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bs 17799 resume Resume Body RISK, SECURITY, PRIVACY COMPLIANCE SME. Currently seeking a position in Corporate Risk Governance, Compliance, Information Security, Privacy, Service Management Quality Management, assisting enterprises in implementing, establishing and documenting business processes and systems based on standards best practices. Pro Social Networking? Certified as a Lead Auditor for ISO 27001 ISO 9001. Worked on Risk Governance projects with the Federal Reserve Bank, Deposit Trust Clearing Corporation, Citigroup, Johnson Johnson and essay of old Reuters amongst others. Has over essay 18 years experience in Risk Governance with both the private public sectors globally including the lisa blaydes dissertation United States Asia. Adept at both the networking essay offshore and onshore models and the risk and salvation essay advantages associated with each.
Deep experience based on implementing several standard based systems including but not limited to, ISO 27001, ISO 9001, ISO 20001, BS 25999, ITIL, COBIT, COSO, PCI, VISA CISP, HIPAA, Basel II, GLBA, Sarbanes-Oxley, SAS 70 Type I II, EU Data Privacy, Safe Harbor, PIPEDA, FFIEC, FISMA, NIST 800-xx, OECD, SB 1386, HCC, GXP, FDA, CSV and pro social networking SDLC. • Risk assessments and audits (SOX, GXP, SDLC, and CSV) in the JJ SAP environment for $146 million project in JJ to controlling stress, allow access to real time manufacturing data, a global view of pro social, inventory, 25 different plant operations consolidated into 1 integrated platform and common processes across 63 manufacturing sites. • 1st ISO 27001 certificate in lisa dissertation the United States to the Federal Reserve Bank (largest Central Bank in the World) • 1st BITS Shared Assessment Program (SAP) third party audit of DTCC ($28 Trillion dollars of assets, $ 1.8 quadrillion in securities settlement in 2008) • ISO 27001 - 100% success in getting all clients certified to ISO 27001 – Federal Reserve, Citigroup, Reuters. Pro Social? • 7 of 15 (46%) of ISO 27001 certificates awarded in 2005 in the United States – Federal Reserve, Citigroup, Reuters. • Over 500 risk assessments globally – including Information Security, Privacy, Validation, Cross certification to ISO 27001 and ISO 9000 simultaneously – Federal Reserve, Reuters, Address eliminate major audit findings by Federal regulators (SEC, OCC) - Citigroup. • Risk Governance Alignment for Information security BCDR governance groups - Citigroup. • Compared the Corporate Governance IAPP policies with globally accepted risk principles to lisa, outline gaps for remediation based on ISO 27001 principles – JJ. • Mapped the essay BS 25999 standard against the NFPA 1600. Currently in use with the British Standards Institute. Audit and Doc Control IT SOX 4/’07 - Present. HCS – Crossroads - Audit and Doc Control - Johnson Johnson, NJ. Essay On Problems Age People? • Conduct Audits of both Business and IT process teams and groups for networking essay compliance with SOX, GxP, Privacy, HCC, CSV, SDLC for grading quickly the Crossroads SAP project, a $ 146 million SAP software development project to streamline the manufacturing supply chain processes across JJ global enterprise. • Provide guidance and pro social direction to Business Process teams including Finance, Quality and Human Relations on potential gaps and remediation of audit findings based on the observations from the essays conduct of essay, internal and external audits. • Plan, organize and of old age people implement a full Document Control function from the ground up. Networking? Establish the process, vet the stress technology options, hire the doc control team and manage project stakeholder expectations.
Completed the validation requirements for the technology components of the Document Control project to provide evidence of all legal and regulatory related compliance activities for healthcare including SOX, GXP, CSV, SDLC, Privacy and IAPP requirements. • Organize and archive all documents for legal and regulatory compliance, including, the pro social Compliance Plan, Compliance Analysis, Risk Assessment, Strategy Documents, SOPs, WIs, Test Scripts and Test Results. • Supplier risk assessment evaluation and BPRAs for JJ HCS. • Some key concerns revealed during my audits were as follows: #61692; The Core Design had had not been rigorously prototyped prior to Integration testing. #61692; The Master Data team had not finalized the field mapping process from existing legacy systems to the Crossroads SAP project. #61692; The Interfaces were at risk of overloading on account of Core Design not meeting all its integration goals. #61692; Supplier governance was not being viewed strategically as a part of the Global Corporate Risk Governance framework. • Provide training to the entire project team on the Compliance requirements including, FDA, CSV, SDLC, SOX and Privacy requirements. Over 100 training programs conducted. • Guide the Data Migration and Conversion team to define a comprehensive compliance strategy for the entire migration and conversion process. • Guide the Testing team to ensure that testing and stage gate reviews for various stages of the SDLC were archived and available for audits, internal and external. • Acquired tools for essay of old age people Requirements Traceability to prove that Design-To-Meet requirements were developed, tested and found to fully meet user requirements. Ethicon - IT SOX Lead. • Guide, train and networking essay orient the salvation essay IT team towards responsibility towards SOX, the pro social implementation of new SOX controls, the review of on womens rights, existing SOX controls and pro social coordination of all SOX testing for an $8 billion division of JJ - Ethicon. Essay On Problems Of Old? • Review the essay changes in the business process and grading essays quickly understand the changes and networking new controls required to dissertation, be put in place for SOX compliance based on an Impact Analysis.
Provide guidance to Top Management and essay Process leads on impact of changes based on metrics related to Materiality for SOX. Reduced the number of salvation essay, SOX tests by 894. • Planning, Organizing, Directing, Coordinating and Conducting of Internal and External audits with Corporate Internal Audit and Price Waterhouse for networking essay SOX. During the observing audit, communication with all stakeholders to appraise them of the pro social networking Audit progress. Post Audit follow-up in salvation essay completing remediation and documenting actions taken based on audit observations. • Led the IT group though 3 internal and external audits. Result of the audit was Adequate. Trending for JJ Enterprise as a whole was Inadequate or Adequate with Significant concerns. • Implementing efficiencies in the SOX program based on guidance in AS-2 and networking AS-5, neither of quickly, which had been implemented prior to me getting there. • Also worked on compliance requirements linked to Health Care Compliance, Privacy and GxP. Pro Social Essay? • Led the SOX bi-annual reviews with the SOX Steering Committee and essays the Board. • Saved the company $ 5 million over a 8 months based on 6 ideas which were implemented. Sr.
Consultant Risk Assurance, Mitigation Services Mgt. Essay? 8/’04 – 3/’07. Churchill Harriman, NJ. • 100% success in dissertation getting clients to pro social networking essay, certification. Clients cross-certified to multiple standards like ISO 27001, ISO 9001 and ISO 20000. Zero observations from lisa dissertation external auditors. • 7 of 15 (46%) of pro social networking, ISO 27001 certificates awarded in 2005 in the United States – Federal Reserve, Citigroup (Information Security and Business Continuity Governance Groups), Reuters (Key strategic data centers across the United States) • Strategic Supplier Governance (including Contract Governance) expertise to clients in essay on problems of old age people different sectors including Financial Services, Healthcare and networking essay News Dissemination. Saved the clients $ 18 million annually in the process. • Subject Matter Expert in deploying ISO 17799/ISO 27001/ISO 9001/ISO 20000/BS 25999 amongst others standards for Security, Quality IT Service Business Continuity standards. • 1st BITS SAP Third Party assessment of DTCC for grading compliance with the Strategic Vendor Governance program.
• Over 500 risk assessments all across the globe for Information Security, Privacy, Infrastructure capability, Standards like ISO 9001, ISO 27001 amongst others. • Application Vulnerability Scanning for clients and interpreting the results so that appropriate remedial action could be taken as part of the SDLC cycle. Izar Associates, NJ. • Hired to address Business Risk in the offering of networking, new Location Based Services. • Project Management checklist for closing out client engagements. Essays Rights? Sr. Consultant – Infrastructure Security Risk Assessment Remediation 9/’02 – 5/’04. Norvergence Inc., NJ. • Hired to networking, address Information Risk in Infrastructure and conduct Security Assessments and conclusion suggest methods for Risk Remediation. • Project Management staffing customer specific engagements with teams to address remediation. • Developed a methodology and documented it for productivity enhancements. • Assessed impact of platform transitions and pro social mergers and acquisitions on current customers risk profile and recommend remediation. • Explored the link between Security Management and IT Services Management around risk.
Senior Consultant – HIPPA Privacy and Security 7/’02 – 8/’02. Innovative Business Solutions Inc., PA. • Develop a system for securing HIPAA transactions in a B2B environment. • Conducted 3 Privacy Risk assessments for Protected Health Information (PHI). Senior Consultant – B2B Info Risk Assessment 1/’01 – 6/’02. New York City, NY. Essays Quickly? • Managed conducted over networking 100 risk assessments based on risk assessment methodology developed. Senior Consultant – HIPAA Privacy 9/’00 – 12/’00. Kaltech International, NJ. Senior Consultant – Business Process Reengineering 3/’00 – 8/’00. Stress Essay Conclusion? Everest Consulting Inc., NJ. • Present a Diversification Plan to essay, move company into on-shore software development to protect revenues from business and legislative risk due to H1-B volatility.
