same decision” • Did you decide to offer a different-from-the-accepted and turnbull essay possibly unpopular perspective in your English or history class? Or have you ever attempted to do some ethical consciousness raising with your classmates? • Was there a school rule or policy relating to your academic path through your high school that you challenged, because you believed it did not serve you or others well? • Have you pursued an academic interest that is not generally followed by people of your gender or background? • When you learned that certain students were being bullied or excluded from an activity at your school, did you tackle the inequity? • Were you ever told by essays in public places a coach or activity director that you would not be successful in a particular activity, yet you chose to pursue it? • Have your parents felt you couldn’t handle a new passion on graham essay 2013 top of your other commitments, leading you to seek ways to manage your time so you could prove your ability to essays places balance your busy schedule? • Have you begun to 2013 question the precepts of your religious or cultural upbringing? • Are you resisting the pressure in your community to no no boy essay do it all—and do it all perfectly—and instead are seeking balance in graham essay your life? • Have you ever made a well-thought-out effort to convince your parents to give you more independence and freedom?

Describe a place or environment where you are perfectly content. What do you do or experience there, and thesis why is it meaningful to turnbull 2013 you? place or environment,” “content,” “do or experience,” “meaningful” • Has a cozy corner of the local bookstore or school library become your happy place? • Have you made the how to write business plan sample chemistry lab your home away from 2013 home? • Do you love spending time in a place where another language is in military spoken or another culture celebrated? • Is the badminton court, robotics workshop, or practice hall for your youth orchestra the place where you feel most in turnbull essay your element? • Does the elementary school classroom where you perform your community service give you the greatest sense of belonging? • Do you feel your strongest sense of ownership at work, whether it’s the discipline ice-cream parlor, hardware store, or coffee shop? • Is there a leafy tree in your backyard that you gravitate to when you want to read and think? • Does your family have a rickety old cabin out by the lake where you can be yourself during summer visits, or do you have a favorite hiking trail up to a bench where you can see for miles? • Have you tailored your bedroom to reflect your personality and suit your every need so it’s the 2013 one place where you can be the essential you? Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family. “accomplishment/event,” “formal/informal,” “transition to adulthood,” “culture, community, family” • Did you make your government and economics education come alive by values workplace registering to vote on graham turnbull essay 2013 your 18 th birthday? • Have you taken a class on a college campus, and lived the life of a college student during that time, or taken an internship where you’ve worked as an equal with a group of research paper on electrical safety adults? • Did you become a U.S. citizen and experience studying for turnbull essay and taking the discipline essay test, and the ceremony that goes along with that milestone? • Has your talent allowed you to participate at essay such a high level that your teammates, band-mates, or co-workers are all adults, and they treat you as such? • Has one of your activities taken you out of your own community, so you learned to essay travel and turnbull cope with new situations on your own? • Did you come up with the funding for your most meaningful activity on your own, so you’ve assumed a heightened level of adult responsibility and values essay appreciated the activity all the more for your independence in making it happen? • Does your family rely on you for adult responsibilities such as childcare for siblings, translation, transportation, or housework? • Have you taken on graham turnbull financial responsibilities to help support your family? • Do you come from a single-parent family where you play a role as the man/woman of the no no boy essay house, with all its attendant responsibilities? SOME OF MY FAVORITE COLLEGE ESSAYS. As I noted earlier, your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal.

But sometimes it's helpful to hear about other essays that students have submitted. Do remember, though, that the most important thing about the essay is that it should be something only graham turnbull essay you could write! Here are some of the most memorable essays I have read in over twenty years as a college advisor. You'll see that they paint a vivid and personal picture of the writer. My all-time favorite college essay was a student’s account of his work at the local hardware store, and what it meant to him to take care of and ethics essay people’s basic home-and-garden needs. It was simple and straightforward; I knew him well by graham 2013 the time I finished reading the essay. A similar topic, another student’s after-school job, began, “Working in a library today is research paper not for the faint of heart.” Really? I can’t wait to know why! An essay that began with “I am amazed by what I have learned about myself from children” was a superb and telling little gem about an unexpected experience with young children already feeling academic pressure. Another great essay began with, “It is strange to be grateful for a fractured skull.” Don’t you want to read on?

Another student wrote about graham turnbull essay 2013, her love of … triangles! Yet another focused on the student's life-long love of reading. A lover of art history who volunteered at smoking the Rodin Sculpture Garden began her essay, “If I’m not at turnbull school or at discipline in military home, I’m likely to graham turnbull essay 2013 be found working behind the gates of hell.” A student of Thai and Jewish heritage focused on his “food-centric background” in both cultures. Architecture+doctoral! And finally, who could resist an essay (about a student’s family forays into graham essay, intellectual curiosity and experimentation) that began, “The baking sheet slides into the oven, pushed by my mother’s careful hands—and on it rest a dozen wadded-up balls of on electrical Kleenex, half fresh, half used.” All of the above essays could fit neatly into turnbull 2013, one or another of the how to write sample Common App prompts! Alice Kleeman has served as the college advisor for 18 years in graham turnbull essay the College and Career Center of Menlo- Atherton High School, a public high school of no no boy essay 2,000 students in the San Francisco Bay Area.

She also teaches each summer on the faculty of the College Board’s Summer Admission Institute for new admission officers.

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Study About Transverse Cracks In The Continuous Casting Of Steel Billets. IN LAXCON STEEL LTD a scrap metal are melted in high temperature furnace, a temperature near about 1500'c to 1600'c.After this melted metal bring out to Continuous Casting Machine through ladder ,then this mould of metal poured into tundish car machine. There are stages in graham turnbull 2013 machine like approl, intermediate section, withdrawal, auto cutter machine. But quality problems such as Cracks, Rhomboidity, Porosity, Lapping, seems Crack, Piping, Centre Looseness, Ovality, Blow holes, Pin holes and Breakouts are often observed in paper on electrical continuously cast steel billets. These defects create a problem in metal which is graham turnbull cast.

On the no no boy essay one hand fundamental knowledge about heat transfer, solidification and turnbull mechanical behavior of steel was applied to identify the origin of a quality problem in no no boy essay the process. We finally study about Cracks and turnbull effect of cracks and also find solution to reduce Transverse Cracks. TABLE OF CONTENT. LIST OF TABLE xvi. LIST OF FIGURES xviii. LIST OF SYMBOLS xxvii.

1. Company introduction 1. 1.1 Company Introduction 1. 1.2 Product list 1. 2. literature Review 7. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel 7. 2.2 Previous work on in military essay, detecting the graham turnbull 2013 defects 10. 2.3 Previous research on the cooling 11. 2.4 A review on no no boy essay, previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel 13. 3. Problem Summary 15.

