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Bowlby Ainsworth: What Is Attachment Theory? Attachment theory is focused on 4 paragraph planning the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships, including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners. British psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a #34;lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.#34; Bowlby was interested in understanding the separation anxiety and distress that children experience when separated from their primary caregivers. Some of the earliest behavioral theories suggested that attachment was simply a learned behavior. These theories proposed that attachment was merely the result of the feeding relationship between the child and essay, the caregiver. Because the essay sheet caregiver feeds the child and coursework in education, provides nourishment, the child becomes attached. What Bowlby observed is that even feedings did not diminish the anxiety experienced by children when they were separated from their primary caregivers. Instead, he found that attachment was characterized by clear behavioral and 4 paragraph essay sheet, motivation patterns. When children are frightened, they will seek proximity from their primary caregiver in order to receive both comfort and care. Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. Coursework Doctorate? Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life.

He suggested that attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child#39;s chances of survival. He viewed attachment as a product of evolutionary processes. While the behavioral theories of essay planning, attachment suggested that attachment was a learned process, Bowlby and essays, others proposed that children are born with an innate drive to form attachments with caregivers. Throughout history, children who maintained proximity to an attachment figure were more likely to receive comfort and protection, and therefore more likely to essay planning sheet survive to adulthood. Through the process of usip essay, natural selection, a motivational system designed to regulate attachment emerged. So what determines successful attachment? Behaviorists suggest that it was food that led to forming this attachment behavior, but Bowlby and others demonstrated that nurturance and responsiveness were the primary determinants of 4 paragraph essay planning, attachment. The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infant#39;s needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world. In her 1970#39;s research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon tout, Bowlby#39;s original work.

Her groundbreaking #34;Strange Situation#34; study revealed the profound effects of attachment on behavior. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, 12 and law assignments, 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers. Based upon the responses the researchers observed, Ainsworth described three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and sheet, avoidant-insecure attachment. Later, researchers Main and Solomon (1986) added a fourth attachment style called disorganized-insecure attachment based upon their own research. A number of studies since that time have supported Ainsworth#39;s attachment styles and have indicated that attachment styles also have an impact on essays behaviors later in life. Harry Harlow#39;s infamous studies on 4 paragraph planning maternal deprivation and social isolation during the 1950s and 1960s also explored early bonds. In a series of experiments, Harlow demonstrated how such bonds emerge and the powerful impact they have on usip peace behavior and functioning. In one version of 4 paragraph, his experiment, newborn rhesus monkeys were separated from their birth mothers and reared by surrogate mothers. The infant monkeys were placed in cages with two wire monkey mothers. Doctorate? One of the wire monkeys held a bottle from which the infant monkey could obtain nourishment, while the other wire monkey was covered in a soft terry cloth. While the infant monkeys would go to the wire mother to obtain food, they spent most of their days with the soft cloth mother.

When frightened, the baby monkeys would turn to their cloth-covered mother for comfort and security. 4 Paragraph Planning? Harlow#39;s work also demonstrated that early attachments were the result of receiving comfort and care from a caregiver rather than simply the result of being fed. Researchers Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson analyzed the to order number of attachment relationships that infants form in a longitudinal study with 60 infants. The infants were observed every four weeks during the first year of 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, life, and then once again at 18 months. Based upon their observations, Schaffer and Emerson outlined four distinct phases of usip peace essay, attachment. Pre-attachment Stage: From birth to three months, infants do not show any particular attachment to a specific caregiver. The infant#39;s signals such as crying and fussing naturally attract the attention of the caregiver and the baby#39;s positive responses encourage the caregiver to remain close. 4 Paragraph Sheet? Indiscriminate Attachment: From around six weeks of age to seven months, infants begin to show preferences for primary and secondary caregivers. During this phase, infants begin to develop a feeling of trust that the to order essay caregiver will respond to their needs. While they will still accept care from other people, they become better at distinguishing between familiar and unfamiliar people as they approach seven months of age.

They also respond more positively to the primary caregiver. Discriminate Attachment: At this point, from 4 paragraph essay planning sheet about seven to eleven months of age, infants show a strong attachment and preference for one specific individual. Doctorate In Education? They will protest when separated from the primary attachment figure (separation anxiety), and begin to display anxiety around strangers (stranger anxiety). Multiple Attachments: After approximately nine months of age, children begin to form strong emotional bonds with other caregivers beyond the primary attachment figure. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? This often includes the father, older siblings, and on a tout, grandparents. While this process may seem straightforward, there are a number of sheet, factors that can influence how and when attachments develop. First is the opportunity for attachment.

Children that do not have a primary care figure, such as those raised in orphanages, may fail to develop the sense of trust needed to form an law assignments essays attachment. Second, quality caregiving is 4 paragraph planning a vital factor. When caregivers respond quickly and consistently, children learn that they can depend on essay the people who are responsible for their care, which is the essential foundation for attachment. Planning Sheet? Secure attachment is marked by distress when separated from on a tout essayer caregivers and is joyful when the caregiver returns. Remember, these children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? When the adult leaves, the coursework in education child may be upset but he or she feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return. When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so they are comfortable seeking them out in times of need. Ambivalently attached children usually become very distressed when a parent leaves. This attachment style is considered relatively uncommon, affecting an estimated 7-15% of 4 paragraph planning sheet, U.S. children.

Research suggests that ambivalent attachment is on a a result of poor maternal availability. These children cannot depend on their mother (or caregiver) to be there when the child is in need. Children with an avoidant attachment tend to avoid parents or caregivers. When offered a choice, these children will show no preference between a caregiver and a complete stranger. Research has suggested that this attachment style might be a result of abusive or neglectful caregivers. 4 Paragraph Sheet? Children who are punished for relying on questions readings for critical and writing a caregiver will learn to avoid seeking help in the future. Children with a disorganized attachment often display a confusing mix of behavior and essay planning sheet, may seem disoriented, dazed, or confused.

Children may both avoid or resist the parent. On A Tout? Some researchers believe that the lack of a clear attachment pattern is likely linked to inconsistent behavior from caregivers. In such cases, parents may serve as both a source of comfort and a source of fear, leading to disorganized behavior. What happens to children who do not form secure attachments? Research suggests that failure to form secure attachments early in life can have a negative impact on behavior in later childhood and throughout the life. Children diagnosed with an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently display attachment problems, possibly due to early abuse, neglect or trauma. Clinicians suggest that children adopted after the age of six months have a higher risk of attachment problems.

While attachment styles displayed in adulthood are not necessarily the same as those seen in infancy, research indicates that early attachments can have a serious impact on later relationships. Essay? For example, those who are securely attached in childhood tend to have good self-esteem, strong romantic relationships and coursework doctorate in education, the ability to self-disclose to others. As adults, they tend to have healthy, happy and lasting relationships. Researchers have found that attachment patterns established early in life can lead to a number of outcomes. For example, children who are securely attached as infants tend to develop stronger self-esteem and better self-reliance as they grow older. These children also tend to planning sheet be more independent, perform better in school, have successful social relationships, and experience less depression and essays, anxiety. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., Wall, S. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning Sheet? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1978.

Ainsworth, M. D. S. Attachments and other affectional bonds across the life cycle. To Order? In C . M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the essay life cycle. 1991;33-51. London: Routledge. Bowlby, J. Coursework? The Nature of the essay planning sheet Childs Tie to His Mother. Maid To Order Essay? International Journal of Psychoanalysis.1958;39 , 350-371. Bowlby J. Attachment. Attachment and loss: Vol.

1. Loss. New York: Basic Books; 1969. Schaffer, H. R. 4 Paragraph Essay? Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachments in infancy. Monographs of the essays Society for Research in Child Development.

1964;29, 94.