Sr. Consultant – Enterprise Application Integration 12/’98 – 2/’00. Hexaware Technologies Inc., NJ. • Present and execute a strategy to convert Year 2000 clients over to new services like Enterprise Application Integration and work with technology partners in on problems age people offering an end-to-end solution to clients. Consultant – Year 2000 Project Methodology 6/’98 – 11/’98. Global Software Technologies Inc., NJ. • Suggest methods for decoupling business critical systems touch points with overall infrastructure to limit any cascading effects of a system shutdown. • ISO 27001 Lead Auditor - BSI, ISO 9000 Lead Auditor - BVQI. • University of Poona – MBA, University of Poona - BS (Electronics) Past Member - Open Security Exchange (OSE) - Physical Logical Security Convergence, Information Systems Security Association (ISSA) – Member Presenter, BITS - Financial Services Roundtable - Technical Development Committee for Supplier Governance, ASIS (American Society for Industrial Security) Skill Skill Level Last Used/Exp in yrs. 1 BS 25999 - Business Continuity, BS 7799 Conversion, BS 7799-3 - Risk Management, ACL Expert Currently used/3. 2 Business Process Outsourcing, Combining Quality, Security ITSM, COBIT Controls, Information Governance Auditing Expert Currently used/10.
3 ITIL, ISO 17799/ISO 27001, ISO 20001, ISO 9001 Expert Currently used/6. Pro Social? 4 Knowledge Management, Management Planning Control Systems, Operations Project Mgt, Organizational Development, Presenter, Resource Management, Risk Assessment Mitigation Management, Total Quality Management (TQM), Expert Currently used/12.
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Mitosis Replication of Eukaryotic Cells. Exercise 13 MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Pro Social Networking Essay! Mitosis and cytokinesis are often referred to collectively as “cellular division. ” Why are they more accurately called cellular replication? The result of mitosis is production of two cells (replicates) identical to the parent cell. The genetic material is replicated rather than divided. b. Does the essay on problems age people, cell cycle have a beginning and an end? The organization of our study of cellular events indicates a beginning and end, but the events continue to repeat. Pro Social Essay! 2. a. If a nucleus has eight chromosomes during interphase, how many chromosomes does it have during metaphase? During metaphase there are 8 double-stranded chromosomes. b. How many does it have after mitosis is salvation essay, complete? After mitosis (and separation of chromatids) there are 16 chromosomes distributed between two nuclei.
3. a. Pro Social Networking! Why would we choose an embryonic mass of cells for procedure 13. Dissertation! 3 in which to study the stages of mitosis? embryonic cells are replicating and growing rapidly b. Which stage of mitosis most often is associated with the beginning of cytokinesis? usually late anaphase 4. a. What region of a root has the most mitotic activity? meristem, just above cap b. Why is pinching of the cytoplasm inadequate for networking essay cytokinesis in plant cells? Pinching of cytoplasm is not appropriate for rigid cell walls. c. Locate a plant cell in dissertation, late telophase. What is the volume of the new cells relative to a mature cell? Each cell is smaller (approximately 1/2) than the parent cell. 5. a. Why are the combined data from all the class members more meaningful than your results alone? Combined results reduce random error. b. How accurate were your predictions for length of each stage of networking essay, mitosis? probably not close c. What sources of error can you list for this technique to determine the time elapsed during each stage of mitosis? ariation in observing essays, onion roots; student’s ability to pro social, distinguish stages; microscopic cross sections of roots may or may not pass through the nuclear material Exercise 14 MEIOSIS: REDUCTION DIVISION AND GAMETOGENESIS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Grading! a. Why would shuffling genetic material and producing new combinations of characteristics be advantageous to a species?
New genetic combinations allow adaptation to essay, changing environments. b. When would it be deleterious? New combinations always produce a percentage of disadvantageous characteristics; the risk of bad gene combinations may be inappropriate in a stable, beneficial environment. 2. Observing! a. Why or why not? probably not, because cells in pro social networking essay, the ovary usually have not finished meiosis I, and polar bodies disintegrate rapidly DNA FINGERPRINTING LAB Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Observation Questions 1. Describe the samples of dissertation, DNA (physical properties). The DNA samples are clear, colorless liquid samples. 2. Is there any observable difference between the samples of networking, DNA? No. All samples appear similar. 3. Describe the appearance of the restriction endonuclease mix.
The restriction enzymes appear to be clear, colorless liquids. Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Review Questions 1. Before you incubated your samples, describe any visible signs of blaydes, change in the contents of the networking essay, tubes containing the DNA combined with the restriction enzymes. DNA + EcoRI/PstI enzyme mix: No visible change apparent in the tubes. 2. Can you see any evidence to grading essays quickly, indicate that your samples of DNA were fragmented or altered in pro social, any way by the addition of EcoRI/PstI? Explain. No. No visible change apparent in the tubes. 3. In the absence of visible evidence of change, is it still possible that the DNA samples were fragmented? Explain your reasoning.
Yes. They may be chemically changed but the changes may not be visible. Enzymes may have cut the DNA. Observing! 4. After a 24 hour incubation period, are there any visible clues that the restriction enzymes may have in some way changed the DNA in any of the tubes? Explain your reasoning. No. No visible change apparent in the tubes but the networking, enzymes may have cut the DNA. The reactions are at the molecular level and too small to be seen.
Electrophoresis of Your DNA Samples Review Questions 1. The electrophoresis apparatus creates an electrical field [positive and negative ends of the lisa, gel]. Networking! DNA molecules are negatively charged. To which pole of the electrophoresis field would you expect DNA to migrate (+ or -)? Explain. Positive. 2. What color represents the negative pole? Black. 3. After DNA samples are loaded in on womens, wells, they are “forced” to move through the gel matrix.
Which size fragment (large vs small) would you expect to move toward the opposite end of the gel most quickly? Explain. Smaller. Networking Essay! There is less resistance to their movement through the gel matrix. 4. Which fragments are expected to travel the shortest distance [remain closest to the well]?
Explain. Larger. There is more resistance to dissertation, their movement through the pro social, gel matrix. Lesson 4 Thought Questions 1. Lisa Dissertation! What can you assume is contained within each band? DNA fragments. 2. If this were a fingerprinting gel, then how many kinds (samples) of DNA can you assume were placed in each separate well? One. 3. What would be a logical explanation as to why there is more than one band of pro social essay, DNA for each of the samples? The DNA must have been cut into fragments by restriction enzymes. Age People! 4. What probably caused the pro social, DNA to become fragmented? The chemical action of the restriction enzymes cutting at specific base sequences.
5. Which of the DNA samples have the same number of restriction sites for the restriction endonuclease used? Write the essays, lane numbers. Lanes 2, 3, and networking essay, 4 (CS, S1, and S2). 6. Which sample has the smallest DNA fragment? The sample in lane 5 (S3). 7. How many restriction sites were there in lane three?
Two sites that cut the sample into two fragments. 8. Which DNA samples appear to observing, have been “cut” into the same number and size of fragments? Lanes 2 and 4 (CS and essay, S2). 9. Based on your analysis of the photograph, what is your conclusion about the DNA samples in the photograph? Do any of the samples seem to essays quickly, be from the same source. Essay! If so which ones? Describe the evidence that supports your conclusion. The DNA samples in salvation essay, lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2) are from the same individual because they have identical restrictions sites that yield identical fragments. Pro Social! DNA Fingerprinting: Overview 1. What are we trying to determine? Restate the dissertation, central question.
We are trying to determine if samples of DNA that we were provided with are from the same individual or from different individuals. 2. Pro Social! Which of your DNA samples were fragmented? What would your gel look like if the DNA were not fragmented? The number of fragmented samples will vary. They will have one band on the gel if the DNA was not cut. 3. What caused the DNA to become fragmented? The addition of restriction enzymes.
4. What determines where a restriction endonuclease will “cut” a DNA molecule? A special sequence of bases on the DNA called restriction sites. Grading Essays Quickly! 5. Networking! A restriction endonuclease “cuts” two DNA molecules at the same location. What can you assume is identical about the molecules at essays on womens, that location? The restriction sites are identical. 6. Do any of your suspect samples appear to have EcoRI or PstI recognition sites at the same location as the DNA from the crime scene? The samples in lanes 2 and 5 match (CS and S3). 7.
Based on the above analysis, do any of the suspect samples of essay, DNA seem to be from the same individual as the DNA from the crime scene? Describe the scientific evidence that supports your conclusion. The CS and S3 samples appear to be identical. They both produce similar banding patterns on the gel. Exercise 23 SURVEY OF BACTERIA: KINGDOMS ARCHAEBACTERIA AND BACTERIA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Controlling Essay Conclusion! Why is it important that bacteria release nutrients? Nutrients must be released and recycled for use by other living organisms.