3.1 Introduction 15. 3.2 Defects in detail 15. 3.3 Objective of graham turnbull, project 16. 4. Steel Grade 17. 5. Methodology to determine transverse crack 18. 5.1 Testing facilities and quality control in laxcon steel ltd. 18. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects 19. 5.3 Metallographic observations 19.

5.4 Defect analyzed 20. 5.4.1 Transverse Cracks 20. 5.4.2 Appearance in Billet 20. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions 21. 6. Paper Safety. Strategies for dealing with Transverse Cracks. 22. 7. Techniques for graham essay 2013, Crack Minimization 23. 7.1. Control of Composition 23. 7.1.1 Relevance of discipline in military essay, hot ductility to transverse cracking 23. 7.1.2 Composition Effects 24.

7.2 Mould Heat Transfer 25. 7.2.1 Mold Powder Composition and Properties 26. 7.2.2 Mathematical Treatment of turnbull 2013, Steel Solidification in the Mould 26. 7.2.3 Results and Discussion 30. 7.2.4 Conclusions 32.

7.3 Mould oscillation 33. 7.4 Secondary cooling 34. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of business plan sample, steel billets. 35. 7.4.1.1 Mathematical model 36. 7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model 39.

7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization 40. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. 41. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of heat transfer model. 42. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on graham turnbull essay 2013, thermal stress 45. 7.4.1.7 Summary 46.

8. Result and Discussion 47. 9. Conclusion 49. 10. Future Enhancement 50. Mechanical properties of no no boy essay, steel''''''''''''''''''''''.17.

Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. ''''''20. Mold powder composition and graham essay properties'''''''''''''''''..26. Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values'''''''''. 27. Main process parameters of thesis, CCM'..''''''''''''''''''. 36. Verification of surface temperature of billet for all covered situation''''''. 43. LIST OF DIAGRAM.

Temperature profile of the key point ( all covered ). ''''''''''''''42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 90% covered ). ''''''''''''. 42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 80% covered )'''''''''''''..43. Comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation''''''''''''''44. LIST OF FIGURES. Square and hexagonal bright bars. ''''''''''''''''''''.

2. Continuous casting of steel billets. ''''''''''''''''''''..5. Transverse crack in steel billet''''''''''''''''''''''15. Transverse cracks on observed by graham essay 2013, magnifying glass'''''''''''''..20. Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL''''''''''''21. Temperature calculation grid in no no boy essay the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. '''''''''''''''''''''''''''.

27. Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at mould thermal conductivities: (a) = 50, (b) = 150, (c) = 250, (d) =350 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''31. Calculated solid steel thickness along the turnbull mould walls at steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''''..32. the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. '''''''..40. Scheme of the secondary cooling water covering all the surface of bloom''''..41. scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of bloom'''41. the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ '''''''''''''''''''45. the stress field at on electrical safety, the exit of turnbull essay 2013, FSSCZ'''''''''''''''''''.46. CHAPTER 1 COMPANY INTRODUCTION.

1.1. COMPANY INTRODUCTION. LAXCON STEELS LTD. Ever since its foray into architecture+doctoral thesis the steel trade in 1978,Gopal Group has established itself as name to reckon with, in the the steel.over the years, through meticulous quality control and outstanding customer care, it has built a reputation for quality, reliability and integrity. What started off as a small steel plat with a capacity of 2400 MT/year, Gopal Group has now grown into an organization with manufacturing facility at multiple locations with a combined production capacity of 120000 MT/year, strong value of family run enterprise backed by an assembly of industry's most talented professionals has given the essay 2013 group its current forms stature. Laxcon Steels LTD. is a very well-known player in the global market in the stainless steel industry.Thanks to its strategic planning, ultra-modern facilities and exceptional team. The Group companies work hand in in military essay hand to produce the turnbull essay finest stainless steel products, with a focus to fit each client's requirements.Company offer superior quality bright bars in a variety of grades, sizes, tolerances and Precision Quality. 1.2 PRODUCT LIST. Size range -5mm ' 10mm. Length- 3 to discipline, 6.5 meters.

Cold drawn, centerless ground, peeled and essay 2013 polished, smooth turned bars. Precision quality shaft bars. Figure 2: Precision quality shaft bars. Size range -6mm ' 75mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- Soft annealing, solution annealing, quenched and tempered. Square and smoking in public places hexagonal bright bars. Figure 3: Square and hexagonal bright bars. Size range -16mm ' 45mm. Length- 3 to essay 2013, 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered.

Size- 25*25, 30*30, 40*40, 50*50, 60*60, 65*65. Length- upto 6 meters. Hot rolled, annealed pickled, shot blasted. Forged and turned round bars. Figure 5: Forged and turned round bars.

Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered. Hot rolled round bars. Figure 6: Hot rolled round bars. Size range- 16mm ' 120mm. Length- up to thesis, 8 meters. Hot rolled surface. Continuous casting of steel billets.

100*100, 120*120, 200*200, 220*220, 280*280, 300*300. Length- up to 8 meters. Suitable for graham turnbull essay, rerolling, forging and ring rolling. Square, fluted, round. Spot ground, free of surface cracks.

CHAPTER 2 Literature review. This section provides a review on previous research work on the topics related to this research work to essays smoking, understand the extensive work done on the topics related to this research work. These literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of graham, hot solidified strands of steel. Business Sample. The other part of the review section reviews the publications on the topics which are used to achieve the objective of this dissertation. Hence, the following sections presents literature review in studies on the microstructure defects and graham turnbull 2013 the source of the research on electrical defects, monitoring of microstructure by the NDT method, effect of inclusion, on turnbull, the microstructure, experimental study on cooling rate and numeral simulation and write plan sample modeling methods on the study of phase transformation. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel. R. Kiessling, J. Turnbull 2013. Harza, D. Caffarrelli, S. Ramalingma. Studies on MnS inclusions have shown that they are responsible for no no boy essay, chip fracture during machining by essay 2013, initiating cracks as a result of increasing stress in the machining shear zone [1,2].

D. B. Evteev, Berg Huettenmann. some research work shows these additive elements may also degrade steel quality. Sulfur content can increase the extent of cracking at essay, high temperature [3]. The susceptibility of steel to overheating depends on alloying and micro-additions [4]. C. J. Adams, H. Turnbull. F. Hall, A Fuchs.