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oberlin cover letter Is social justice war coming home to roost at Oberlin, as it did at Mizzou and 4 paragraph planning Evergreen State? At both the University of open questions readings thinking and writing Missouri and Evergreen State College, an planning, atmosphere of aggressive “Social Justice” activism damaged enrollment and contributed to financial difficulties. Apparently, even liberal students don’t want to attend institutions where student and faculty social justice warriors have turned the campus into fpga correlation a battleground. The same thing may be happening at Oberlin College in Ohio. Oberlin long has been known as a liberal college where political correctness reigned supreme. But in 4 paragraph essay, recent years, the atmosphere frequently turned oppressive to the point of self-parody. The Great Oberlin Racism Hoax of 2013. We have been covering Oberlin since March 2013, when the campus was turned upside down by a racism hoax. Racist and anti-Semitic flyers and graffiti appeared on campus leading to cancellation of open questions readings for critical classes, campus-wide meetings, and an atmosphere of paranoia.

Students started seeing racist imagery that may not even have existed, as we reported in Klan sighting at Oberlin likely just woman wrapped in a blanket. Something didn’t seem right about the reports, as if there were a deliberate false narrative being created. The Oberlin administration was suspiciously protective of information about what happened and essay who did it, as we explored in the post Oberlin pretty good at keeping secret the identities and motives of perps. It turned out that this all was a hoax. The main perpetrator was a liberal student who wanted to get a reaction from the campus, The Great Oberlin College Racism Hoax of 2013: A massive racism hoax took place at Oberlin College in February 2013 in which two students made seemingly racist, anti-Semitic and other such posters, graffiti and emails for the purpose of getting a reaction on campus, not because they believed the hostile messages. At least one of the peace essay, two was an Obama supporter with strong progressive, anti-racist politics. School officials and local police knew the identity of the culprits, who were responsible for most if not all of such incidents on campus, yet remained silent as the campus reacted as if the incidents were real. National media attention focused on campus racism at Oberlin for weeks without knowing it was a hoax. The hoax was confirmed when Chuck Ross of The Daily Caller recently obtained police records.

Now it’s out in the open…. The enormity of the hoax cannot be overstated, and it could not have taken place without the cover up by the Oberlin administration. 4 Paragraph Planning. Had Oberlin’s President gone on to order television or issued a statement that the acts were a hoax, the campus and media would not have devoted weeks to portraying Oberlin as having a racism problem. The Oberlin administration has a lot of answering to do to 4 paragraph the community, the nation, and to Oberlin alumni. How must those alumni feel to see their school smeared based on a hoax. Will Lena Dunham now tweet about it? Will CNN cover the in education, hoax aspect as deeply as it did the incidents? Will Melissa Harris-Perry talk about the role of racist hoaxes in creating a false narrative of racism?

To make matters worse, the Oberlin administration, urged on by faculty and radical students, used the hoax as an opportunity to 4 paragraph essay double-down on social justice and doctorate racial dogma, Oberlin racism hoax exploited to advance “even more extreme policies”: A student contacted me to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet alert me to how the campus turmoil was exploited to encourage and then implement aggressive multicultural and left-wing agenda items: I’d like to personally thank you for your coverage of the Oberlin hate hoax. Many students… have been following your site and correlation thesis are glad that somebody is planning, helping to get the word out about the Oberlin administration’s response. The Daily Caller story just grazes the surface of what really happened. Essay. The administration didn’t just allow students to live in fear, they actually used that fear to 4 paragraph essay planning get students to push for maid essay even more extreme policies on campus. Many students formed into “working groups” to propose solutions for essay “institutional change”, nearly all of which have been approved by the administration and are being enacted. In that post I detailed how the “working groups” turned on usip peace parts of the campus not deemed sufficiently woke (to use a more recent term): The Natural Sciences Department was singled out as particularly in need of change:

We are disappointed by the Natural Science division’s general lack of response to recent hate-based incidents. Physical isolation and racial homogeneity of the Natural Sciences result in an inaccessible community with a limited relationship to other academic departments. Every academic discipline has equal opportunity to sheet identify truths; we must employ this framework to dismantle academic hierarchies. Among the law assignments, key agenda items was mandatory “re-orientation” workshops for students, faculty and 4 paragraph essay sheet staff led by paid student trainers: In considering potential trainings and workshops, the largest of the working groups narrowed their focus into three main topics: new students and First-Years; continuing privilege and oppression education, or, “re-orientation”; and coursework doctorate in education mandatory training for faculty and staff. Essay Planning. Student leadership and facilitation are central to the success of these programs, so we would require a sustainable training system and compensation for these students. The Great Racism Hoax of 2013 was the result of years of usip campus racial and radical agitation, and it was exploited to 4 paragraph sheet further poison the campus atmosphere. Rather than confronting that oppressive “social justice” atmosphere, the Oberlin administration blamed the people who exposed it, Oberlin College blames the blogosphere. That oppressive atmosphere led to other incidents, such as the protests against in education Christina Hoff Sommers speaking on campus, Oberlin Radical Feminists Freak Out at Christina Hoff Sommers: In the Oberlin Review radical feminists responded to Sommers’ upcoming speech with an OpEd, “A Love Letter to Themselves.” In this love letter, they accuse Sommers of being a “rape denialist” and proceeded to list her “offenses” to feminism.

The letter concluded: So let’s engage in some radical, beautiful community care, support and essay love. Maid To Order. Let’s make space for essay planning sheet everyone to engage at whichever level they want/need. Let’s come through for each other, both now and in the future. Trauma is an experience that threatens a person’s bodily, spiritual and emotional integrity. On A. The psychological, emotional and somatic impacts extend beyond the experience of essay planning sheet trauma.

Healing is a process that looks different for each person. Coursework. Let’s make space to care for all experiences of trauma and to respect those we care for. Sheet. Let’s focus our energy on taking care of essay each other and ourselves. Essay Sheet. Let’s make her talk irrelevant in the face of readings for critical thinking and writing our love, passion and power. Fascinating time at Oberlin. Essay Planning. Police escorts.Huge crowd. Protest signs.

Dozens of women in audience taped their mouths shut with red tape. Oberlin was openly mocked for fpga thesis the protests, including in sheet, this video that has over 100,000 YouTube views: It’s sometimes hard to know whether social justice activism at Oberlin is real, or self-parody. In December 2014, Oberlin students were much mocked for demanding that grades below “C” be prohibited, since students spent so much time protesting injustice: Oberlin College has refused to suspend failing grades this semester despite requests for relief from students who skipped classes and thesis missed study time to protest recent deaths at the hands of police across the nation. A student petition, signed by planning more than 1,300, called for the college to institute a “no-fail mercy period” that would eliminate all failing grades and in education make a C the lowest possible grade a student could receive, the student newspaper reported. President Marvin Krislov responded with an email to students on Sunday, saying he and 4 paragraph planning the college’s deans opted not to grant the reprieve after giving the request serious consideration. “We are in firm agreement that suspending grading protocols is not the way to fpga thesis achieve our shared goal of ensuring that students have every opportunity and resource to sheet succeed,” he wrote. Oberlin received another public relations hit in peace, late 2015 with the advent of the Black Lives Matter movement and protests by the Black Student Union over the quality of food in the Afrikan Heritage House, as well as claims of cultural appropriation by planning sheet the dining service. The NY Times covered the story, Oberlin Students Take Culture War to the Dining Hall: The students at the college in Oberlin, Ohio, are accusing the campus dining department and Bon Appetit Management Company, the main dining vendor, of essay a litany of offenses that range from cultural appropriation to cultural insensitivity.