If nutrients were not released by pro social networking essay decomposers, the nutrients would all eventually be locked up in dead, non-decaying tissue. . What term would best describe heterotrophic bacteria that feed on living tissue? parasitism 2. Stress Conclusion! What is the shape and pro social essay, size of each bacterial colony? E. coli—medium rod; B. megaterium—large rod; R. rubrum—small and essays, thin spirillum 3. Pro Social Networking Essay! a. Which type of bacteria is most prevalent in the sample from observing your teeth? How do you know? probably gram positive because most of the cells are purple b. Pro Social Networking! Is Bacillus megaterium gram positive or gram negative? gram positive 4. a. Where are the bacteria? Are they between cells or inside cells? inside the cells b. Why is this relationship between a plant and bacterium called mutualism? Both partners benefit from the association. c. How does Rhizobium benefit from dissertation this association? nutrients from the host d. How does the host plant benefit from the association? nitrogen supply from the bacterium 5. Based on their appearance, which drugs or chemicals retard the growth of bacteria? depends on the drugs that you use 6. Do all cells of a trichome of pro social, Oscillatoria appear similar? yes 7. a. Do adjacent cells share a common sheath? usually b. Quickly! What do you suppose is the function of the pro social networking, sheath? protection c. Do clusters of Gloeocapsa represent multicellular organisms? Why or why not? No, the cells are not obligate dependents—they can operate independently; the on problems age people, protoplasms of the cells are not connected; the aggregation of cells can be broken into individual cells without killing the cells. 8. a. How is the shape of Merismopedia different from other cyanobacteria you studied in this exercise?
Merismopedia is a flat, square colony one cell thick. b. How would a colony attain this shape? equal divisions in two planes Exercise 24 Survey of Kingdom Protista: The Algae ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Pro Social Networking! Is the movement of Chlamydomonas smooth or does it appear jerky? relatively smooth b. Can you see both flagella? You may need to reduce the light intensity to see flagella. probably not, depends on student’s microscope c. How does methylcellulose affect movement of Chlamydomonas? slows it down d. How does the stigma help Chlamydomonas survive? detects light 2. a. Under what environmental conditions would a zygote not undergo meiosis immediately? unfavorable conditions b. Are spores of Chlamydomonas haploid or diploid? haploid c. Which portions of the life cycle of Chlamydomonas are haploid? all portions from meiosis to syngamy d. Which are diploid? all portions from syngamy to meiosis 3. a. Are the essays, filaments of Spirogyra branched? no b. What is the networking essay, shape of the chloroplasts of Spirogyra? spiral c. Can you see any conjugation tubes? If you can’t, examine the prepared slides that demonstrate these structures. Observing Essays! probably not seen on live material, but easily seen on prepared material d. How do you think that Spirogyra reproduces asexually? mitosis and networking essay, fragmentation 4. a. How is Cladophora morphologically similar to Spirogyra. Essays Quickly! How is it different?
They are both filaments, but Cladophora is networking, branched and Spirogyra is age people, unbranched. b. What is the shape of its chloroplasts? broad and dispersed 5. a. What is oogamy? ne gamete (sperm) is small and networking essay, motile, the other gamete (egg) is larger and nonmotile b. What are the tiny spheres inside the lisa blaydes, larger sphere of Volvox? daughter colonies c. Essay! How do you suppose they get out? Parent colonies turn inside out or rupture. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d. How do you think the number of cells in a young Volvox colony compares to essays, the number in a mature colony? less than or equal to the number in the mature colony a. Essay! How is Fucus’ structure different from green algae that you have examined earlier in this exercise? Fucus is larger, more parenchymatous, and flattened. b. Are all portions of the thallus photosynthetic? How can you tell? probably not, due to different concentrations of essays, pigments c. Considering where Fucus lives, what do you think is the function of networking essay, its gelatinous sheath?
Since Fucus lives in intertidal regions, the gelatinous sheath probably prevents desiccation. d. Are the swollen structures solid masses or are they empty? essentially empty a. Are the gametes of Fucus isogamous or oogamous? oogamous b. How does the structure of tissue surrounding the reproductive structures compare with that of green algae? Tissues in brown algae are more complex. On Womens Rights! a. Can you see any pores in the walls of diatoms? robably yes b. Are any of the diatoms moving? possibly c. If diatoms lack flagella, how do you explain their motility? gliding on networking, a gelatinous secretion d. How would diatomaceous earth compare to sand as a swimming pool filter material? Which would be better and why? Diatomaceous earth would be better because it is finer. How do the shapes of dinoflagellates compare with other unicellular algae that you have observed in this exercise? bizarre and varied What is the function of the eyespot of Euglena? detect light Exercise 25 SURVEY OF KINGDOM PROTISTA: PROTOZOA AND SLIME MOLDS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. . Can you detect moving cytoplasm in the extending pseudopods of Amoeba? probably yes b. Salvation Essay! What do you suppose the networking, Amoeba is observing essays, moving toward or away from? light or food c. How does the Amoeba respond to essay, nutrient broth? usually increased movement d. Approximately how long would it take an Amoeba to move across the field of view on low power? a few minutes e. Why is a contractile vacuole of a protozoan often more difficult to see than a food vacuole? A contractile vacuole contains clear excretory fluid, while food vacuoles contain particulate matter. f. Why would excess water tend to accumulate in Amoeba? ecause solute concentration in the amoeba is higher than the concentration in the environment and water diffuses into the cell 2. How could fossilized forams in different geological layers of rock or sediment indicate the probability of finding oil? Different species are present in different environmental conditions; therefore, a list of species may include those associated with environmental conditions appropriate for on womens oil formation.
3. Pro Social Networking! a. How large is a trypanosome relative to an Amoeba? much smaller b. What alga does a trypanosome superficially resemble? Euglena 4. a. Are cilia visible on living or prepared Paramecium? probably not b. Does Paramecium rotate as it moves? yes c. How does movement of Paramecium compare with that of Amoeba? With a flagellated alga? Paramecium moves much faster than Amoeba, but not as fast as many flagellated species. 5. a. Salvation Essay! Why is the essay, division of Paramecium cells called “transverse” fission? The plane of separation is transverse to the longitudinal axis. Essays On Womens! b. Why is transverse fission not a sexual process? it doesn’t recombine genes c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of conjugation in Paramecium? disadvantages: conjugation requires more than one organism and is energy consuming advantage: creation of new genetic combinations 6. . What is the pro social networking, value or function of the rapid contraction stalk of lisa, Vorticella? avoid predation b. What is the probable function of the moving cilia of Vorticella? create water currents bringing food particles to the organism 7. a. Is cytoplasmic movement of Physarum apparent? probably yes b. Is the movement in a particular direction? probably not, but on moist medium they may apparently move toward food c. What is a possible function of cytoplasmic movement in Physarum? avoid light, find food Exercise 26 SURVEY OF KINGDOM FUNGI: MOLDS, SAC FUNGI, MUSHROOMS, AND LICHENS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Are hyphae present? o b. Essay! Are the cells motile? yes 2. a. How many species of mold are on the bread? 2, 3, or 4 b. Do any of the molds on the bread have hyphae modified as sporangiophores and sporangia? probably yes c. Is pigment distributed uniformly in each mycelium? If not, where is the salvation essay, pigment concentrated in each mold? No, pigment is usually concentrated in sporangia. d. What is the adaptive significance of pro social essay, spores forming on ends of lisa dissertation, upright filaments rather than closer to the protective substrate? to enhance distribution of released spores 3. a. In what structure is the dark pigment of Rhizopus concentrated? sporangia b. Is Rhizopus reproducing sexually as well as asexually in the same petri dish?
How can you tell? Yes (if students are provided with cultures with two strains); because sporangia as well as zygospores are visible. 4. What is the relative size of Penicillium hyphae compared to Rhizopus hyphae? Penicillium hyphae are much smaller than Rhizopus hyphae. Pro Social Networking! 5. a. Salvation Essay! Do you see chains of yeast cells produced by networking budding? probably yes b. How is the stress essay conclusion, structure of yeast hyphae different from that of pro social networking essay, molds? Yeast hyphae are greatly reduced to a chain of one or two cells, while molds are very long and multicellular.
6. What is the difference between dikaryotic and diploid cells? Dikaryotic cells have two distinct nuclei, each with a haploid (single) set of chromosomes; a diploid cell has one nucleus with a diploid (double set of chromosomes). 7. How many spores would you estimate are present on the gills of a single cap of Coprinus? Remember that a prepared slide shows only a cross section. many, many thousands 8. a. What is the value of photosynthetic algae to the growth of a fungus in a lichen? Algae conduct photosynthesis and produce an energy rich carbon source, (i. e. , glucose). Salvation Essay! b. Would you expect lichens to grow best in rural or urban environments? Why? best in rural environments because they are so sensitive to networking essay, air pollution Exercise 27 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: LIVERWORTS, MOSSES, AND HORNWORTS OF PHYLA HEPATICOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTA, AND ANTHOCEROPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. What are the essays, functions of rhizoids? anchorage, possibly absorption 2. What is the function of these pores? gas exchange 3. How do the positions of the archegonium and pro social networking, antheridium relate to their reproductive function?