Segregation of sulfur and phosphorous from the liquid film at grain boundaries into the interdendritic region creates a low ductility and strength region and, consequently, forms cracks in the microstructure of steel between the solidus and 2420 degrees Fahrenheit [5-7] K. Matsubara, H. Mori. The ratio of precipitation of MnS in the matrix and precipitation of AlN along grain boundaries generates cracks in steel during solidification by and ethics in the workplace, forming different low ductility regions at different temperature ranges [8,9]. Formation cracks are inevitable during solidification and may increase in the cooling process of hot solid steel slabs to room temperature or any future heat treatment and machining of the steel. Brimacomb J, Sorimachi K. Cracks and microcracks are more serious than other defects occurring during solidification. Brimacombe and Sorimachi have classified the origin of cracks systematically [10]. Grill, Brimacombe, Weinberg. Internal stresses during surface reheating create cracks because of zero ductility of steel at graham turnbull essay, solidification temperature [11]. During solidification, internal and surface cracks degrade the steel quality.

Surface cracks may be caused by uneven heating, which introduces transverse and longitudinal facial cracks [12]. L. I. Motozenskii. Internal cracks formed during solidification can be classified into discipline essay five groups of halfway and midway cracks, start or centerline cracks, diagonal cracks, bending cracks and pinch roll cracks. Graham Essay. The work of Morozenskii et al. Values. [13], shows that near solidification elongation to rupture in steel with carbon content of graham essay, 0.17 to smoking, 0.2% is minimum. This sudden change can be caused by an unbalanced rate between radiation and convection cooling along secondary cooling zones or different boundary conditions such as below the mold where the hot surface is cooled suddenly by water spray. Graham. At weak or non-ductile regions, resultant tensile stress of surface expansion generates cracks between the no no boy essay dendrites in the columnar zone perpendicular to the equiaxed zone tensile stress.

Likewise, centerline cracking is turnbull essay due to tensile stresses raised by abrupt change in temperature of the centerline with completion of solidification because of bad machine conditions at and ethics, the final solidification area or too low secondary water-cooling [13]. International Iron and Steel Institute; Committee on Technology; Brussels; 1986. Longitudinal cracks can be formed from stress at the meniscus during solidification by high mold wear and poor mold surface as well as insufficient strand support below the mold, including caster or mold misalignment and thermal stresses due to non-uniform cooling [14]. Transverse cracks in turnbull steel may be generated by too large mold taper, poor oscillation conditions, a low surface temperature at in military essay, straightening and abrupt cast speed changes. Uneven cooling of the surface also causes local type star cracks [14]. G. van Drunen, J. K. Turnbull. Brimacombe, F Weinerg. Too high or too low cooling of slab's side surfaces as well as bad equipment conditions can introduce triple point cracks in the slab [15]. H. Paper. Mori, Tetsu to Hagane, L Schmit, H Fredriksson. Tensile stress raised by a high, different, temperature at surfaces making an turnbull essay, obtuse corner creates diagonal cracks at how to write business, right angle to the strain [16,17] Y. Aketa, et al.: Tetsu-To-Hagan. Billet dimensions control the effect of corner radius on longitudinal cracks such that more cracks are formed in larger billets [18]

Experiments on turnbull 2013, tundish temperature show that after a critical temperature, the length of essay, cracks increases as the graham turnbull 2013 temperature of the tundish increases [19]. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects. Malkiewicz T, Rudnik. Experimental workers identify non-metallic inclusions by metallographic, chemical and petrographic methods [20]. B. G. Research Paper Safety. Zhang, L. Thomas. Zhang and Thomas [21,22] discussed more than 30 methods for detecting the anomalies under two main categories of direct and indirect methods. Turnbull Essay. However, the direct technique measurements are accurate but they are costly compared to indirect ones [22]. Debiesme [23] explained the paper on electrical safety Hydrogen Induced Crack test and turnbull 2013 Magnetoscopy for sheet tests. detected the strains with a resolution of about 25 x 10-6 using a non-contact laser speckle technique, in a thermal fatigue test performed by cyclic induction heating and internal cooling test rods. Furuya et al. [24], described the ultrasonic fatigue test technique for detecting the inclusions. Drury J. C, http://www.ndt-ed.prg/, 2006 ,http://www.matter.org.uk/steelmatter/casting, 2000. More background about NDT and its applications can be found in many websites, books, and literature ( [25-27]

However, five sources of stress fields developed during cooling slabs, explained previously, affect the steel matrix in the same way. Accumulating of friction forces at the contact surface between matrix and essays in public inclusion create a stress concentration zone. This zone is believed to be responsible for turnbull 2013, changing the shape of the inclusion [28]. Waudby P. E, Baker T. J., Charles J., Gove KB, Charles JA. For either type, characteristics of the stress field around the inclusion are generated by how to write plan, distribution, concentration and rate of change of the stress field. Essay 2013. Some of the main effective factors in values and ethics workplace inclusion deformation [29-31], include morphology, strength of 2013, inclusion and matrix, composition, inclusion-matrix interface, temperature, strain and strain rate, particle size, stress state, second phase particles and frictional forces at interfaces. N. Nagayama, T. How To Write Business Plan Sample. Abe and S. Nagaki 1989. Nagayama and his co-workers [32] used a Von Mises yield criterion in their FEM analyses to model the deformation of rigid-plastic inclusions in an inhomogeneous material with different yield stresses. Pietzyk, M. Kusiak J., Kusiak K., Grosman , Milenin A. A. Work on large plastic deformation of an inclusion-matrix system for different inclusion shapes were subsequently published [33,34]

2.3 Previous research on the cooling. Varde A. S., Maniruzzaman M., Rundensteiner E. A., Sisson R. Graham Turnbull 2013. D. Parameters affecting the places cooling rate include: quenchant type, quenchant temperature, agitation velocity, viscosity, agitation type, aging, polymer foaming, polymer degradation, part material, geometry, part area, part volume, density, specific heat, oxide layer, surface roughness, suspension, carbon content, grain nature, grain size, plastic deformation and number of other issues [35]. Parameters, which shall be considered in turnbull the quenching process of a bulk material, are desired suspension, cooling rate, cooling nature, heat transfer coefficient, residual stress, desired hardness and other material properties, distortion tendency, and cracking potential [35]. MacKenzie D. S., Lambert D.

Quenching is accelerating cooling with a quenchant such as air, water, oil, salt, natural or vegetable base quenchant, polymers and other chemical compounds [36].Three stages of quenching for a liquid quenchant are: vapor stage, boiling stage and convection stage [36]. Heat transfer coefficient is a function of fluid properties, geometry, surface condition, and agitation. Heat transfer depends on heat transfer coefficient, time and location within the bulk material [36]. First, any participation may vary the shape of the TTT diagram and, secondly, as the cooling rate increases, the residual stresses stored in the bulk material increases as well [37]. There are many publications on the quenching topic, which provides the information about different quenchants and the thermodynamic and chemical properties [38]. Heat Treating and Surface Engineering, Indiana.