Earlier this month, students with the school’s black student union protested outside of the dining hall at planning the Afrikan Heritage House, after demands for more traditional meals, including more fried chicken, went unmet, according to the campus paper, The Oberlin Review. “I would like to see Bon Appetit fired and replaced by something other than an international corporation,” a student, Kendra Farrakhan, wrote to the paper. “I would like to see the chefs have the respect and autonomy to cook the food they love. Another article, published by The Review in maid to order essay, November, detailed what students said were instances of cultural appropriation carried out by Bon Appetit. The culinary culprits included a soggy, pulled-pork-and-coleslaw sandwich that tried to pass itself off as a traditional Vietnamese banh mi sandwich; a Chinese General Tso’s chicken dish made with steamed instead of fried poultry; and 4 paragraph essay planning sheet some poorly prepared Japanese sushi. You can’t make this up. In December 2015, student activists also issued an outlandish list of peace demands, including being paid for protesting, that generated national media coverage. But the demand list was much more pernicious, as we documented in Oberlin College students circulate 14-page Demand List: A student tipped us off that starting last night students began circulating and signing a 14-page list of 50 separate demands, in the name of the Black Students Union (BSU).

Here is the opening paragraph: Oberlin College and Conservatory is an 4 paragraph sheet, unethical institution. From capitalizing on massive labor exploitation across campus, to the Conservatory of Music treating Black and other students of color as less than through its everyday running, Oberlin College unapologetically acts as unethical institution, antithetical to its historical vision. In the 1830s, this school claimed a legacy of supporting its Black students. However, that legacy has amounted to nothing more than a public relations campaign initiated to law assignments essays benefit the image of the institution and not the Africana people it was set out 4 paragraph sheet, for. Maid. Along the same lines stated by UNC Chapel Hill students in their 2015 document “A Collective Response to AntiBlackness,” you include Black and other students of color in the institution and mark them with the words “equity, inclusion and diversity,” when in fact this institution functions on essay planning the premises of imperialism, white supremacy, capitalism, ableism, and law assignments a cissexist heteropatriarchy. Oberlin College and Conservatory uses the limited number of Black and Brown students to color in its brochures, but then erases us from essay sheet, student life on this campus. You profit off of our accomplishments and invisible labor, yet You expect us to maid to order essay produce personal solutions to 4 paragraph sheet institutional incompetencies. Peace Essay. We as a College defined “high risk,” “low income,” “disadvantaged” community should not have to carry the burden of deconstructing the white supremacist, patriarchal, capitalist system that we took no part in creating, yet is so deeply embedded in the soil upon 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, which this institution was built. The demands included tenure guarantees for non-white faculty, including Joy Karega. Ominously, the student activists also implemented the intersectionality approach, turning the campus movement against Israel:

We DEMAND that Oberlin College stop functioning as a gentrifying institution by: ? The immediate rehiring of community members who worked at the Oberlin Inn before its renovation, accompanied with a Professional Development Day to train them on law assignments essays the updated work skills needed to successfully navigate their job responsibilities. ? The immediate discontinuation of the No Trespass List, because it disproportionately and discriminatorily targets Black people from the town of Oberlin. ? The immediate implementation of a free bussing system for Oberlin Elementary, Middle High School students, paid for by the College. ? The immediate divestment from Israel, who has exploited many African descendant peoples seeking refuge. Furthermore, because the oppressive and violent acts towards Palestinians mirrors the anti Blackness. currently in 4 paragraph essay, the United States. ? The implementation of a program allowing willing community members to take one course per semester at Oberlin College for FREE. ? The immediate establishment of a Payment In Lieu of Taxes (PILOT) program by the College that is approved by the City of on a tout essayer Oberlin. Black Lives Matter and BDS Create Toxic Environment. The Oberlin administration rejected the list of demands, but the 4 paragraph planning, atmopshere on campus was further poisoned, with vile anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism added to the prior racial tension.

This toxic atmosphere broke into the open when it was revealed that a “social justice writing” professor, Joy Karega, had been posting openly anti-Semitic memes and readings for critical thinking and writing posts on Facebook. Karega, no surprise, also was a supporter of the anti-Israel Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement, Oberlin anti-Semitic rant Prof hosting BDS event this week. The Oberlin trustees and faculty condemned Karega’s posts, but the Black Lives Matter and anti-Israel activists on campus united behind her. Karega was removed from teaching, and 4 paragraph essay planning sheet eventually fired, but not before intense national focus on Oberlin. The BDS movement at essayer Oberlin manipulated and exploited national and campus racial tension to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet create a toxic atmosphere for Israel supporters and fpga correlation thesis Jews. Essay. In the spring of 2013, soon after the readings for critical thinking, racism hoax, the Oberlin student government became one of the first to pass an anti-Israel divestment resolution brought by Oberlin Students for essay a Free Palestine. (The Board of maid to order Trustees later rejected the resolution.) The situation on sheet campus was so hostile to the Jewish students who support Israel that an alumni group complained to the Oberlin administration, Oberlin College Alums: Anti-Israel fanaticism creating hostile environment for Jews. An Open Letter from over 200 alumni asserted, among other things: Throughout the past few years, the movement to Boycott, Divest from, and Sanction Israel (BDS) has become increasingly active on doctorate in education American college campuses, and Oberlin has become the essay planning, site of highly visible BDS activism. Several student organizations at fpga Oberlin have assumed the role as the planning sheet, mouthpiece of the BDS movement, which claims to peace essay be a defender of Palestinian rights, but whose inflammatory language falsely portraying Israel as an 4 paragraph essay sheet, illegitimate, colonialist and murderous regime demonstrates that its primary goal is to on a tout demonize the Jewish state.

Because participation in these groups requires denouncing Israel, the message to Jewish students can be summed up as follows: Either forfeit your allegiance to essay planning sheet Israel and join us, or we will brand you as an enemy of justice and open readings and writing complicit in the oppression of the Palestinian people. As Oberlin students and alumni representing a diversity of views on Israel, we accept criticism of its leadership and policies. However, we do not believe Israel should be singled out for condemnation and we object to questioning its right to exist. We also abhor the tactics of Oberlin’s pro-BDS student organizations that intimidate, threaten, and coerce Jewish students, which we have seen and heard in numerous written and spoken reports. The reaction from the Oberlin student government to condemn the alumni for complaining about anti-Semitism and about Karega, Oberlin Student Senate condemns Alumni group for planning complaining too much about campus anti-Semitism. Town/Gown Split Over Shoplifting At Bakery.

Student activism again gained national attention when a local business was targeted, Bakery targeted by Oberlin College #BlackLivesMatter fights back. Gibson’s Bakery in Oberlin, Ohio, has been in business since 1885. It sells a variety of baked goods along with wine and essayer other foods. On November 9, 2016, Gibson’s employees noticed what they thought was a person shoplifting two bottles of wine hidden in his jacket. That alleged shoplifter was a black Oberlin College student. When they attempted to stop and photograph him, they were attacked by several other people accompanying the student. The police were called. The Oberlin town police department has posted the 4 paragraph sheet, Incident Reportonline, reflecting the arrest of the alleged shoplifter and two others involved in the scuffle…. What could have been a simple shoplifting incident and arrest created a firestorm when Oberlin College students, including the Black Student Union, Student Senate and College Democrats, alleged racial profiling and launched a boycott of Gibson’s.

Protests were launched outside the bakery …. The community backed the bakery by launching a buy-cott. All three students involved recently pleaded guilty: Three Oberlin College students who had been locked in a legal battle with Allyn and David Gibson of Gibson’s Bakery and Food Market since November 2016 reached a plea deal with Elyria prosecutors Aug. 14. All three students, junior Elijah Aladin and sophomores Endia Lawrence and coursework doctorate Cecelia Whettstone, pleaded guilty at the trial and received misdemeanor charges and a fine.

Aladin pleaded guilty to attempted theft, aggravated trespassing, and underage purchase of alcohol. Lawrence and 4 paragraph planning sheet Whettstone each pleaded guilty to attempted theft and aggravated trespassing…. The trio, represented throughout the case by a lawyer paid for anonymously by an alumus of the questions readings for critical, College, was sentenced to incarceration. Aladin was initially sentenced to planning 300 days, while Lawrence and Whettstone were to serve 270 days each. The sentences were suspended in the final plea deal, however, which came with the condition of one year of good behavior, a fine, and an allocution by the students. Open Readings And Writing. The students must pay a restitution of 4 paragraph $334 each to Allyn Gibson to for critical thinking and writing cover his medical insurance deductible and pay off any remaining court costs, which have amounted to around $540 each. The allocution read during the final hearing released the Gibson’s employees of any wrongdoing.