Antheridia need to grading essays, disperse sperm and are upright with pores on top of the antheridial disk; archegonia are protected under the pro social, surface of the archegonial disk. . a. What is the function of the foot? nutrient transport from gametophyte to sporophyte b. Are spores haploid or diploid? haploid c. What is the functional significance of the response of elaters to moisture? dispersal of spores 5. a. How many cells thick is the leaflet? one or two b. Is there a midrib? Vein? yes c. Are stomata or pores visible on the leaf surface? probably not d. How does the symmetry of a moss gametophyte compare with that of a liverwort gametophyte? Mosses are radially symmetrical and liverworts are bilaterally symmetrical. 6. a. How many times its own weight did the moss absorb? or more times b. Controlling Conclusion! How does this compare with the paper towel? much greater c. Why is Sphagnum often used in shipping items that must be kept moist? because it holds water so well 7. Pro Social Essay! Where is the egg located in the archegonium? egg is enlarged cell at base of neck 8. Are sperm haploid or diploid? haploid 9. Is the controlling essay conclusion, sporophyte more prominent in mosses or liverworts? mosses 10. Networking! What is the adaptive significance of the seta of the sporophyte growing well above the mat of the gametophyte? better dispersal 11. a. What process produces spores? meiosis b. Is the capsule haploid or diploid? diploid 12. Can you think of any evolutionary implications of the similarity between a moss protonema and a filamentous green alga? both have similar form and live in similar habitat, which suggests that selective pressures for developing these structures may have been similar Exercise 28 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS OF PHYLA PTEROPHYTA, LYCOPHYTA, PSILOPHYTA, AND SPHENOPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. On Problems Age People! a. Which parts of the life cycle are haploid? gametophyte b. Which are diploid? sporophyte 2. a. Essay! How many veins are present in each frond? usually 1 large vein b. What tissues compose a vein? ylem and phloem c. What is the function of the stalk? The blade? The pinnae? stalk—support; blade and pinnae—photosynthesis 3. a. Lisa! What is the function of an annulus? breaking point for opening sporangium b. Networking! Are any spores in the sporangium? probably so 4. a. Did the application of acetone cause the spores of the essays on womens, fern to disperse? probably yes b. Pro Social Essay! How is the mechanism for spore dispersal in ferns similar to that of bryophytes?
Moisture causes changes in cell (elater or annulus) shape to release spores. 5. a. Is the prothallium haploid or diploid? haploid b. Is the grading essays quickly, prothallium sporophyte or gametophyte? gametophyte 6. a. What is the adaptive significance of having these structures on the lower surface of the prothallium rather than on networking essay, the upper surface? protection from desiccation b. What is the observing, adaptive significance of having sperm and egg produced at different times? discourages inbreeding 7. How do Salvinia and Azolla differ from other ferns you’ve examined earlier? smaller, aquatic 8. Pro Social Networking Essay! a. What type of branching characterizes Psilotum? dichotomous b. Are any roots present? no c. Are any leaves present? no d. Where are the sporangia? at end of grading, short lateral branches e. Where does photosynthesis occur in Psilotum? stem 9. Essay! a. Where are the stress, leaves? n rings along stem b. What part of the plant is photosynthetic? stem c. Which part of the life cycle of Equisetum is dominant, the networking essay, sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 10. a. How does strobili formation in grading essays, Equisetum compare with Lycopodium and Selaginella? sporangia of Lycopodium and Selaginella are on microphylls b. How do elaters aid in the dispersal of pro social networking essay, spores? moves spores 11. a. Grading Essays! How could a rhizome be involved in networking, asexual reproduction? produces new growth, which could be separated from essay on problems of old parent plant (e. g. , via fragmentation), thereby resulting in a new individual b. How is a rhizome different from pro social networking essay a rhizoid? hizome is underground stem; rhizoid is salvation essay, small, rootlike structure c. Does the networking, rhizome have leaves? depends on specimen, but probably yes d. Essays! What is the shape and size of the leaves? thin, elongate, arranged in networking essay, spirals e. What is the observing essays, significance of this form of the leaves? intercept light for photosynthesis f. Is a midvein visible? yes g. What does the word “evergreen” mean? does not lose all of its leaves seasonally h. Is “evergreenness” a good characteristic for classifying plants? Why or why not? No, unrelated plants are evergreen.
12. Pro Social! a. Quickly! How many sporangia occur on each sporophyll of Lycopodium? one b. Can you see why spores of Lycopodium are sometimes called “vegetable sulfur”? yes c. Pro Social Essay! Why are the spores a good, dry lubricant? powdery; certain species produce some oil d. Which is the dominant part of the Lycopodium life cycle, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 13. a. Are spores of Selaginella similar in size? no b. What is this condition called? heterosporous c. What is the functional significance of the difference in the appearance of dehydrated and rehydrated Selaginella? water conservation and survival during drought d. Can you see why these plants are sometimes referred to as “resurrection plants”? yes. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to stress essay conclusion, get such a paper?
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Korean Sociological Image #40: As Pretty as a Picture? As any visitor to the country can tell you, Korea is a society obsessed with appearance. After all, cosmetic-surgery clinics are everywhere . Essay! And where else can you hear of people bothering to photoshop passport photos, or even that it’s completely legal to do so? But if we accept that obsession as a given, then, whatever its pernicious effects on women (and, of course, it does primarily affect women), it doesn’t mean that Korean consumers are simply dupes. Lisa! A woman who decides to get breast-enlargement surgery, for networking instance, isn’t necessarily suffering from something like gong-ju byeong (???), or “princess disease.” More likely, she’s making a very rational, informed choice that has a dramatic positive effect on essay of old, her career opportunities and confidence, more than paying back the pro social essay, initial investment. And indeed, short of becoming some form of on womens activist, and networking a poor and essay frustrated one at that, what exactly can people do when prospective employers require photos with resumes?
Still, as regular commenter Gomushin Girl pointed out in an earlier post: You can say that an individual’s decision to networking participate in a socially normative activity may be rational, but that doesn’t make it either healthy for the individual or a rational norm for society to perpetuate. Of Old Age People! Female genital mutilation makes rational sense to the parents who inflict it on their daughters, who thereby ensure their daughter’s ability to participate as a normative member of society. However, few people would argue that submitting a child or young woman to essay a painful, permanently physically debilitating, possibly lethal, and medically unnecessary surgery is essay of old age people, a healthy decision for either the individual and the society, no matter how established. Add to this that the decision to networking get plastic surgery is not an uncoerced one and essay on problems focused almost entirely on networking essay, policing the looks of a single gender, and you have a deeply problematic social custom. Grading Quickly! It’s also a social custom under considerable debate among Koreans themselves, so it’s not like the big bad Westerners are coming by pro social networking, just to tsk tsk at the silly Asian custom. Essays Rights! (My emphasis.) With those negatives in mind, I’m glad to pass on the news that at least one politician is trying to do something about pro social networking resume photographs: (Source: Focus Busan, June 9 2010, p. 6.)
Will Photos Be Removed From Resumes? On the 8th, Grand National Party (????) National Assembly member Jeong Ok-im (photo) pushed for a revision to salvation essay existing anti-sexual discrimination legislation for it to also prohibit the attachment of photographs to resumes and/or application forms. According to existing legislation, if employers ask female applicants for essay details of their looks, height, weight, and other bodily-related facts, and also such things as their marital status, then they can face of a fine of 5 million won. Jeong aims to controlling stress conclusion add two extra clauses to this. First, that it should not be confined only to “female workers” but should be instead be made applicable to all “workers”; and also, that employers can not demand photos with applications. The reason is pro social, that such questions are not just a problem for women, but in fact affect both sexes. Moreover, Jeong explained that this requirement for photos, reflecting a long-seated overemphasis on appearance, is not to be found in conclusion, developed countries like the U.K., U.S., Australia, and Canada.
In fact, in the O.E.C.D., only Korea and Japan follow this practice. Indeed, from the outset employers in pro social networking, those other countries do not request information about such things as your sex, age, body size, weight, and so on, as these are irrelvent to of old age people your ability. Jeong says that “this ‘Perfect Face Culture’ has deep roots in tradition and our patriarchal culture, and it continually distorts the employment market. Hence I have proposed these changes to the legislation to put a stop to it.” What do you think? Have any readers, and perhaps particularly Gyopo readers, had any negative experiences of being asked questions like the above in interviews, which they would be much less likely to by Western employers? Of course, I’m not so naive or biased to assume that Western employers don’t sometimes ask inappropriate and/or illegal questions either, but then I doubt they would ever ask details of applicants’ family histories and parents’ jobs for instance, and pro social essay I imagine that I would be very uncomfortable working for an employer for salvation essay whom the networking, answers to such questions were important. Essays Rights! Indeed, it behooves me to pro social networking essay remember how my own work-life as foreign English teacher is really quite isolated from the rest of Korean society in that regard. But regardless, even if the controlling stress essay conclusion, legislation is revised, it remains to be seen if it is actually enforced: women are still regularly fired for getting pregnant or requesting their legally mandated maternity leave for instance, despite already comprehensive anti-sexual discrimination legislation.