Quenching is very common in the manufacturing process, which is known as quench hardening. Factors, which are considered in quenching hardening, are residual stresses and distortion, prevention of essay, crack initiation, microstructural evolution necessary to improve properties (wear resistance and toughness), and meeting the desirable hardness [39]. Baker T. J., Gove K. B. Charles J. A.; Application of quenching in steel manufacturing is done to obtain the desired mechanical properties such as, hardness, yield strength, and ductility [40]. Bhadeshia H. K. D. H.

Bhadeshia [41] has suggested some modes to decrease the temperature of solid-solid phase transformations. Essay 2013. Driven force for polymorphic austenite to ferrite transformation is greater than grain growth by two orders. Kobasko's [42] experimental results showed that the thesis tendency for crack formation is higher with a range of cooling rates and it decreases for the cooling rate higher or lower than this critical cooling rate range as a function of quenching rate. The factors governing the behavior of material at high temperature are time, temperature, stress, and graham turnbull 2013 environment or atmosphere. Prince J. C., Marono R., Leon F. At low temperature mechanical behavior like fatigue damage, is controlled by the level of the mean stress, amplitude of stress fluctuation and number of cycles [43]. Kametani [44] analyzed the length of longitudinal cracks on the surface of continuously cast steel slabs and gave crack frequency as a function of in the, crack length using fractal distribution methods. Berns H., Broeckmann C., Weichert D, Gross-Weege A., Weichert D, Broeckmann C. Tensile test experiments on 2013, tool steel showed that cracks initiate (or exist) in the carbide band growth straight forward in the matrix and after kink type dislocation in the carbide rich region split in in military the same direction of the region then jump to the next carbide band and grow in the same manner and graham turnbull 2013 so on [45,46] Donnay B., Jeraman J. C., Leroy V., Lotter U., Grossterlinden R., Pircher H,Parker K. V. Computer simulations have been deployed in the last decade to lower the and ethics in the workplace cost of microstructural experiments.

Much work on modeling of thermo-mechanical treatments of steel has provided the capability to predict the graham turnbull essay final microstructure [47-48] 2.4 A review on thesis, previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. Smolijan [49] predicted the turnbull strain and residual stress evolution within a geometrically complex specimen (e.g. cylinder, cones, spheres, etc) dealing with estimation of microstructure and hardness distribution after quenching using a mathematical method based on the finite volume method and Jominy tests results. He did not consider in his simulations any existence or formation of thesis, anomalies or defects before or after quenching. Mishnaevsky L., Lippmann N., Schmauder S.

Mishnaevsky [50] et al. discussed the crack propagation under dynamic load in real and quasi-real idealized two-phase microstructure of graham 2013, carbide in the steel matrix microstructure model for tool steel material. Beer, F.P., Johnston, Jr., E.R. How To Business Plan. (1981) Some researchers [51] have used a Global Extraction element-by-element (GEBE) to simulate crack propagation to get a faster results compare to graham essay 2013, other methods. McClintock F. A, Lay B., Brunet M., Boivin M. Other researchers modeled the nucleation and propagation of voids under tensile forces [52,53]

Ueda Y., Tanigawa M. Research On Electrical. , Murakawa. Macro crack propagation simulation with size effect properties in some work [54] was presented to model ship collision, which poses a huge numerical model. Yu H. Graham Turnbull Essay. J.; Brechnung von Abkuhlungs, Leblond j. B., Mottet G, Devaux J. C. Different researchers [55,56] investigated the effect of phase transformation on the residual stresses within quenched bodies. These residual stresses have an important role in changing the soundness of the steel during cooling.

Wittmann [57] used the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), to predict the crack formation in composite material. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM SUMMARY. During our industrial training we found a quality problem in steel billets, which is cast by cone casting machine. A transverse cracks is safety commonly obtained quality problem in steel billets. 3.2 Defects in turnbull essay Detail. The surface crack of CC slab is an important problem, which affected the continuous caster yield and the quality of the on electrical safety slab. If it affected little the slab would be sized, if it affected seriously it would bring on molten steel bleeding or rejected slab, therefore the continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab can be improved greatly. In the producing of the hull structur, the transverse corner crack in graham turnbull the slab occurred more, which made difficult to plan the no no boy essay producing and affected the order of graham turnbull 2013, structural steel finished punctually. During continuous casting of steels, longitudinal and transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by plan, thermal and mechanical deformation. In the temperature dependence of essay, hot steel ductility, two critical temperature ranges can be found namely at temperatures near to solidus and at intermediate temperature range.

In this case, the trough of plasticity falls in the temperature range between 1100??C and architecture+doctoral 700??C in which the straightening operation of continuously cast products is carried out. The combination of low ductility and induced tensile strain may cause transverse cracking in this temperature range. To prevent the graham turnbull 2013 occurrence of cracks, the better understanding on physical mechanical, metallurgy properties of continuously cast steel in the course of research paper on electrical safety, its cooling is a necessary condition. 3.3 Objective of project. Primary work to know the defects occur in graham turnbull essay steel billets.

Based on the work result find out the defects.To minimize the defects with improving quality of steel billets.Referring the entire process the no no boy essay sample have been evaluated to check the possibilities on our various study and analysis for providing the best quality and reducing the turnbull essay 2013 defects in steel billets. CHAPTER 4 STEEL GRADE. Generally a many types of no no boy essay, steel grades are used in graham 2013 billet production, according to the customer demand. We consider a 20CrMnTiH steel grade. Table -1: Mechanical properties. Treatment Thermal ref.

Tensil strength 615 N/mm2. Yield point .395 N/mm2. Reduction of area 15% Absorption energy (j) 47. Table-2: Chemical properties. Other Tr 0.04-0.10. (SOURCE- LAXCON STEELS LTD.) CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE TRANSVERSE CRACK. 5.1 Testing Facilities and Quality Control in LAXCON STEEL LTD. Optical Emission Spectrometers.

Leco Gas Analyzer for H2, O2, N. Mobile Handheld Spectrometers. State of the write Art Chemical Testing Laboratory. Radio Activity Testing. Brinell Hardness Testing. Rockwell Hardness Testing. Poldy Hardness Tester.

Jominy Hardenability Testing. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Impact Testing Machine (Assited with Notch, Broaching Profile Projector) Optical Microscope for Testing Microstructure / Grain Size / Defect Depth / Delta Ferrite Measurement, Non-Metallic Inclusion Rating, Decarburization. Universal Testing Machine for Testing Tensile Strength / % Elongation / % Reduction in C/S Area. Proof Test by Electronic Extensometer. Optical Pyrometer for Temperature Measurement. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects. The determination of the origin of defects includes the recording and analysis of general information. It is turnbull important to know the frequency of defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in bar or wire rod.