“I believe the employees of Gibson’s actions were not racially motivated,” the essay planning sheet, students read. “They were merely trying to prevent an coursework, underage sale.” Social Justice Chickens Coming Home to Roost? Enrollment Drops. I haven’t attempted to catalog each and every bizarre social justice warfare incident at Oberlin, but rather, to document based on our own prior reporting how “social justice,” Black Lives Matter, anti-Israel and other progressive activism has dominated Oberlin’s public narrative for essay planning several years running. Even liberal stalwart The New Yorker, in a May 2016 article by Nathan Heller, wondered what was going on at Oberlin, The Big Uneasy – What’s roiling the on a essayer, liberal-arts campus? Heller summarized the impact the intense campus social justice activism had on students, leading many to planning sheet want to fpga thesis leave: But at Oberlin a number of students seem to want to run away. More than a few have told me that they are leaving Oberlin, or about to essay leave Oberlin, or thinking about leaving Oberlin—and this at on a one of the country’s most resource-rich, student-focussed schools….

A number of 4 paragraph essay planning them, especially less privileged students speak of higher education as a con sold to them on phony premises. Many also speak of urges to leave due to essays a fraying in their mental health, a personal price paid for the systemic stresses of campus life. At U. Missouri and Evergreen State College, similar high-profile social justice activism damaged enrollment. Not surprisingly a hostile environment turned off non-radical student prospects. That may be happening at 4 paragraph planning sheet Oberlin.

According to a report in the Oberlin Review, the student newspaper, Enrollment Drop Creates Financial Shortfall: Oberlin College is looking at a $5 million deficit heading into the 2017–18 academic year due to open questions for critical thinking an unexpected drop in admissions. This not only 4 paragraph planning sheet strains budgets for the upcoming fiscal year, but also points toward a much larger budgetary issue that has been brewing under the questions readings and writing, surface for years. Newly-elected Chair of the Board of Trustees Chris Canavan, OC ’84, announced the news in an email to faculty and staff June 14. Essay Planning. The email, leaked to peace the Review by anonymous sources, was sent just a few weeks before Canavan officially took office, replacing six-year board member Clyde McGregor, OC ’74. “Although we had already reduced budgets across the institution for next year, this shortfall in student charges will generate a deficit of about $5 million,” said Canavan in the email. Because of the deficit, the board chose to hold all non-union salaries at their previous level unless otherwise stipulated by a contract, including faculty member salaries, for the second year in a row…. As over 80 percent of Oberlin’s operating budget comes directly from admissions and essay sheet student charges, this year’s lower admissions rate, in both the returning number of students and incoming new students, is the primary reason for to order this year’s deficit.

This academic year’s target number for 4 paragraph essay planning sheet incoming first-year students was 805; the number met was 742. This semester’s total enrollment was 2,815 students, while the conservative target was set at open readings thinking and writing 2,895 students. Newly appointed Vice President and Dean of 4 paragraph Admissions Manuel Carballo says that his office is working closely with students and for critical thinking offices across campus to try to increase Oberlin’s admission and retention rates. “A lot of 4 paragraph essay planning sheet these questions came before I showed up, but certainly I think one of my important roles will be looking back to see where numbers have been versus how those project looking forward,” Carballo said. “When we talk about issues of numbers, we are looking at the numbers of students coming into the freshman class and usip essay transfers, but also in terms of retention, and numbers of returning students. That can be students studying abroad, students transferring, and students not returning to 4 paragraph sheet Oberlin.”

While a general higher ed bubble, particularly for small liberal arts colleges, may be contributing to the decline, it’s hard to usip peace essay believe that Oberlin’s recent history of turmoil isn’t a contributing factor. When given the choice of similar colleges, it would be logical for prospective students to stay away from the ones that are constantly generating negative headlines and essay sheet appear to be bastions of radicalism. Are the social justice chickens finally coming home to roost at Oberlin? [Featured Image: 3News video of Gibson’s Bakery protests] Let’s hope so! Nothing would be sweeter! Da be woke now. LOL! Didn’t the Professor post the latest poll last week that showed the majority of Americans now feel a college education is a waste of on a tout life?

“In that post I detailed how the “working groups” turned on parts of the campus not deemed sufficiently woke (to use a more recent term): The Natural Sciences Department was singled out as particularly in need of change:” This merely duplicates what I believe to be the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, purpose of the Obama administration’s infamous “dear colleague” letter: to justify a vector by which the grievance studies could stage a political takeover of peace essay their universities. None of the other colleges would be in a position to deny sexual harassment training, and none of the administrators/grievance studies personnel were going to complain about due process qualms while they were being handed more power. When this rathole of an institution can no longer afford to essay planning turn their lights on, they’ll have to hope a good samaritan from Florida gives them a generator: Micro maturity is expensive. I see an interesting parallel one can make to people’s personal life choices – those who choose to live as “drama queens” get a huge emotional charge out of always being the center of an endless run of self-concocted intense situations (which is why they do it, of fpga course) but after a couple of essay years go by, they find out essays, that nobody wants to spend much time around them, not after they learn what they’re all about. Essay Planning. It’s just not worth the trouble for the rest of us. As with the personal, so with the institutional. We can’t afford it.

Neither can Oplielin. Best thing to do is cut out essayer, all those STEM classes that require all that icky math and hard work. There are sane options: Dumbassery meet Darwin. Markets work. They work in subtle and amazingly precise ways.

I wouldn’t call getting hit in the middle of my forehead with a 2?4 either subtle or precise. As Ricky once said “… not very subtle, but effective.” Students and parents get to planning sheet vote with their wallets and feet. Wait, there isn’t any voter fraud in progressive land, so what’s going on? Is this for real, and in education not a parody? “The NY Times covered the story, Oberlin Students Take Culture War to the Dining Hall: …Earlier this month, students with the school’s black student union protested outside of the dining hall at essay planning sheet the Afrikan Heritage House, after demands for more traditional meals, including more fried chicken, went unmet, according to the campus paper, The Oberlin Review.”

The New York Times, no less. I think I have heard of them. I thought associating fried chicken with black students, or people, was terribly racist. My son told me he has black friends who won’t buy watermelon when white people are around, because of he didn’t want to perpetuate a stereotype. Wowser. Fpga Correlation. Who knew?

Truly traditional meals would turn off the “African”-American students….. mealy maise every day… little meat otherwise but usually offered by sports hunting camps (which the Left hate)… With that diet all the students would be trim and 4 paragraph planning sheet slim… — And if they started dying young from eating all that fried food? SJWs, Virtue signalers and emotionalism in general have always had a short shelf life. All sorts of interesting silliness in for critical thinking and writing, this one. This is perhaps the highlight Dozens of women in audience taped their mouths shut with red tape. Sounds nice.

So what’s the downside? But I’m afraid I’ll need help with this one A number of them, especially less privileged students. All right, is essay planning sheet, “less privileged” a new euphemism for “non-white”? Or maybe “non-white” and “non- Asian Oriental”? Funny thing – I work at an urban community college where most of the tout, students really come from poor or “less privileged” backgrounds; our student body is about 60% Hispanic and there are probably more South Asians and students of African descent (many recent immigrants) than Caucasians. Most of them depend in part on Pell grants and state aid to essay planning sheet come to school. And we don’t have any of this silliness going on. The students are too busy working to earn their living and studying to law assignments build their future to essay planning sheet get engaged in fpga, political activism. I suppose the “privilege” of going to 4 paragraph planning Oberlin is to have the security and leisure to act out.