But hey: at least it’s a start! Note: This post is networking essay, not intended as: An indirect commentary on the attractiveness of the random Korean woman and man above An invitation to observing essays question their intelligence and/or mock their decision to have their photos photoshopped Nor an invitation to criticize the random photo studio for pro social providing such a service (with my apologies for using its pictures). Please: no comments along those lines. Update: With apologies for overlooking it, Brian in age people, Jeollanam-do also discussed this topic a little last June. (For all posts in the Korean Sociological Images series, see here) 28 thoughts on pro social networking essay, “ Korean Sociological Image #40: As Pretty as a Picture? ” I’m gyopo.
And yes the photo thing really sucks. For gyopo, though, it mainly pertains to english teaching. Mainly, we cant get jobs, although we are, on average, better educated the on problems age people, 99% of the english teachers that come here. Pro Social! WHY? because we’re not white. I’ve been fired and age people turned down from networking jobs because I wasn’t “white” and therefore “didn’t really know english”.
Funny, last time I checked i got entered my PhD program when I was 21. Hmmm…This goes directly into image and observing essays facial looks, as koreans prefer learning english from western people,…pardon me, white people. First hand example, I was teaching at a science hagwon in 2008. (I’m a science writer now and thankfully totally do NOT have to essay deal with all the hagwon shit in korea now). We had two candidates we were interviewing, both korean females. Controlling Conclusion! So, we needed a good teacher and she needed to pro social speak english well. Girl #1…studied english in Canada, english not amazing as our own korean teachers, but very good..maybe 7.5 or 8 out of 10. I also thought she was pretty good looking as well. Girl #2…VERY good looking..she was hot. English maybe 5 or 6 out of 10. She couldn’t teach at all and didn’t prepare anything either. After the interviews, ALL of the teachers (it was a group interview) said girl #1.
Seemed simple. Well, our boss (former head of chemistry at SNU no less) simply said one thing…”I like [girl #2 name]’s image!….call her tomorrow, she’s hired”. On Problems Of Old Age People! We were all kinda stunned, and needless to say our korean female coteachers (most of which were good looking) were all kinda embarrassed. Networking Essay! Objections were noted, but he really didn’t care. So yeah, that shit happens ALL the time. Observing! I have dated lots of girls here who got their jobs at LG etc based SOLELY on their looks. I ALSO assert that “living overseas” is another huge plus/factor in getting a job. Pro Social Networking! Anything that has to do with associating with WHITE people. James, I really don’t want to derail this, and I’ll keep to only one comment on stress essay, this topic, but to the first commenter . . . I know why they require photographs when hiring English teachers, editors, etc., and I know there’s some discrimination against pro social, Asians and black teachers.
However, I do want to point out that the job description for grading essays quickly practically all EFL jobs here is networking, “native speaker English teacher,” so really “qualifications” and teaching ability don’t matter. Now, how can you tell if somebody is a native English speaker just by looking at a picture? You can’t, of course. That’s why Asian-Americans (-Canadians, -Australians, ?) sometimes get passed up, and how they end up with Russians, Germans, and Lebanese in English Villages and playing “English teachers” on TV. On Womens! But, just keep in mind that most employers in the English business here don’t care about “qualifications,” because the only qualification is to be a native English speaker. That’s not really the fault of pro social white people, and Korea ultimately ends up with the teachers it deserves.
It’s so funny because I have been looking for jobs in the States with no luck (damn you recession and not actually physically being there yet *shakes fist*), and it dawned on me the observing essays, my gender, age, race, marital status (to a Korean man), and nationality make me MORE employable in essay, Korea than my years of experience (6 teaching–3 at a prestigious public high school in the US and 3 in Korea, 2 at essays, a foreign language high school), education (Bachelor’s English, Master’s Writing), and qualifications (top level MD state teacher certification for Secondary English) do in the U.S. How ridiculous is that? When I was job hunting in Korea, I refused to consider schools that just wanted my picture and were excited I was white, female, and American (and got lots of offers based soley on that–even more now that I’m eligible for networking essay F-2 and I’m not even LOOKING in salvation essay, Korea). I only took jobs where they were impressed with my credentials. At my first school, I taught with a filipina-Canadian and I currently work with a Chinese-American. I am so glad I chose schools that cared less about the appearance and more about networking essay ability, but it’s rare here. It’s made my teaching life in Korea a LOT better. Because they were all sort-of related, I’ve moved your comments into this sub-thread Brian and Diana. I sympathize with you Andru and Diana, but unfortunately am not particularly surprised, and completely agree with Brian’s points.
Actually, I’m pretty close to the frontlines of all that too, as my wife is an English teacher recruiter, and while she has placed hundreds of non-White teachers, the grading essays quickly, reality is that most hogwans owners simply reject outright non-White teachers that her company sends them the details of, demanding White teachers. Some have changed their minds after my wife and her colleagues have gently tried to persuade them otherwise, but most angrily tell them to stop wasting their time, and to make sure to pro social essay send them a White teacher next time or they’ll simply find a different recruiter that will. I’ll only ask in passing how true it is that 99% of gyopo are better-educated than most English teachers here? Most of the foreign-born Koreans I’ve met here had the salvation essay, same education background as the pro social, other foreigners: a BA in some random field. The real reason I wanted to comment was this: the story of the interview demonstrates something which seems quite apparent, but which leaves me with a bigger question: That is, your science hakwon lost out on a quality teacher in favor of a so-so one. However, this means someone else got the potential benefit of essay age people a good science teacher. Essay! It’s one more example (like firing competent women because of age, marital status, or pregnancy) of the underutilization of essay age people skilled women in the workforce. But surely a company that took advantage of this rampant stupidity — say, by preferentially hiring competent or outstanding women (in terms of networking skills and lisa work ability) who were turned down for not being plastic-surgeried beauty queens — would be in a great position, competition wise? After all, they’d have workers with (I imagine) higher levels of pro social networking loyalty (because they’re being valued for their skills, not some random irrelevant traits) and work satisfaction (because they’re being allowed to make relevant contributions, not just make coffee for the men)…
So what’s the missing piece of the puzzle? Is it just that the oligopolies make it hard for any smaller business using this strategy to bust in? Is it that the business culture is so retarded across the salvation essay, board that nobody in the big companies has realized this and put it into practice? It baffles me that someone hasn’t discovered this missing puzzle piece. Unless I’m missing something else, and it doesn’t exist. (A recent student essay suggested these competent women who don’t wish to be plastic-surgeried and retired to pasture after having a kid are being scooped up by foreign companies, and suggested it will only increase as more such jobs become available.)
I should add — it’s a prevalent belief among young people I know that plastic surgery is almost a necessity for getting a job in the big companies. But interestingly, a lot of the most competent women I’ve taught have little or no interest in actually working for those companies, citing sexism, the work culture prevalent among such companies, rates of networking burnout, and essays on womens rights other pretty understandable reasons for wanting either to work in some other sector, or for a foreign company with better working conditions and so on. So maybe it is other sectors and non-Korean companies cashing in on this underutilization of skilled female labor in Korea. Not sure… Hi, I’m Laila from pro social networking Spain. I’m a secondary student who’s doing a research task to enter the university. At the essays on womens, beggining I was going to essay do it about agrigulture, but as I found your blog few days ago and it draw my attention, I dedided to change the subject and doing it about sociology in grading essays, kr. Essay! And here is essay on problems, when it comes my announcement. I want you to know that I’m using your blog as a source. If you are not agree with something, please send me an e-mail. Pro Social! By the way, I have to essays rights say that I just use your blog as a source and I do not copy/paste your articles.
Not sure what I could have to pro social disagree with exactly?^^ But thanks for salvation essay letting me know, and pro social networking essay good luck with your university application! Thank you a lot! And thanks for the wishes, I’ll do my best! I have not been in essays quickly, that position but honest to the space aliens in the sky, I had a dream yesterday that I’d finally made it to East Asia – this was Japan though. I had decided to wear trousers, flat shows and the black blazer to a job interview. The employees asked me why I did that and pro social networking I asked “will it be a problem?” they then said “yes, we prefer our women to on womens rights wear skirts” and I argued and left. Pro Social! Do not know why I was at the interview jobs for a company but yeah. Essay On Problems Age People! I was disturbed as there was a mouse in pro social networking essay, my room making noise. You already know of my traumatc DOUBLE passport photoshopping. Not once but twice just to make sure my self esteem never rises, sigh.
So sad. “From August, all new British passports will be “e-passports” with embedded biometric data, based on facial characteristics such as the distances between the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. If you monkey around with them, say by quickly, digitally shaving off some avoirdupois gained over Christmas before you posed for your picture, you might also alter those ratios – and networking essay make it seem like you have faked your own passport.” Yet they happily photoshopped my obviously hideous photo which was already photoshopped by the post office. *cries* Sorry, but my memory is a little fuzzy…zzz….am only essays rights just beginning my first coffee! Who photoshopped your passport for a second time sorry?
Haha that’s fine! The post office photoshopped it and then the Home Office did it the second time upon sending my application. English teacher here. Korea’s national law-making body is not called Congress in English. It is the National Assembly, comprised of Assemblymen and Assemblywomen or Representatives as they are titled in English-language Korean media. Members of the networking essay, US Congress House of Representatives are Congressmen and Congresswomen or Representatives. Back on topic, the photoshopper overdid it with the shiny pupils in the first photo. Her eyes look glassy. Thanks, I’ve edited it, although I’ve elected (pun intended) to go with “National Assembly member” rather than “Assemblywoman”. Agreed about the observing, eyes, although in fact she had one of the least alien-looking “after” pictures of the samples I saw! Ooops, just noticed you mentioned “Representative” too, which is also pretty PC too.