It is also relevant an exhaustive study of the general appearance of the defect by how to plan sample, naked eye or with magnifying glass. After that, the observation of polished samples, generally transverse cuts of the rolled products or of the billet and microscopic study at higher magnification, etching with reagents give insight defects features. The information of the continuous casting and the rolling processes are necessary and can give relevant data. Sometimes it could be important to design the follow up of heats in the metal shop and rolling mill processes. Table- 3: Steps to determine defects. Frequency, position, in one of the strands or in one of the faces of the billet, position in wire rod, influence of some steel grade, etc. 5.3 Metallographic Observations.

The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined .often; it is not possible to find out the origin of defect with just observation of transverse cuts under microscope, without an idea of the general aspect of the defect. In Table 4 different techniques for the study of the defects and the information that can be taken from them, regarding to the origin of defects are monitored. Table- 4: Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. With naked eye or with magnifying glass. 5.4 Defect analyzed. 5.4.1 Transverse cracks. Transverse cracks, although not always detect in the inspection of billets, may also give place to serious defect in the rolled products. 5.4.2 Appearance in billet. Figure 10 and Figure 11 shows the aspect of transverse cracks in continuous casted billets observed by magnifying glass and by HCL etching closed to a surface, the graham cracks are looks as if it has been formed at high temperature, probably in the mould.

Figure 10: Transverse cracks on observed by magnifying glass. Figure 11: Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions. Transverse cracks can form in the mould or during strengthening. When they are located in any corner, they are likely to be formed due to tensile effort related to sticking, this can be worsen by deep oscillation marks When the cracks are present only in the corner belonging to essays in public, inner radius, they could be formed by tensile efforts during strengthening. This is common when corner temperature is within low ductility range. A sound approach to solve the problem is to graham turnbull, set proper secondary cooling to avoid the dangerous temperature range in the corners during strengthening. STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH TRANSVERSE CRACKS. Control of essays, Composition. Composition strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility.

Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Mould Heat Transfer. The degree of 2013, steel superheat has a noticeable; Effect on solidified steel thickness.Surface structure can be influenced by heat transfer in the mould. It is important to consider the type of mould powder used, particularly viscosity, mould thermal conductivity. Depth of these oscillation marks can be reduced by increasing the discipline in military essay mould oscillation frequency and/or decreasing the essay stroke to reduce the heal time.

Slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result.A steep temperature gradient through the slab thickness is also desirable using this cooling strategy, to architecture+doctoral, minimize the penetration of surface cracks which may form in cold spots. Mechanical stresses can be introduced by essay 2013, poor alignment of the components of the machine, and from many other sources, but of no no boy essay, most relevance to transverse cracking is the straightening operation. Straightening may be carried out over a single point, or by multipoint straightening. The effect of graham 2013, these two types of straightening operation on transverse cracking are not clear, but there are reasons to suppose that multi-point bending will not improve hot ductility: strain rate will be reduced, which will reduce hot ductility; more time will be allowed for dynamic precipitation; and at least for Nb containing steels, stress relaxation between each bending point seems to be minimal. CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES FOR CRACK MINIMIZATION. 7.1. How To Business Plan. Control of Composition. It is evident from the above discussion that composition, and graham particularly the use of micro alloying elements, can strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility. This suggests that to minimize cracking a steel composition should be chosen which maximizes hot ductility bearing in mind the final product requirements.

The following guidelines should help to maximize hot ductility and values essay minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti additions. 7.1.1 Relevance of Hot Ductility to Transverse Cracking. In qualitative terms, hot ductility as measured in laboratory tests appears to bear some relationship to the observations of essay 2013, transverse cracking; the detrimental effects of Nb, N and Al on transverse cracking are all reflected in reductions in hot ductility. However, there are few examples of more quantitative relationships between measures of hot ductility and transverse cracking.A relationship between the essays in public places number of transverse cracks per slab and the reduction of turnbull 2013, area in a hot tensile test.

Above a reduction of area value of 75%, no cracked slabs were observed. A value of 60% reduction of area to avoid slab cracking, 30-40% is more realistic. It can therefore be seen that there is essays smoking in public considerable discrepancy between the suggested values, and it is likely that such a value can only be ascribed to specific tensile test conditions and slab assessment methods. As well as the graham turnbull depth of the ductility trough, the temperature at which it occurs is in military essay also significant; if slab straightening can be carried out graham turnbull 2013 outside the temperature range of values and ethics workplace essay, low ductility, then transverse cracking may be avoided. Considering the upper temperature range, the simple hot tensile test is unlikely to give a reliable indication of this temperature as dynamic recrystallization occurs during tensile testing giving a marked increase in ductility.

However, the strains encountered at the surface of continuously cast slab are only. 1-2%, which is insufficient for recrystallization to turnbull, occur. The hot bend test should give a more reliable indicator of this temperature than the write plan tensile test. Considering the graham turnbull essay 2013 lower end of the ductility trough, recovery of ductility is associated with the essays completion of a certain proportion of transformation, and therefore the essay hot tensile test should give a more reliable indication of this temperature. However, the higher strains encountered during the tensile test may again give misleading temperatures, due to discipline in military essay, the influence of turnbull essay 2013, strain in transformation, and workplace the bend test is again more likely to give accurate indications. 7.1.2 Composition Effects. There have been several studies of the influence of V on hot ductility using hot tensile tests.

The results from turnbull all the various studies are consistent in that V additions of up to 0.1% at how to write business plan sample, low N contents (0.005%) have only a very slight detrimental effect on hot ductility by broadening the ductility trough. Graham Turnbull Essay. At higher N levels, the effect of in public, V additions becomes more marked, and the ductility trough. Graham 2013. Becomes deeper and broader. In fact, a good relationship can be constructed between the architecture+doctoral product VxN, and graham the depth and breadth of the ductility trough, it should also be noted that in this example it is only at smoking, the highest VxN product, 0.1%Vx0.01%N, that hot ductility approaches that of a 0.028%Nb steel. There have been a very large number of studies of the effect of Nb on hot ductility, and the activity in this field is probably related to the perceived detrimental effect of Nb on slab surface quality. Turnbull Essay. These results can be summarised by saying that Nb additions deepen and broaden the ductility trough to extend to how to business, higher temperatures. Nb additions of as little as 0.017% had a detrimental effect, and graham essay ductility continues to essays in public places, deteriorate up to graham turnbull essay 2013, at least 0.074%. As with Ti, the effect of S on the hot ductility of Nb steels also depends upon the thermal cycle used in the test. For steels reheated to a solution temperature prior to and ethics in the workplace, testing, S has little effect on hot ductility.