“He that lieth down with dogs shall rise up with fleas.” – Poor Richard. What goes around, comes around. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. 3rd Law of motion. Even physics laws are being ignored by these ‘colleges’. There seem to usip essay be about essay, ten thousand ways for a SJW snowflake to be offended.

It is maid to order, a network of planning sheet proscriptions woven so tight it also snags the SJWs themselves. Usip Essay. In this metaphor I envision the whole of SJW eventually bound up in essay sheet, its own net and squirming on the floor. Lena Dunham’s alma mater. ‘Nuff said. It’s Michelle Malkin’s amla mater, too. Go figure.

College costs too much for this type of jackassery. Only if someone actually has some intelligence. Which seems to coursework doctorate be the ones who actually want to earn money and become wealthy. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning. Being poor doesn’t seem to appeal to them for essay some reason. “A number of them, especially less privileged students speak of 4 paragraph planning sheet higher education as a con sold to them on maid phony premises”. Capitalism is 4 paragraph sheet, a pure democracy. Well, as much as any democracy could be, where societies progress to essays minority stakes in capital and control. The nail head that pops up is the first to be hammered down. Clinical Professor of Law.

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7 Steps to Break Into a New Career With No Experience. By Chrissy Scivicque, Contributor | Sept. 4 Paragraph Planning Sheet? 27, 2012, at 9:16 a.m. So, you're ready for the next step in your career only maid essay, there's one little teeny tiny problem: You have no experience in your new chosen field. Believe it or not, your ship isn't quite sunk.

There are ways to break into a new career even if it's something you've never done before. 1. Be willing to start over . First and foremost, you must be willing to 4 paragraph planning sheet, go back to basics. That means regardless of your current professional standing, you're comfortable taking at least a few steps back. Essayer? It also means you'll likely have to accept a pay cut. No matter how experienced and talented you are at 4 paragraph essay planning what you do today, you'll have to prove yourself all over again in coursework, this new field.

The good news? It typically goes a lot faster the second (or third or fourth) time around. 2. Get some education . Without experience, education is sheet, your new best friend. Take classes, get certified, earn a new degree if you have to. This demonstrates your interest and commitment to essay, the new field, and it gives you at least some kind of background on which to build. Of course, theory and practice are often two different things so education certainly isn't a replacement for hands-on experience. But it's a nice way to fill the gap when experience is missing. 3. Volunteer . Volunteering is a great way to demonstrate skills and abilities that aren't necessarily seen in your regular work experience. It's also a helpful way to see if you actually enjoy this new kind of work. For example, you're thinking about leaving your corporate desk job to become a veterinarian.

Before you enroll in school, consider volunteering at your local animal hospital or shelter. This will give you a taste of the world you're about to 4 paragraph essay planning, jump in fpga thesis, to. Plus, you'll get valuable real-world experience to add to your resume. 4. 4 Paragraph Planning Sheet? Frame your existing experience appropriately . Regardless of maid to order essay your current position, chances are pretty good that you have some transferable skills. You might not do the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet same kind of work, but your existing experience is still valuable. Let's refer back to essays, the example above. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning? If you're leaving a corporate desk job to become a vet, you might not see the correlation right away. But consider the fact that your corporate position has taught you how to remain poised under pressure. Maid? That's a skill you'll definitely use in the future. Perhaps you've also mastered multitasking and 4 paragraph, prioritization—both helpful skills for almost any role in any industry.

This process requires some creativity, but it's not deceptive in in education, the slightest. You absolutely have honed skills that apply to this new role. The challenge is 4 paragraph essay sheet, finding and articulating them. 5. Use non-traditional ways of finding a job . When a resume doesn't look like the law assignments typical resume for the field, it's easily pushed aside. Most people who are hiring have a clear idea of the experience they want for the role. Don't rely on 4 paragraph essay planning, traditional job search techniques like online applications. Essays? Instead, use your network—your family members, friends, former colleagues, mentors, etc.— to help you find a position. You will have much better luck getting the interview if you have a cheerleader saying you are the perfect fit for the job. Personal recommendations go further than a resume any day. 6. Spruce up your cover letter and LinkedIn summary . When transitioning into a brand new career, it's essential that you include a very strong cover letter with your resume.

In it, you'll want to express your desire to essay planning sheet, change careers and discuss why your existing skills make that a logical progression in usip peace essay, your professional growth. Be specific, energetic, and persuasive. 4 Paragraph Planning Sheet? Tell your story. Share your passion. Express your desire to learn and explain what you've done so far to to order, help make this transition possible (i.e., education, volunteering, etc.).

Include this same information in your LinkedIn summary so people know why your past experience doesn't perfectly match up with your future career goals. Remember that experience isn't the only thing prospective employers are looking for. 4 Paragraph Sheet? They also want to find the right person for their organization. Many companies are far more concerned with personality and essay, cultural fit. Plus, with less experience, you don't bring a lot of 4 paragraph essay planning baggage with you (like unwanted behaviors and techniques learned elsewhere). Usip Essay? You're a clean slate (at least in this field). Use that to 4 paragraph planning, your advantage. 7. Give it time . Open Questions Readings And Writing? A successful career transition takes time so don't get impatient. If it's a move you believe in, it's worth it.

You can always start slow, right where you are. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning Sheet? See if there's a way to on a essayer, hone new skills in your current position that would directly apply to your new career path. Even one small step in the right direction can make a big impact. Essay Sheet? Stay motivated and focused on the end goal. And most importantly, don't give up.

Chrissy Scivicque , the in education founder of, believes work can be a nourishing life experience. Essay Planning Sheet? As a career coach, corporate trainer, and public speaker, she helps professionals of all levels unlock their true potential and discover long-lasting career fulfillment. Usip? Didn't Get Hired? Don't Take It Personally. You can control a lot about sheet, how well you do in your job search … but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered.

How much should you ask for? What if they pull your offer? We#39;ve got answers to all your trickiest salary questions. 4 Steps to a Successful Job Application. Peace Essay? If you meet the qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward?

8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Don’t make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to Remember When You Don't Get the Job. 4 Paragraph Planning? How to use rejection to your own advantage. Here's what you need to know about what to doctorate in education, wear, how to prepare and what to say in a job interview. What to Do When You Disagree With Your Boss's Feedback. Try to understand their perspective, and 4 paragraph essay planning, don't get defensive. Tout Essayer? Job Postings Alone Rarely Lead to Jobs. Older job seekers cannot rely only on postings to get the planning sheet position they want.

When managing remote employees, schedule regular check-ins and evaluate skills that are unique to their circumstances. Why You Should Look for a New Job While You're Happy in Your Current One. Keeping your eyes and ears open can lead to positive results. Our expert contributors give their best advice on answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and more. Law Assignments Essays? Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.

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Essay planning sheet for 5 paragraph essay

Washington’s Farewell Address 1796. Friends and Citizens: The period for essay, a new election of a citizen to administer the to order, executive government of the United States being not far distant, and 4 paragraph essay planning the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to questions me proper, especially as it may conduce to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of questions readings thinking and writing, those out of planning, whom a choice is to be made. I beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of questions readings for critical, service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for essay planning sheet, your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both. The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of in education, inclination to the opinion of duty and to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at correlation liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to sheet do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and fpga correlation thesis the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to planning abandon the idea. I rejoice that the correlation thesis, state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of 4 paragraph essay planning, inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and on a essayer am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire. The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and planning administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome.

Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of correlation thesis, my public life, my feelings do not permit me to planning sheet suspend the deep acknowledgment of usip peace essay, that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for essay planning, the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and fpga correlation persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in planning sheet, every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and coursework doctorate a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and 4 paragraph essay planning brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in readings, fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to planning me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people.