Everyone I show my passport photo to (which was taken in Korea), also believe that it was photoshopped…but strangely to look Korean (or at least a Korean concept of what beauty is). Pro Social Networking Essay! I’m a very pale white woman with dyed black hair, and essay on problems of old I find that I’m often photoshopped to look a bit more Korean. We’re waiting to get our Korean wedding photos back (married a Korean), and networking it will be interesting to see what I look like in them, especially as we had a traditional ceremony. I’ve always thought that Korean adverts on billboards or on the sides of bus stops and so on look like the images are computer generated – the observing essays, people just look like video game characters. However, considering that photoshopping of networking essay photos as illustrated above is so incredibly common, it would probably look out of place to observing Koreans to see photos that actually looked like people with skin tones, texture etc. Take the first photo above, for example.
The eyes, the hair, the skin, it all looks almost as if it was done on a computer from scratch and pro social essay not from a real photo at all. If that’s the standard for an image that’s supposed to be used for identification, then it’s no wonder that you see images used in observing, adverts that don’t seem like they could possibly be real – and that people don’t react to them. Well put. Pro Social Networking! And sorry for not giving you credit in the text for telling me about the photoshopping of lisa dissertation passport photos in the first place by the way; I wanted to, but I thought it would…well…de-pith the (hopefully) pithy introduction! The link mentioned British breast reductions but without the pro social essay, facts that explain this trend. Salvation Essay! The reason why British women prefer breast reductions is that even allowing for differences in weight, we have the biggest breasts relative to the rest of our bodies in the whole of Europe.
I am a 34FF, and pro social essay not fat, but hourglass-shaped. Essay! Being less trashy has nothing to networking essay do with it, as anyone who has ever seen ‘Page 3’ will attest. Anecdotal evidence from essays rights American ex-pats in the UK, and networking essay observations of Americans out here, suggests to me we may also have larger breasts on average than our US counterparts. The popular reporting that the average cup size in the UK is a B is lisa blaydes, incorrect and based on women wearing the wrong size bra, just like the Page 3 model Keeley was before she first took her top off in public. The correct size is estimated to actually be a D. (By the way, I have no intention of EVER getting a reduction.) Regarding photoshopping: I’ve had my freckles photoshopped out of a passport photo here. These, to me irrelevant, indicators of pro social networking my maternal ethnic background are regarded as disfiguring in this country and people find it extremely strange that I am comfortable with them. When I said so, a Korean said, “Yes, but here they are not normal, so we don’t like them.” This assertion – that freckles are abnormal in Korea – isn’t true, and it’s only the photoshopping of images that allows this belief to continue. There are a lot of freckled children at my school, and most of the so-called ‘clear’ skinned people have had minor plastic surgery to remove the on womens, odd freckle. You can tell these ones because they suddenly turn up in pro social essay, the school with a piece of sticking plaster on their face in lisa blaydes dissertation, a strange area.
msleetobe: Your experience relating to a photo where your face was changed to pro social appear more Korean is also that of a friend of mine. I think it’s fairly common. Andru, I have a Masters in rights, English from a Russell Group university and I am white. The Russell Group is the UK’s equivalent to essay the Ivy League. “According to existing legislation, if employers ask female applicants for details of their looks, height, weight, and other bodily-related facts, and also such things as their marital status, then they can face of a fine of 5 million won.” The EPIK applications must also include a photo, marital status, height and weight. If this, in blaydes, theory, is networking, illegal then I’m guessing that almost every female worker in Korea has a case against grading quickly, their employer. when we get resumes my coworkers always judge them based on their pictures. once a girl was not hired because “she wasn’t a good match” and because she looked 20 pounds thinner on her photoshopped picture. regardless, these kind of things shouldnt matter! “However, few people would argue that submitting a child or young woman to a painful, permanently physically debilitating, possibly lethal, and networking medically unnecessary surgery is a healthy decision for either the individual and the society, no matter how established.” That’s not true. On Womens! Lots of pro social people would, in fact, for essays on womens example every proponent of male circumcision, and essay there’s quite a lot of observing them in the world.
The documentaries of pro social networking children running away, suing their parents and getting nasty ass infections from being cut without any form of pain reliever doesn’t really make that comparison believeable to me. Only old people who are stuck in essays quickly, traditions believe it’s necessary. It’s illegal ow but some families still force it on pro social networking, their children, they canbe prosecuted if the grading quickly, child manages to run to get help from the networking essay, appropriate people. When a man gets circumcised, nothing is observing essays, going to come and force open his non existant vagina in some arranged marriage to an older man he doesn’t even love. Sorry maybe I misunderstood what your point was but………………………………….. But men get circumcised when they’re infants, so they don’t really have the option of running away. (Most forms of female circumsision doesn’t involve suturing of the networking essay, vagina, either). anyhow, it wasn’t my intention to turn this into controlling stress conclusion a circumcision debate, I just tried to use circumcision as an argument to essay prove that societal norms might, indeed, convince people that a “painful, permanently physically debilitating, possibly lethal, and essays quickly medically unnecessary surgery” is pro social essay, normal, sound, and healthy. Observing Essays! Societal norms are -that- powerful, which history has proven over and over again – just look at networking, footbinding in on womens rights, China, which is probably the most extreme form of body modification practiced by any culture ever; painful and debilitating beyond all reason. Yet, there was, at the time, very strong cultural beliefs and pro social networking societal arguments keeping it in practice for a thousand years. That was back then, of course, but we’re still not above similarly bizarre social notions in this world. (The proponents of footbinding argued for observing some “benefits” eerily similar to those attributed to high-heeled shoes in our time, for example). On the pro social networking, cases of male circumcision… they are usually done in essay, safe, controlled and professional hospitals so I don’t see how the choice to circumcise their child – which doesn’t give any disfiguring outcome and pro social essay is done under pain killers is observing essays, a good example.
When the pro social networking, circumcised girl comes of age, and gets married, the male will usually just force his way in to the vaginal opening – thus my reference to salvation essay “forcing open”. Medical proof has shown the pro social networking, need for essay on problems of old age people male circumcision in some situations so unless you do not believe in that, then there is essay, a medically necessary use for it. Female, none at all. I understand your point but I don’t think male circumcision circumstances weigh up enough to be used as example against the quote “painful, permanently physically debilitating, possibly lethal, and lisa dissertation medically unnecessary surgery”. Footbinding is a great example however, I always get queezy reading and looking at images about it and networking essay I’ve never been fond of high heels, my back already betrays me, why should I help it?! hahahaha xP. I truly love my country, but this is one of the reasons why i don’t wanna get a job here. Hence, moving away :( I think you should consider that looks are often an essays, important factor in pro social, getting a job everywhere, not solely Korea. Grading Essays! (But it does seem more pronounced) While applicants do not have to pro social essay put a photo with their resume’ in the US how you look will have an influence on your interview. An example, in essay on problems, college I met a recruiter for Merck Pharmaceuticals who stated: “for at least one-third of my interviewees I have decided if they are getting a second interview before they open their mouth, say hello, and shake my hand.” Why? Because I want to hire somebody who represents Merck.
If you don’t look like you fit in at Merck, you are not going to be in networking essay, Merck. The culture of a company is a consideration as well. You could be in the banking industry, but where? If you’re an essays, investment banker, you wear double-breasted suits, commericial lending – single breasted, operations/support staff away from pro social essay customers you can get away with slacks and a jacket (not necessarily a suit). And you would need to have THAT LOOK (style) at the interview as well. Selected Posts: Turning Boys Into Men?
The Performance of Gender for South Korean Conscripts. The Korean Popular Culture Reader: Out Now! Selected Posts: Revealing the Korean Body Politic. Revealing the Korean Body Politic, Part 8: The Bare-leg Bars of 1942. Revealing the Korean Body Politic, Part 5: Links. Revealing the salvation essay, Korean Body Politic, Part 4: Girls are different from boys. Selected Posts: Body Image and the Korean Media. Selected Posts: Reading the pro social networking essay, Lolita Effect in South Korea. Watching SPICA’s “Tonight” is an Awesome Teaching Moment About the Male Gaze.
Here’s Why. Controlling Essay! (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3.) Selected Posts: The Gender Politics of Smoking in South Korea. Selected Posts: Gender Advertisements in pro social, the Korean Context.
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The Pros and Cons of Social Networking - Lifewire
21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Networking! Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of career counseling experience in essays on womens addition to his having written thousands of résumés and pro social networking essay cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates. Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé?
Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the grading quickly, services at pro social networking such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and on womens rights interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the issue. How do you write a good résumé for typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to help you out. 1. Sample Resume for an Internship.
Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by pro social networking this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. Blaydes! Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is usually the first experience students have in their field. As for networking the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé. First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Conclusion! Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. You’d be amazed at pro social essay the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of duties from handling inventory, keeping records of lisa, where food was shipped, and interacting with those in needs by providing directions on where to go to obtain food.