However, for in-situ melted test pieces increasing S levels have a detrimental effect on hot ductility, as more S is graham turnbull essay taken into solution to precipitate on workplace essay, grain boundaries. When examining the influence of Ti on hot ductility, it is important to consider the austenite grain size. In some reports, the apparent benefit to hot ductility of Ti additions is due to a refinement of grain size. It is most appropriate to evaluate the influence of Ti on hot ductility using samples melted in-situ, as this technique produces approximately similar grain sizes for Ti and Ti free steels. There are relatively few reports looking at the influence of Ti additions to graham turnbull 2013, C-Mn-Al steels after in-situ melting, and discipline relationship between Ti and hot ductility appears to be complex. In situations where large TiN precipitates can form, such as at slow cooling rates or high values of TixN, hot ductility may be slightly improved by Ti additions, but for conditions which generate large volume fractions of fine TiN particles, such as a stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N in low N steels, hot ductility can deteriorate with Ti additions. (Source :laxcon steel ltd.) 7.2 Mould Heat Transfer. Figure 12: Mold heat transfer. 7.2.1 Mold powder composition and turnbull properties.

Table -5: Mold powder composition and properties. Composition Basicity SiO2 CaO MgO Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 MnO2 P2O5 Na2O K2O F B2O3 Li2O. 1.10 38.60 42.28 0.89 6.34 0.19 0.36 0.03 0.03 3.64 0.12 7.14 0 0.37. Properties Solidif. Temperature. (??C) Softening Temperature. (??C) Melting Temperature. (??C) Viscosity at 1300 ??C.

1149 1170 1180 3.12. 7.2.2 Mathematical treatment of steel solidification in architecture+doctoral the mould. Table -6: Parameters used in graham turnbull the calculations and their variation values. Parameter Units Varied. Values Constant value Remarks. copper mould W/m-??k 50, 150, steel W/m-??k 25, 30, Super heat Degrees 5, 10, 15, Mould wall thikness Mm 12, 16, (calculated) W/m2-??k 250 Constant.

Prandtl's number Pr 7 Assumed. Figure 13: Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. Where the parameters T, Q^m, ??k, . t are temperature ( ' ), heat rate of heat generation/consumption (W/m^3) thermal conductivity (W/m-??k), time (s) and diffusivity (m/s^2), respectively. Based on the above assumptions, (1) can be simplified to. This equation represents transient heat transfer by no no boy essay, conduction in one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in the calculation domain.

The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of finite difference technique and solving the turnbull 2013 resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in in the workplace essay one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in turnbull essay 2013 the calculation domain. The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of finite difference technique and solving the resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. Where, the first term indicated the temperature at node n at the current time (p+1) which is calculated from temperatures of the previous time step (p).

F_o in (7) is no no boy essay known as Fourier's number which is given as. ' T'_N^(p+1)='2F'_o [T_(n-1)^p+B_i T_w ]+(1-'2F'_o-2B_i F_o)T_N^p (9) Where R_e and P_r are the graham turnbull essay 2013 dimensionless Reynold's and Prandtl's numbers and f is the in military friction factor, respectively .The friction factor can be expressed as. Equations (7) and (9) are solved with the graham essay appropriate parameters shown in Table 1 using MS Excel worksheet by which temperatures at each node in the steel and how to business plan sample mould wall were solved at accumulative time intervals covering the essay whole residence time of the steel in the mould. No No Boy Essay. The total residence time of steel in the mould was determined from knowledge of graham essay 2013, mould height and volumetric steel casting speed. This time period was divided into a number of calculation time intervals satisfying the discipline in military essay stability requirements of (7) and (9). Calculation of the increasing solidified steel shell thickness as the steel moves down the mould were performed at different conditions. When pouring steel into the mould, the turnbull 2013 amount of essays in public, superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the graham turnbull 2013 solidifying temperatures) is architecture+doctoral thesis of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the mould. Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. It can be seen from the Figure that the degree of steel superheat has a big effect on the thickness of solidified steel. However, steel superheat is not too easy to control and is dependent on a number of factors which include steel.

Mould thermal properties such as its thermal conductivity controls the essay rate of heat transfer from the steel to the cooling water, i.e., the cooling and no no boy essay solidification processes.This factor has been varied in the calculations and the results of these variations are shown in Figure 14. A factor in steel casting which is turnbull of great importance is changing steel chemical composition. Write Business Sample. Based on essay, customer specifications of the type of steel required, steel chemistry can change many time in the casting operation. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. As can be seen from Figure 15. Figure 15: Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 ( W/m-??k ) Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted. in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Calculations of solidified steel shell thicknesses within the casting copper mould during casting of steel billets showed that.

The degree of how to plan sample, steel superheat has a noticeable effect on 2013, solidified steel thickness, and hence, this factor should be well controlled in the casting operation. Mould thermal conductivity has little affect on values in the workplace, the solidified steel thickness, for a mould thickness of 12 mm, and hence, casting mould material could very well be changed. Thermal conductivity of molten steel is of great importance in the casting operation, and 2013 hence, great care should be taken when changing steel grades of differing thermal conductivities. 7.3 Mould Oscillation. Figure 16: Mould Oscillation. Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of no no boy essay, continuous casting and turnbull essay 2013 can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on product rolled from continuous cast slabs.The physical surface defect of the no no boy essay oscillation marks themselves does not necessarily pose a significant problem in many grades. But many subsurface defects have been found to graham 2013, be associated with oscillation marks, especially when the mark can form a hook.

These defects include entrapped argon bubbles, inclusions and elemental segregation. The oscillation marks also act as nucleation sites for surface cracking and transverse cracks often form in the roots of the oscillation marks in transverse crack sensitive grades. The formation mechanism of the oscillation mark is the increased solidification rate in the meniscus area of the mold due to movement of the meniscus towards the mold wall during the smoking places negative strip time of the mold. This indicates that it is possible to graham, affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the caster or by changing the position of the liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. This leads to the potential for research paper on electrical, some completely novel approaches to either eliminating or minimizing the oscillation marks that are found on turnbull essay, cast slab surfaces. 7.4 Secondary Cooling. There is research paper a wide ductility trough associated with microalloyed steels, and if slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result. If slab straightening is turnbull 2013 carried out at temperatures either above or below this temperature range, cracking should be minimized. Both these different cooling strategies ('soft' cooling and 'hard' cooling) have been used on no no boy essay, various machines around the world, with some success in reducing transverse cracking.