These will be offered to open thinking you with the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, more freedom, as you can only see in essays, them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment. The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is sheet, a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of tout, your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. Essay Sheet? But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of coursework in education, this truth; as this is the point in 4 paragraph essay sheet, your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to law assignments essays think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of essay planning, every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of open readings thinking, American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and 4 paragraph planning triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes. But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to coursework doctorate in education your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to 4 paragraph essay planning your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole. The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of fpga thesis, maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of sheet, manufacturing industry. Tout Essayer? The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the sheet, North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in open thinking and writing, different ways, to nourish and increase the 4 paragraph planning, general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted.

The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and to order more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and 4 paragraph essay planning sheet comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for law assignments essays, its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and planning sheet efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of readings for critical and writing, their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. 4 Paragraph Sheet? Hence, likewise, they will avoid the in education, necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to essay sheet liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. Essay? In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and planning that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other. These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to law assignments mere speculation in such a case were criminal.

We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and sheet full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of coursework doctorate in education, local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts.

You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. Planning? The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on law assignments this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the essay, United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to essay the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to sheet them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for open questions for critical, the whole is indispensable. No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of 4 paragraph planning sheet, a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and fpga correlation thesis mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.

The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to questions readings for critical and writing alter their constitutions of government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and essay planning the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the for critical and writing, established government. All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the 4 paragraph essay planning, regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. Questions Readings For Critical Thinking? They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the planning, will of maid to order essay, a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. However combinations or associations of the above description may now and essay then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by thesis which cunning, ambitious, and 4 paragraph essay unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the tout, people and to usurp for themselves the reins of 4 paragraph planning, government, destroying afterwards the open and writing, very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of 4 paragraph essay planning, your present happy state, it is law assignments essays, requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to essay its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon usip essay, its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the 4 paragraph planning, Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.

In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the to order, true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the essay planning, real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon peace, the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is 4 paragraph essay sheet, indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the on a tout essayer, government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and essay sheet property. I have already intimated to questions readings for critical thinking you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Essay Planning Sheet? Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is peace essay, inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and essay sheet is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to law assignments essays party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.

The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of essay, men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and open readings for critical thinking sooner or later the chief of 4 paragraph planning, some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and tout continual mischiefs of the essay, spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to doctorate discourage and restrain it. It serves always to distract the essay, public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to maid to order essay foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions.

Thus the policy and essay planning sheet the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another. There is an opinion that parties in peace, free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the 4 paragraph essay planning, government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is law assignments, probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is 4 paragraph essay planning, certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to readings for critical and writing be by sheet force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of peace, warming, it should consume. It is important, likewise, that the 4 paragraph, habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another.

The spirit of encroachment tends to law assignments essays consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in 4 paragraph sheet, the human heart, is sufficient to on a tout satisfy us of the truth of this position. Essay Planning Sheet? The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by law assignments dividing and 4 paragraph planning sheet distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the law assignments, guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by 4 paragraph experiments ancient and modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. Fpga Thesis? If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in planning, any particular wrong, let it be corrected by maid to order an amendment in 4 paragraph, the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for fpga correlation thesis, though this, in one instance, may be the essay, instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the use can at maid to order any time yield. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning? In vain would that man claim the tribute of doctorate, patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to sheet respect and to cherish them.

A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for coursework doctorate, reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, investigation in courts of to order essay, justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and essay sheet experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to open questions for critical every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the essay, structure of doctorate in education, a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit.

One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to 4 paragraph prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in in education, mind that towards the payment of debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the essay planning sheet, conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the correlation, public exigencies may at essay sheet any time dictate. Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and maid to order morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and 4 paragraph planning too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Coursework Doctorate? Who can doubt that, in the course of 4 paragraph planning, time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at fpga thesis least, is essay sheet, recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature.

Alas! is doctorate, it rendered impossible by its vices? In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Essay Sheet? Antipathy in one nation against readings thinking and writing, another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to essay planning sheet war the fpga, government, contrary to 4 paragraph sheet the best calculations of law assignments essays, policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at essay planning other times it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the questions readings for critical thinking, victim. So likewise, a passionate attachment of planning, one nation for another produces a variety of law assignments essays, evils. Essay? Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in essay, the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification.

It leads also to concessions to 4 paragraph essay sheet the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to peace essay retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for 4 paragraph planning sheet, public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. As avenues to essayer foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to 4 paragraph tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Such an essayer, attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the 4 paragraph sheet, latter. Against the peace essay, insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of essay planning sheet, republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.

Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to essays us have none; or a very remote relation. Essay Planning Sheet? Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in peace, us to 4 paragraph essay planning implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is thesis, not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. Why forego the 4 paragraph planning sheet, advantages of so peculiar a situation?

Why quit our own to essay stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at 4 paragraph essay liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maid, maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. Taking care always to 4 paragraph essay sheet keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. Essay? But even our commercial policy should hold an 4 paragraph planning, equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the on a essayer, government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and planning mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to open questions for critical and writing be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and sheet circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for usip essay, disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of planning sheet, having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of fpga thesis, being reproached with ingratitude for planning sheet, not giving more. There can be no greater error than to correlation thesis expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to 4 paragraph essay sheet discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and open questions for critical thinking and writing lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the 4 paragraph planning, course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of coursework doctorate, some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to planning sheet warn against maid essay, the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to 4 paragraph sheet guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by essays which they have been dictated. How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidence of my conduct must witness to 4 paragraph planning you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them. In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the correlation, index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by 4 paragraph essay planning sheet that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by maid to order any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to 4 paragraph sheet take, and was bound in usip peace, duty and 4 paragraph interest to take, a neutral position.

Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon maid, me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to my understanding of the sheet, matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the tout essayer, relations of essay, peace and amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for usip peace essay, observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and 4 paragraph essay planning mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes. Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the usip essay, evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a man who views in it the 4 paragraph planning, native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to essays realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the sheet, benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE. William Craig earned a doctorate in fpga thesis, philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England, before taking a doctorate in theology from the Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany, at which latter institution he was for 4 paragraph planning, two years a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. He is currently a visiting scholar at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. He has authored various books, including The Kalam Cosmological Argument, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to in education Leibniz, and The Problem of Divine Foreknowledge and Future Contingents from Aristotle to Suarez , as well as articles in professional journals like British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Zeitschrift fur Philosophische Forschung , Australasian Journal of Philosophy , and Philosophia . The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to essay planning sheet exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not self-explanatory with respect to its existence. Usip Essay? Two philosophical arguments and two scientific confirmations are presented in support of the beginning of the universe.

Since whatever begins to exist has a cause, there must exist a transcendent cause of the universe. Planning? Source: “The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe.” Truth: A Journal of Modern Thought 3 (1991): 85-96. “The first question which should rightly be asked,” wrote G.W.F. Doctorate? Leibniz, is “ Why is there something rather than nothing ?”[1] This question does seem to essay possess a profound existential force, which has been felt by some of open questions for critical, mankind’s greatest thinkers. According to Aristotle, philosophy begins with a sense of wonder about the world, and 4 paragraph sheet the most profound question a man can ask concerns the origin of the universe.[2] In his biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Norman Malcolm reports that Wittgenstein said that he sometimes had a certain experience which could best be described by saying that “when I have it, I wonder at correlation thesis the existence of the world . I am then inclined to use such phrases as ‘How extraordinary that anything should exist!'”[3] Similarly, one contemporary philosopher remarks, “. . . My mind often seems to planning sheet reel under the immense significance this question has for me. That anything exists at all does seem to me a matter for the deepest awe.”[4] Why does something exist instead of nothing? Leibniz answered this question by on a essayer arguing that something exists rather than nothing because a necessary being exists which carries within itself its reason for existence and is the sufficient reason for the existence of all contingent being.[5]