Such experience translates into customer service and office operations experience. Networking! Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of controlling essay conclusion, filing work and networking essay call monitoring, the volunteer experience is on problems of old, huge. In addition to pro social networking professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the on problems age people, would-be intern would excel in essay the workplace (aka not be lazy). Many of us have had nightmare experiences with interns. Of Old Age People! So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is networking, relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for a full example. 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position.
College students need to rights pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to pro social networking make ends meet. Salvation Essay! This is often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to pro social essay the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and essay of old age people administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of these instances, training on the job is key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the pro social essay, résumé.
Because, employers might see your advanced degree and essays on womens rights figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on pro social essay your résumé to the last ten years. Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is essays quickly, a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. Networking! For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for salvation essay fear that you are only going to be there a short time. Lastly, as with the pro social networking, internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. See the example for essay an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out networking while in college. 3. Observing Essays! Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to networking essay expect applicants to lisa have extensive experience.
For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is pro social essay, crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and repair. As someone who has always efforted to salvation essay stay on top of technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an networking entry-level position, drop the stress conclusion, advanced degree and only include last ten years of pro social essay, experience. Essays! 4. Pro Social! Basic Sample Resume for No Experience.
For those without any experience, building a résumé is not so easy. Controlling Essay Conclusion! Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective. Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Networking! Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and blaydes organization). Pro Social Essay! If you participated in activities at high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary. For those with no experience, staying at your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for future success.
Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of essays, being hired in the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on pro social networking what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. Asking a professor for an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to essay start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at what a solid résumé would look like.
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The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networks - UK Essays
colleage essay A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of electorate - the pro social, second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in observing, the world. This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to pro social networking how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of essay of old age people their own country - possibly more than is the pro social networking, case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of quickly Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning.
It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and pro social American history. One NAEP survey found that only 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the three branches of government. On one of my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the American government. I find it hard to imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the salvation essay, famed constitutional system of 'checks and pro social networking essay balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is blaydes dissertation, helpful to know something of the history of the nation and the background to the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the United States is so different from those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. There were four main factors in networking, the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of Independence from essay on problems of old age people, Britain and it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the pro social networking, British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of grading essays its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and networking essay ensured that each arm was able to on problems of old limit the networking essay, exercise of power by the other arms.
The United States was already a large country with problems of grading essays quickly communications and a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of networking office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at observing essays different lengths. The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in other nations. Pro Social Networking. Arguably the later Civil War was about observing essays, states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on networking essay a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and controlling essay the New Jersey plan (equal representation for pro social, all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of population. This is why today six states have only lisa one member in the House of pro social networking essay Representatives but two members in the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the Constitution and the profound changes in America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the lisa, Constitution had in mind. Pro Social Networking Essay. So originally the blaydes dissertation, legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is pro social essay, described first in the Constitution) but, over time, both the Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power.
Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. On Womens Rights. Both documents are on display in the National Archives and networking Records Administration Building in Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Further information on the thinking expressed in salvation essay, the Constitution can be found in the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over two centuries old, and the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments. As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for networking essay, being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in 1789 - the blaydes, same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the networking, original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971).
One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the essay of old age people, Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change. Networking Essay. First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the stress essay conclusion, Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the pro social networking, vote in the USA. Essays. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in 1972. It was then sent to pro social networking each state for ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by lisa, the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu.
This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the executive (President Cabinet), the pro social networking, legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is controlling stress conclusion, also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on pro social its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of essays its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the pro social essay, different branches; the members of lisa blaydes those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Pro Social Networking Essay. Members of the on problems, Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of networking essay this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and essay on problems of old age people the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in pro social essay, force in Britain. The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of 1776 - in lisa blaydes, which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the pro social, - super power. Since the salvation essay, Constitution is networking, so short, so old and so difficult to change, for grading essays, it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the essay, Constitution with the essay of old, two main strands of pro social networking essay thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the salvation essay, constitution. It is based on the principle that the essay, judiciary is on womens rights, not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the legislative branch) but only to uphold them. This approach tends to be supported by conservatives.
Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the pro social essay, Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Instead of seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the controlling, document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible. Pro Social Networking. This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here.
Information on the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Presidency? The President is the on womens, head of the executive branch of the federal government of the essay, United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as the essays quickly, military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat. The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the pro social networking, United States be at least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years.
How is a President chosen? The President is elected for lisa blaydes dissertation, a fixed term of four years and essay may serve a maximum of essays two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Pro Social Essay. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to two and grading the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the last election was held on 8 November 2016 and the next eelction will be held on 3 November 2020.
The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of members in the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to population). The states with the largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. Pro Social Networking. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is quickly, not one election but 51.
The total Electoral College vote is 538. Pro Social Essay. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at lisa blaydes least 270 electoral votes. The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from each state to delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for essay, instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and on womens rights Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of networking essay votes nationwide but fail to essays quickly win the essay, largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016.
On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the ultimate power of electing the President to members of the Electoral College. The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in age people, the world of an pro social essay indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the quickly, votes, the constitution provides that the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to agree collectively on pro social networking essay the allocation of a single vote.
In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in 1800 and 1824. In 1800, the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the lisa, powers of the President?
Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and pro social essay the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies. The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Essay Of Old Age People. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President.
The President has the power to recommend measures to networking Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress. The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors but only with the'advice and consent' of the Senate which can be problematic especially when the Senate is controlled by a different political party to that of the President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to controlling stress conclusion pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and networking consent' of the essays, Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the pro social essay, approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to observing essays withdraw troops once they have been committed). Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power. Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of pro social networking exercising influence.
Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to lisa 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'.
Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the pro social, federal bureaucracy and rights the military in pro social networking, the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to lisa dissertation the President than is the case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U.S. Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at networking essay the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999).
Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to deal with specific areas of essays national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and pro social essay approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. This is grading essays, not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of pro social networking patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members. In all, the President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in essays quickly, their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to networking essay hold the office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and stress essay conclusion 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. So far, every US President has been male.
All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in 1865, James A. Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and John F. Kennedy in 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is pro social networking, sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and of old age people the Presidency is often referred to by the media as variously the pro social essay, White House, the West Wing, and the Oval Office. Such is the respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on observing essays the same ticket as that of the President and has the pro social networking, same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to 'balance the ticket' in controlling stress essay, the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for all practical purposes, the position only carries the pro social, power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush).
The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the Cabinet and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the essays, cabinet click here. Assassinations and pro social networking near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the controlling conclusion, American political system is that the two major parties - the Democrats and the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election. The key point to pro social essay understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and grading essays not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to networking its size in numbers of salvation essay citizens. Essay. There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to salvation essay that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the two houses of Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish.
They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the networking essay, normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates. Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in on womens, Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote.
How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the networking, most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by the candidate subject to a minimum performance. Observing. The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on the performance of the candidate in particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on a candidate well before the networking, holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for a party to reach the convention with no clear choice.
A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of quickly votes. On the first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to networking essay whom they are pledged. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for lisa dissertation, whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority. The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924.
It required 103 ballots to chose the pro social, Democratic candidate - who then lost to the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by salvation essay, the Republicans in 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the essay, convention to claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. On Problems Age People. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in the general election was in 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates. For the pro social networking essay, 2016 convention, the Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the grading, nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of networking essay Representatives? The House of Representatives is the lisa dissertation, lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The founders of the United States intended the essay, House to be the politically dominant entity in the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the lisa, House served as the primary forum for political debate.
However, subsequently the Senate has been the networking, dominant body. Who is eligible to become a member of the House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is a member of the House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of of old Congressional districts. Pro Social. Although the states are bound by limits established by Congress and the Supreme Court, there is scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for on problems of old, the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the decennial census so, as the next census will take place in 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025).
Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in essay, November in even numbered years. Voting in congressional elections - especially to on problems of old the House - is pro social essay, generally much lower than levels in grading, other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to around one third of the electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is networking, held to salvation essay fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the total formal membership to 441. Networking Essay. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to which they are assigned. What are the essays on womens rights, powers of the House? The House of pro social Representatives is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the Senate as well.
Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue. If the Electoral College is on womens, tied, the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against networking, the President or Vice-President. It lays the charges which are then passed to the Senate for essays quickly, a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the power to declare war - although the pro social essay, last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by the majority party - has considerable power. Salvation Essay. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and pro social determines whether and how a bill reaches the floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in the House - and therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi. Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries).
Most of the committees are focused on grading essays quickly an area of pro social government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in the House of essay Representatives tends to pro social be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of this is the observing, so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the pro social networking, majority rule, is an informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on essays on womens the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.
The rule keeps the minority party from passing bills with the assistance of a small number of majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in its chamber in networking, the south wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the House are located in of old, three buildings on networking essay the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of stress conclusion Representatives click here. What is the Senate?
The Senate is the upper chamber in essay, the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. Salvation Essay. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the mid 19th century, the Senate has been the networking essay, dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in the state which one represents. How is a member of the Senate chosen? The Senate consists of controlling stress conclusion 100 members, each of whom represents a state and pro social networking serves for a six-year term (one third of the Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.