Figure 17: Secondary cooling zone. A variant on the use of different cooling strategies which has been used to minimize crack formation during the turnbull essay rolling of hot charged slabs is the and ethics workplace essay use of slab quenching. This technique rapidly chills the slab surface layers below the transformation temperature, leading to the development of a fine grain structure at the surface.This fine grain structure then. restricts the formation and propagation of cracks. Non-uniform secondary cooling can promote thermal stresses, and hence lead to cracking.This requires good nozzle design and maintenance, and preferably the use of air-mist cooling. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. Billet quality, one of the crucial problems in graham essay steel industry, is mainly determined by the secondary cooling water distribution, thus the places key to achieve improvement of it is to establish rational cooling system. 2013. Concerning the formation of external and internal cracks, scholars from different countries have established the solidification heat transfer model and research safety stress model. Graham Essay. On the condition of the paper on electrical safety same specific water flow rate, the spraying effect of secondary cooling water can be evaluated by to way in the productive process of bloom, which cover all thye bloom surface or part of the surface. with the help of finite element analysis software of ansys, the model of solidification and graham turnbull thermo-mechanical analysis have been developed.

20CrMnTiH bloom is choosen as object.maine process parameters of this CCM are as below. Table 7: Main process parameter. ITEM PROCESS PERAMETER. Machine type Curve type. Section of billet 200mm*200mm.

Casting speed 0.70 m/min. Length of 1st segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.19 m. Length of 2nd segment of safety, sec. Cooling zone 1.49 m. Length of 3rd segment of sec. Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of graham, 4th segment of sec.

Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of places, 5th segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.20 m. Distance from meniscus to straighning point 14.70 m. Basic hypothesis of thermo-mechanical mathematical model. Into the heat transfer and mechanics of turnbull 2013, billet during solidification process from meniscus to air cooling zone a two dimension unsteady heat transfer model has been developed on the basis of the two dimensional slice method in moving coordinate system for simplification, several assumptions are made as below. The steel meets the requirements of the and ethics in the workplace small deformation theory, and billet deformation is tiny compared with its cross section.

The billet cross section is assumed to be in the state of graham 2013, plane stress. The constraints of mold wall bound on the billet, and no no boy essay they are removed as soon as the slice comes out of mold. The impact of longitudinal thermal stress is ignored. Heat transfer analytic model. The two dimensional unsteady heat transfer equation is.

Where ,[c] and [??] are heat capacity matrix and heat conduction matrix of the system respectively, is heat load array equation (2) is a series of first order differential equation about time, and the temperature distribution of node [T] [C] can be obtained after time domain is dispersed. Where (' T'_(c )) casting temperature, The heat transfer of turnbull essay, billet has axisymmetric feature, and the diffusion boundary of the center symmetry axis can be considered as adiabatic condition. In the mold q_s^m=A-B'T (6) In the secondary cooling zone q_s^c=h^c (T_b-T_w) (7) Radiation q_s^r=[?? ??(T_b+273)^4 - (T_0+273)^4] (8) ?? = 5.670373(21) ??10'8 W m'2 K'4 (10)

7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model. Thermal stress of the billet can be calculated by obtaining the changes of the temperature field, and thus the on electrical safety constitutive equation is built- In the equation (11) Total strain increment, Elastic strain increment,

Strain increment changed with temperature, Thermal strain increment, Zero displacement constraints are applied to the symmetry boundary. The displacement constraints are applied to the billet surface in the mold. Molten steel possesses the fluidity, and its stress impact upon the solidified shell is graham ignored. Physical parameters of smoking, steel (20CrMnTiH)

Density -The volume of the billet varies in the solidification process, and turnbull essay 2013 the density of billet is related with steel grades, temperature and research on electrical phase transition, however it has little change. In this ??_s =7600 kg/m^3, ??_1=7200 kg/m^3, ??_s^1 = 7400 kg/m^3. Thermal conductivity -In solid region, ??_s is 29.7 W/ m^2??C, while in mushy region and liquid region, the 2013 equivalent thermal conductivity is used to analyze the effects of on electrical, convection. Where (??^* ) equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C, (m) empirical constant, generally is 4-7 times value of ??_s and 4 is essay chosen in this analysis. Specific heat capacity (c) specific heat capacity increase with temperature rising, but it change very little on conditions of high temperature, so it is considered as constant in this analysis c_1=0.88 kJ/kg ??C. Latent heat of solidification (L_f) the architecture+doctoral solidification of billet is turnbull essay 2013 a nonlinear thermal transfer process, thus the latent heat need to be taken into account, and the latent heat of research on electrical, 20CrMnTiH is 272000 J/Kg in this analysis.

In the calculation, the latent heat is 2013 defined as the enthalpy of steel, which varies as temperature change. 7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization. A quarter of billet cross section is selected as the calculation region, and thesis the distribution of temperature and stress field from meniscus to air cooling zone can be calculated by a finite element analysis model of ANSYS. And this discusses the results through the heat transfer analysis of the key points of graham turnbull essay 2013, slice of billet. The finite element meshes and the key point of the calculation region shown in Figure-18. Figure 18: the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. The actual production condition of plant as follows.-superheat of liquid steel 30 ??C, and casting speed is 0.7 m/mm. Research Safety. On the essay condition of the some specific water flow rate (0.27 l/kg), the focuses on the research of changing the coverage rate of cooling water on no no boy essay, billet in secondary cooling zone shown in Figure 19 and 20 below.

Figure 20: scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of graham, billet. Three situations are selected for research in the analysis. Secondary cooling water covers all the surface of billet (all covered for short, here in after). Secondary cooling water covers 90% area of the surface of billet. Secondary cooling water covers 80% area of the surface of billet. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of in military, heat transfer model. The temperature behavior of key points for three situations is shown in turnbull graph -1 using calculation model.

Graph 2: temperature profile of the key point (90% covered ) Graph 3: temperature profile of the key point (80% covered) Temperature measuring experiments were carried out to verify the model by infrared measurement of temperature. And the result are shown in Table 8. Table 8: Verification of surface temperature of billet for all covered situation. Distance from meniscus, m 4.09 9.14 14.1. Measured temperature, ??C 1096 1003 986. Calculated temperature, ??C 1105 1011 1004.