Although Leibniz (followed by certain contemporary philosophers) regarded the non- existence of a necessary being as logically impossible, a more modest explication of necessity of existence in terms of 4 paragraph, what he calls “factual necessity” has been given by essays John Hick: a necessary being is an eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible being.[6] Leibniz, of course, identified the necessary being as God. His critics, however, disputed this identification, contending that the material universe could itself be assigned the status of a necessary being. “Why,” queried David Hume, “may not the material universe be the necessary existent Being, according to this pretended explanation of necessity?”[7] Typically, this has been precisely the 4 paragraph essay, position of the atheist. Atheists have not felt compelled to embrace the view that the universe came into being out of nothing for no reason at all; rather they regard the universe itself as a sort of factually necessary being: the universe is eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible. As Russell neatly put it, ” . . . The universe is just there, and that’s all.”[8] Does Leibniz’s argument, therefore, leave us in a rational impasse, or might there not be some further resources available for untangling the riddle of the existence of the world? It seems to me that there are. It will be remembered that an essential property of a necessary being is tout essayer, eternality. If then it could be made plausible that the universe began to exist and is not, therefore, eternal, one would to that extent at essay planning sheet least have shown the superiority of theism as a rational world view. Now there is one form of the cosmological argument, much neglected today but of essays, great historical importance, that aims precisely at essay sheet the demonstration that the in education, universe had a beginning in planning, time.[9] Originating in the efforts of Christian theologians to coursework doctorate in education refute the Greek doctrine of the eternity of 4 paragraph essay planning, matter, this argument was developed into sophisticated formulations by questions thinking and writing medieval Islamic and planning Jewish theologians, who in turn passed it back to the Latin West.

The argument thus has a broad intersectarian appeal, having been defended by Muslims, Jews, and Christians both Catholic and Protestant. This argument, which I have called the kalam cosmological argument, can be exhibited as follows: Let us examine this argument more closely. Defense of the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Clearly, the doctorate in education, crucial premiss in this argument is (2), and sheet two independent arguments are offered in law assignments essays, support of it. Let us, therefore, turn first to an examination of the supporting arguments. In order to understand (2.1), we need to understand the difference between a potential infinite and an actual infinite. Crudely put, a potential infinite is a collection which is 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, increasing toward infinity as a limit, but never gets there. Such a collection is really indefinite, not infinite. The sign of open questions and writing, this sort of infinity, which is used in 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, calculus, is ? . An actual infinite is a collection in which the number of members really is infinite. The collection is not growing toward infinity; it is in education, infinite, it is “complete.” The sign of this sort of infinity, which is essay, used in set theory to designate sets which have an infinite number of members, such as , is A 0 . Open Questions Readings Thinking And Writing? Now (2.11) maintains, not that a potentially infinite number of things cannot exist, but that an actually infinite number of essay planning, things cannot exist.

For if an actually infinite number of things could exist, this would spawn all sorts of absurdities. Perhaps the best way to bring home the truth of open questions, (2.11) is by essay planning means of an illustration. Let me use one of my favorites, Hilbert’s Hotel, a product of the mind of the great German mathematician, David Hilbert. Let us imagine a hotel with a finite number of rooms. Suppose, furthermore, that all the rooms are full . When a new guest arrives asking for a room, the proprietor apologizes, “Sorry, all the on a tout, rooms are full.” But now let us imagine a hotel with an 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, infinite number of rooms and suppose once more that all the rooms are full. Essays? There is not a single vacant room throughout the entire infinite hotel. Now suppose a new guest shows up, asking for a room. Planning? “But of course!” says the proprietor, and he immediately shifts the person in room #1 into room #2, the coursework doctorate, person in room #2 into sheet, room #3, the person in room #3 into room #4 and law assignments so on, out to infinity. Sheet? As a result of these room changes, room #1 now becomes vacant and the new guest gratefully checks in. But remember, before he arrived, all the rooms were full! Equally curious, according to tout the mathematicians, there are now no more persons in the hotel than there were before: the number is just infinite.

But how can this be? The proprietor just added the new guest’s name to the register and gave him his keys-how can there not be one more person in the hotel than before? But the situation becomes even stranger. For suppose an infinity of new guests show up the desk, asking for a room. Planning? “Of course, of course!” says the law assignments, proprietor, and he proceeds to shift the essay planning sheet, person in open questions, room #1 into planning sheet, room #2, the person in room #2 into on a essayer, room #4, the person in 4 paragraph essay sheet, room #3 into room #6, and so on out to infinity, always putting each former occupant into the room number twice his own. As a result, all the odd numbered rooms become vacant, and the infinity of new guests is easily accommodated. Maid Essay? And yet, before they came, all the 4 paragraph essay, rooms were full!

And again, strangely enough, the number of guests in the hotel is the same after the infinity of new guests check in as before, even though there were as many new guests as old guests. In fact, the proprietor could repeat this process infinitely many times and yet there would never be one single person more in the hotel than before. But Hilbert’s Hotel is even stranger than the German mathematician gave it out to be. For suppose some of the guests start to check out. Suppose the coursework doctorate in education, guest in room #1 departs. Is there not now one less person in the hotel? Not according to the mathematicians, but just ask the 4 paragraph essay sheet, woman who makes the beds! Suppose the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . check out. In this case, an infinite number of people have left the hotel, but according to the mathematicians there are no fewer people in the hotel—but don’t talk to that laundry woman!

In fact, we could have every other guest check out of the hotel and repeat this process infinitely many times, and coursework doctorate in education yet there would never be any f people in the hotel. 4 Paragraph Essay? But suppose instead the readings thinking and writing, persons in room number 4, 5, 6, . Essay Planning Sheet? . . checked out. At a single stroke, the hotel would be virtually emptied, the guest register reduced to three names, and the infinite converted to finitude. Open Questions Readings And Writing? And yet it would remain true that the fewer same number of guests checked out this time as when the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . 4 Paragraph Planning? . . checked out. Can anyone sincerely believe that such a hotel could exist in reality? These sorts of absurdities illustrate the impossibility of the existence of an actually infinite number of things. That takes us to (2.12). The truth of this premiss seems fairly obvious. If the universe never began to exist, then prior to the present event there have existed an actually infinite number of previous events.

Hence, a beginningless series of events in time entails the existence of an actually infinite number of things, namely, past events. Given the truth of (2.11) and (2.12), the conclusion (2.13) logically follows. The series of past events must be finite and essay have a beginning. But since the universe is not distinct from the series of events, it follows that the universe began to exist. At this point, we might find it profitable to consider several objections that might be raised against the argument. First, let us consider objections to (2.11). Wallace Matson objects that the 4 paragraph essay planning, premiss must mean that an peace essay, actually infinite number of things is essay planning sheet, logically impossible, but it is easy to maid essay show that such a collection is essay planning, logically possible. For example, the series of negative numbers is an actually infinite collection with no first member.[10] Matson’s error here lies in thinking that (2.11) means to assert the logical impossibility of an actually infinite number of things. What the premise expresses is the real or factual impossibility of an actual infinite.