This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of producing huge variations in constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from observing essays, California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and pro social serious under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. However, since the 17th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913, members of the Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. Grading Quickly. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the pro social essay, senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on essay length of service. In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at that time (this is the pro social networking, case for 46 states). Instead the essays rights, Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the vacancy. What are the powers of the Senate? The Senate is networking essay, one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as well.
Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the House of grading quickly Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.
The Senate (and the pro social networking essay, House) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the same control over the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the observing, 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate. Currently the Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the essay, Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the work of the Senate is done through 16 standing committees and essay on problems of old age people around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on networking essay an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on essays the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of Representatives. Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for pro social networking essay, as long as they wish and on rights any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to a close by invoking what is called cloture (taken from the networking, French term for closure). The Senate has met in its chamber in the north wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in essays quickly, three buildings on the north side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings.
The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the pro social, highest court in the land. Originally it had five members but over essay age people time this number has increased. Since 1869, it has consisted of pro social nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices.
They have equal weight when voting on a case and essay of old age people the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by pro social networking, a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of controlling stress conclusion Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the pro social, Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for salvation essay, Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship.
A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in the law. Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and essay taught himself law, passing the bar at the age of observing 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for networking, life. How is a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by essays on womens, the President and confirmed with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and pro social networking essay subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and observing essays its members are appointed so rarely, the appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy.
What are the powers of the Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. The court deals with matters pertaining to pro social networking the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and decisions. However, the Supreme Court can only rule on observing essays a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the networking, 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the stress conclusion, Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to networking the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in public by the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to essays on womens state its position. Networking. All the detail is set out in documents and all the rest of the time of the essay, public hearing is taken up by networking essay, questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in essays, private conference, following discussion and debate.
No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the networking, US Constitution through the salvation essay, formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to essay some of the general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the lisa blaydes dissertation, Supreme Court can in pro social, practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the highest courts of European democracies. In the 1960s, the court played a major role in bringing about desegregation.
The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in 2000, it made the most political decision imaginable by controlling, determining - by seven votes to two - the outcome of that year's presidential election. It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the essay, most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of this exercise of essays political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce. In the end, the Court ruled by networking, five to four that, while the individual mandate provision in the Act is not itself a tax, the penalties imposed for not buying health insurance do represent taxes and therefore the entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to essay on problems of old age people impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in both of these offices.
In the history of the United States, there has only pro social essay been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the Supreme Court. The present membership of the Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the essays quickly, nine members, five are Catholic and three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church. Following the appointment by pro social essay, President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, there is now a five to salvation essay four conservative-liberal majority on the court. All the conservative members were appointed by Republican presidents, while all the liberals were appointed by networking essay, Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in respect of the judiciary is that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at least some of controlling essay their judges. Outside of the United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and then only in limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on networking the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality).
POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an extent quite extraordinary in salvation essay, democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by two political parties: the pro social networking essay, Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the on problems of old age people, 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to 1824 and networking the Republicans were founded in 1854. In illustrations and promotional material, the Democratic Party is often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. The origin of observing these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is essay, that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the electoral system is 'first past the post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the constituencies in the House and lisa (even more) the pro social networking, Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. The other key factor is the huge influence of stress essay money in networking, the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only 'afford' two parties or, to put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry.
Some people tend to view the division between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and observing Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in pro social networking, Germany. The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is salvation essay, characterised as Centre-Left and networking the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and socially radical than the other. However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to the Right of the Centre in most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. So, for instance, most members of the Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the different states (exemplified by the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to a much greater extent than in other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract.
Conversely there is a group of Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is grading essays, not true of most European countries. In Britain, for instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in election debates between candidates and essay parties. In the on womens rights, USA, religion is a factor in politics in a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and pro social essay religious groupings - such as the essay on problems age people, Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in networking, a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an exception here).
In the United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the instructions to members of the House and the Senate on how to vote - is not as strict or effective as it is in most European countries. As a consequence, members of essays on womens Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to essay act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in other democracies. Between the selection of candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is much greater in the US than in other democracies which has the effects of limiting the salvation essay, range of candidates, increasing the influence of corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of essay primaries). As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is.
Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the essays, candidates of a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and networking then vote in primary elections to determine who should be the party's candidate in the 'real' election. One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in most countries of the world the colour red is associated with the controlling stress essay, Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the pro social essay, reverse is the case. So the 'blue states' are those traditionally won by the Democrats, while the 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is a presidential election, turnout is only about half; when there is grading essays quickly, no presidential election, turnout is merely about one third. The exception was the elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of networking Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy).
While Congress as an institution is held in popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and grading essays indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to increase their share of the vote when they seek re-election. More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of government spending for projects in the constituency; and essay they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the federal nature of the United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and a certain amount of power is released to lower levels of government. The unique history of the United States means that, in this case, the political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the blaydes dissertation, War of Independence against the British, created a system of government in which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to the federal government.
Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable. With the exception of pro social networking Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the controlling, federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and essay a judiciary. The head of the executive is the Governor who is directly elected. As with the President at lisa blaydes federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives (the exception is the pro social networking, state of Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in grading essays quickly, Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court.
Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and Congressional elections will be held, the dates and essay times of state and local elections are determined by grading, state governments. Therefore there is a plethora of elections in pro social essay, the United States and, at on problems age people almost all times, an election is being held somewhere in the country. State and pro social networking local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in essays on womens rights, even numbered years. Exceptions are the states of Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). Pro Social Networking Essay. This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in the US is far from over. There are those who argue for a stronger role for the federal government and there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and too profligate.
Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the controlling stress conclusion, Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the essay, ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to be put to the electorate as a result of the collection of a certain number of signatures or the lisa blaydes dissertation, decison of the state legislation. Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in pro social networking essay, some cases (such as California) with profound results. In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and controlling essay conclusion relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in pro social networking essay, practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in blaydes, most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an essay old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is quickly, relatively immutable so it is very difficult to networking essay change the provisions to stress conclusion reflect the reforms that have come about over time from the pressure of pro social networking essay events. Since the US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the pre-eminent world economic and essays political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. Essay. What this means is that, in the last century and most especially since the end of the Second World War, the reality of how the salvation essay, American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in pro social, contravention of the Constitution). The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President.
This is salvation essay, evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is taken from the purpose intended by Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the War Powers Resolution in spite of major military invasions. Different terms for this accretion of power by the Presidency are the pro social networking essay, unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and essays on womens rights of lobbyists and special interest groups in political decision making have increased considerably. Networking. Candidates raise their own money for campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in such campaigns (thanks to salvation essay what is networking essay, called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. On Womens Rights. In the presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and essay Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is salvation essay, effectively controlled by essay, private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to follow from the controlling, candidates they are funding, and pro social essay big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of what is dissertation, called pork barrel politics through the pro social networking essay, use of earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors. Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in essay, legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks).
The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. The personal lifestyle as well as the political record of networking a candidate might well be challenged and even the patriotism or religiosity of the candidate may be called into question. Whereas the politics of most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the essay on problems age people, frequency of the same family to provide members of Congress. Low polling in elections, the high cost of running for election, and pro social networking the focus on age people the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Everyone is familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in essay, 2014, there are no less than 37 members of essay Congress who have a relative who has served in essay, the legislature.
A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in terms of power and wealth, but also - to on womens different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors. Indeed the constitution and institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of such divisions. Pro Social. However, it is often observed that the USA is an of old age people especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is pro social, divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of both powers and personalties. Observing Essays. Each arm of government exercises a check on the other.
It is pro social networking, divided vertically through the federal system of government with the essay age people, division of powers between the federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the pro social essay, subject of a civil war. In such a large country geographically, the federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to gay rights. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by the presence of the first black President in the White House and the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is divided racially through the growth of the non-white electorate. When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is on problems of old age people, growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities).
The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in pro social, American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to agree a federal budget before the start of the essays, new financial period. This results in what is essay, known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. On Womens. This is essay, not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013). A major role of the essay age people, Congress is to pass legislation but the divided nature of pro social essay American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to principle and self-interest, and on womens rights hard-ball politics that go into passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to essay many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
Even though today there are many challenges to controlling essay conclusion freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of essay their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of salvation essay American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and speak largely to pro social essay the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the alleged 'superiority' of the United States because of its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of essays its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship. In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is easy to view the American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of race, religion and networking essay money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for on womens rights, all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to be assessed in comparison to those of other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here.
how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in pro social networking, the American political system as people around the world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is salvation essay, reflected in the falling number of Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of pro social The Economist, wrote: In America, there is on womens rights, nothing particularly democratic about the ascent of money politics, the essay, arcane blocking procedures of Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries. Indeed they are all reminiscent of the rotten boroughs of 18th century England that infuriated the Founding Fathers. The debate about the effectiveness of the observing essays, US political system is a part of the wider debate about whether or not the United States is in relative decline on the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in some kind of collusion in pro social, which voters pretend to elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern.
This, in observing, some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to the onset of relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is essay, governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017. If you would like to grading quickly comment on this essay e-mail me.
If you would like me to networking speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of other nations click here.