Absolute error, C 9 8 18. Relative error, % 0.82 0.80 1.81. It can be seen from Table that the calculated temperature values are almost the same as the measured ones, and discipline in military their relative errors are within 2.0% From graph-2 it is known that the graham turnbull temperature changes of center point on wide side surface have basically kept the no no boy essay same trend as of wide side surface graph-3.Illustrates a comparison of the temperature curves of the graham key point in three situations. Graph 4: comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation. Discussions on the result from graph 4. With the reduction of coverage are of secondary cooling water, the corner reheating of the billet is intensified in the first segment of the secondary cooling zones, which are 57 ??C, 81??C, 117 ??C for no no boy essay, all covered, 90% covered and 80 % covered situation respectively. In the last two cases, the corner of billet is not covered by cooling water in the FSSCZ, where cooling condition are the radiation and air convection, and the relative intensity of cooling falls, therefore, the reheating of billet, corner is enhanced as the coverage area of secondary cooling water is reduced.

However, cooling condition of billet corner keeps stable when strands pass the FSSCZ, so the temperature profile are smoother than that in all covered situation, and reheating phenomena of billet obviously decreased after the strands leave the FSSCZ. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature of center point of essay, wide side surface decreases slightly, and the value of 80% covered situation is 20 ??C less than that of all covered one. The reason is that the specific water flow rate keeps the same value under the three situations. Accordingly, cooling water flow rate of research on electrical safety, billet surface covered by water changes more with the reduction of area coverage of secondary cooling water, hence the cooling intensity of strand is turnbull 2013 increased. With the discipline in military essay reduction of spraying area of graham turnbull, secondary cooling water, temperature difference between the middle and corner of the and ethics billet surface decreases a little, the value of 90% covered situation is 35 ??C less than that of all covered one, so the temperature field of 90% covered situation become more homogeneous than that all covered situation. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress. Compared with water coverage areas of essay 2013, billet in ahead segment, that in paper safety the FSSCZ begins to change, the calculation of stress field are shown in Figure- 21 22, maximum equivalent stress is presented in the billet corner, and essay 2013 the stress field distribution is similar to that of essays smoking in public, different water coverage area of the graham essay 2013 billet, meanwhile, maximum equivalent stress of all covered situation is 25.3 MPa.

Figure 21 the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. Figure 22: the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. A strong reheating of billet corner does happen when secondary cooling water covers part of the billet surface. Essays In Public. And with the reduction of coverage area of water, the extent of billet reheating is increased. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is essay better than that of all-covered situation. According to the actual production selecting an appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water would realize a more homogeneous temperature field of paper safety, billet, and its cooling effect is better than that of all-covered situation, thus the billet transverse crack could be reduced.

In the graham 2013 process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 8 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The share of the bloom, continuously cast in the company, represents approx 45-60%, the architecture+doctoral balance being billets for another company. The material defects at the steel continuous casting appear during the solidification and turnbull cooling of the continuously cast semi-finished products, often leading to important material losses. To prevent these losses, the purpose of metallurgical technologies and constructive solutions is to detect the research paper on electrical safety causes of occurrence, prevention and removal. literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on turnbull essay, soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of steel.it is include below points which helps us to find out appropriate solution of problem. Previous studies on the microstructure of steel.

Previous work on and ethics essay, detecting the defects. Previous research on the cooling. A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. During continuous casting of steels, transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and turnbull essay mechanical deformation in the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility. Methodology is important to know the frequency of defect, position in paper on electrical same corner or face of the billet, position in bar or wire rod. The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined. Strategies for dealing with transverse cracks. Control of composition. Mould heat transfer. Techniques for crack minimization.in which we use a ansys analysis for essay 2013, the solution by how to plan, mathematical model, thermal stress model.

The following guide lines helps to maximize hot ductility and turnbull essay 2013 minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and essay alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and turnbull essay particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to essays, Nb steels. Consider Ti addition. When pouring steel into the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is 2013 of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the in military mould.

Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and essay 2013 hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the discipline most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Thermal conductivity also affects the hot ductility of steel which directly related with transverse crack of graham 2013, steel billet.

This indicates that it is possible to affect meniscus mark formation by no no boy essay, either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the caster or by changing the position of the graham essay 2013 liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of architecture+doctoral thesis, all-covered situation. In the graham turnbull 2013 process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION. After the study and observation of and ethics in the, process of continuous casting of steel billets we found the major defect like transverse crack in product.

And then we have done ANSYS analysis on. Mould thickness, Secondary cooling zone, We also conduct study other techniques which effect on transverse crack in steel billet, like. Mould heat transfer. Add the micro alloying element like Nb, V, Ti for essay 2013, improvement of mechanical property of material.Finally we found that the defect of plan, transverse crack can be reduced.

CHAPTER 10 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT. After done this work, apply this strategy for future improvements in continues casting of steel billet. By do more work on turnbull essay 2013, this report and changing the PLC coding and smoking places operation technique, more good quality steel billet can be obtained. Improve arrangement of secondary cooling nozzle in circular form around billet. Improve micro alloying element and composition of material. Improve SCZ and withdrawal mechanism. APPENDIX: LIST OF SYMBOLS. ?? Density of steel, kg/m^3. v Casting speed, m/min. c Specific heat capacity of steel, kJ/kg ??C.

?? Thermal conductivity coefficient, W/ m^2??C. ??^* Equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C. T Temperature, ??C. q_s^w Heat flux of wide surface, J/m^2s. q_s^m Heat flux of billet surface in the mold, J/m^2s.

q_s^r Heat flux of billet surface when radiation is considered on turnbull essay, boundary condition J/m^2s. q_s Heat flux, J/m^2s. C_w Specific heat of water, kJ/kg ??C. Q_m Water flow rate of mold. T_c Casting temperature, ??C.

' Specific water flow rate, l/kg. h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m^2??C. s Stefan-Boltzmann constant. e Radiation coefficient. C_1 Specific heat of liquid steel, kJ/kg ??C. C_s Specific heat of solid steel, kJ/kg ??C. L_f Latent heat, kJ/kg. T_w Cooling water temperature, ??C. q_s^n Heat flux of narrow surface, J/m^2 s. q_s^c Heat flux of billet surface covered secondary cooling water, J/m^2 s. q_s^a Heat flux of on electrical safety, billet surface when air convection is considered as boundary condition J/m^2 s. h_a Heat transfer coefficient between billet and air convection, W/m^2 s. ?? Elastic strain increment. d??

Total strain increment. d??_(e,T) Strain increment changed with temperature changes. d??_T Thermal strain increment. T_o Ambient temperature, ??C. [1]. R. Graham Turnbull Essay. Kiessling, Nonmetallic Inclusions in in public places Steel ( Part III), ISI Publication 115, 1968. [2].

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Wittmann F. H.; Crack formation and fracture energy of normal and high strength concrete; Sadhana Vol. 27, Part 4, August 2002, pp. 413-423. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and essay we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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