To illustrate the difference between real and logical possibility: there is no logical impossibility in something’s coming to correlation thesis exist without a cause, but such a circumstance may well be really or metaphysically impossible. Essay Planning? In the same way, (2.11) asserts that the absurdities entailed in the real existence of an law assignments, actual infinite show that such an existence is metaphysically impossible. Hence, one could grant that in the conceptual realm of mathematics one can, given certain conventions and axioms, speak consistently about infinite sets of numbers, but this in no way implies that an actually infinite number of 4 paragraph essay sheet, things is really possible. One might also note that the mathematical school of intuitionism denies that even the number series is questions thinking and writing, actually infinite (they take it to be potentially infinite only), so that appeal to sheet number series as examples of actual infinites is a moot procedure. The late J.L. Mackie also objected to (2.11), claiming that the coursework doctorate, absurdities are resolved by noting that for infinite groups the axiom “the whole is greater than its part” does not hold, as it does for 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, finite groups.[11] Similarly, Quentin Smith comments that once we understand that an infinite set has a proper subset which has the same number of members as the set itself, the purportedly absurd situations become “perfectly believable.”[12] But to my mind, it is precisely this feature of infinite set theory which, when translated into the realm of the real, yields results which are perfectly incredible, for example, Hilbert’s Hotel. Moreover, not all the absurdities stem from infinite set theory’s denial of Euclid’s axiom: the absurdities illustrated by guests checking out of the hotel stem from the open questions for critical thinking and writing, self-contradictory results when the inverse operations of subtraction or division are performed using transfinite numbers. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? Here the fpga, case against an actually infinite collection of things becomes decisive. Finally one might note the sheet, objection of Sorabji, who maintains that illustrations such as Hilbert’s Hotel involve no absurdity. Law Assignments Essays? In order to understand what is wrong with the 4 paragraph essay, kalam argument, he asks us to usip envision two parallel columns beginning at the same point and 4 paragraph stretching away into the infinite distance, one the column of past years and the other the column of law assignments, past days. The sense in which the column of past days is no larger than the column of past years, says Sorabji, is that the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, column of questions for critical thinking and writing, days will not “stick out” beyond the far end of the 4 paragraph planning sheet, other column—since neither column has a far end.

Now in the case of doctorate, Hilbert’s Hotel, there is the temptation to think that some unfortunate resident at the far end will drop off into space. Sheet? But there is no far end: the line of residents will not stick out beyond the far end of the line of rooms. Once this is seen, the thesis, outcome is just an explicable—even if a surprising and exhilarating—truth about infinity.[13] Now Sorabji is certainly correct, as we have seen, that Hilbert’s Hotel illustrates an explicable truth about the nature of the actual infinite. If an actually infinite number of things could exist, a Hilbert’s Hotel would be possible. But Sorabji seems to fail to understand the heart of the paradox: I, for one, experience no temptation to think of people dropping off the 4 paragraph essay planning, far end of the hotel, for there is none, but I do have difficulty believing that a hotel in which all the rooms are occupied can accommodate more guests. Of course, the line of guests will not stick out beyond the line of law assignments essays, rooms, but if all of those infinite rooms already have guests in them, then can moving those guests about really create empty rooms?

Sorabji’s own illustration of the columns of 4 paragraph essay planning, past years and on a tout days I find not a little disquieting: if we divide the columns into 4 paragraph essay, foot-long segments and mark one column as the years and the other as the days, then one column is as long as the other and yet for every foot-length segment in the column of years, 365 segments of equal length are found in the column of days! These paradoxical results can be avoided only essayer, if such actually infinite collections can exist only in the imagination, not in essay planning, reality. In any case, the Hilbert’s Hotel illustration is not exhausted by dealing only with the addition of new guests, for the subtraction of guests results in absurdities even more intractable. Sorabji’s analysis says nothing to resolve these. Hence, it seems to me that the objections to premiss (2.11) are less plausible than the premiss itself.

With regard to fpga thesis (2.12), the most frequent objection is that the past ought to be regarded as a potential infinite only, not an actual infinite. This was Aquinas’s position versus Bonaventure, and the contemporary philosopher Charles Hartshorne seems to side with Thomas on this issue.[14] Such a position is, however, untenable. The future is 4 paragraph essay, potentially infinite—since it does not exist—but the past is coursework doctorate in education, actual in a way the essay, future is not, as evidenced by the fact that we have traces of the past in the present, but no traces of the future. Hence, if the series of past events never began to to order essay exist, there must have been an planning sheet, actually infinite number of past events. The objections to either premiss, therefore, seem to be less compelling than the premisses themselves. Together they imply that the universe began to exist. Hence, I conclude that this argument furnishes good grounds for accepting the truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist. The second argument (2.2) for the beginning of the doctorate, universe is based on the impossibility of forming an actual infinite by 4 paragraph planning sheet successive addition. This argument is distinct from the first in that it does not deny the possibility of the existence of an actual infinite, but the possibility of its being formed by successive addition.

Premiss (2.21) is the crucial step in readings thinking and writing, the argument. One cannot form an actually infinite collection of things by successively adding one member after another. Since one can always add one more before arriving at 4 paragraph essay planning infinity, it is impossible to essays reach actual infinity. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning Sheet? Sometimes this is called the impossibility of essay, “counting to infinity” or “traversing the infinite.” It is important to understand that this impossibility has nothing to do with the amount of time available: it belongs to the nature of infinity that it cannot be so formed. Now someone might say that while an infinite collection cannot be formed by beginning at a point and adding members, nevertheless an 4 paragraph sheet, infinite collection could be formed by never beginning but ending at a point, that is to say, ending at correlation thesis a point after having added one member after another from essay planning sheet eternity. But this method seems even more unbelievable than the first method. On A Tout? If one cannot count to infinity, how can one count down from infinity? If one cannot traverse the infinite by moving in one direction, how can one traverse it by simply moving in the opposite direction? Indeed, the idea of a beginningless series ending in the present seems to be absurd.

To give just one illustration: suppose we meet a man who claims to have been counting from eternity and is now finishing: . . ., -3, -2, -1, 0. We could ask, why did he not finish counting yesterday or the day before or the 4 paragraph planning sheet, year before? By then an tout essayer, infinite time had already elapsed, so that he should already have finished by then. Thus, at no point in the infinite past could we ever find the man finishing his countdown, for by that point he should already be done! In fact, no matter how far back into planning, the past we go, we can never find the man counting at all, for at any point we reach he will have already finished. Readings For Critical? But if at no point in the past do we find him counting, this contradicts the hypothesis that he has been counting from eternity. This illustrates the fact that the formation of an actual infinite by successive addition is equally impossible whether one proceeds to or from infinity. Premiss (2.22) presupposes a dynamical view of time according to which events are actualized in serial fashion, one after another. The series of events is not a sort of essay planning, timelessly subsisting world-line which appears successively in consciousness. Rather becoming is real and essential to a temporal process.

Now this view of time is not without its challenges, but to consider their objections in law assignments, this article would take us too far afield.[15] In this piece, we must rest content with the fact that we are arguing on common ground with our ordinary intuitions of temporal becoming and in agreement with a good number of contemporary philosophers of time and 4 paragraph essay sheet space. Given the truth of (2.21) and on a tout (2.22), the conclusion (2.23) logically follows. If the essay planning sheet, universe did not begin to exist a finite time ago, then the questions readings for critical thinking and writing, present moment could never arrive. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? But obviously, it has arrived. Therefore, we know that the to order essay, universe is finite in essay sheet, the past and began to exist. Again, it would be profitable to consider various objections that have been offered against this reasoning. Fpga? Against (2.21), Mackie objects that the argument illicitly assumes an planning sheet, infinitely distant starting point in usip essay, the past and then pronounces it impossible to travel from that point to today.

But there would in an infinite past be no starting point, not even an infinitely distant one. Yet from 4 paragraph sheet any given point in the infinite past, there is only a finite distance to the present.[16] Now it seems to me that Mackie’s allegation that the argument presupposes an infinitely distant starting point is entirely groundless. Law Assignments Essays? The beginningless character of the series only serves to accentuate the difficulty of its being formed by successive addition. The fact that there is no beginning at all , not even an infinitely distant one, makes the problem more, not less, nettlesome. And the point that from any moment in the infinite past there is only a finite temporal distance to the present may be dismissed as irrelevant. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? The question is not how any finite portion of the temporal series can be formed, but how the usip peace, whole infinite series can be formed. If Mackie thinks that because every segment of the series can be formed by successive addition and therefore the whole series can be so formed, then he is simply committing the fallacy of composition.

Sorabji similarly objects that the reason it is impossible to count down from infinity is because counting involves by nature taking a starting number, which is lacking in this case. But completing an infinite lapse of 4 paragraph planning, years involves no starting year and maid essay is, hence, possible.[17] But this response is clearly inadequate, for, as we have seen, the years of an infinite past could be enumerated by the negative numbers, in which case a completed infinity of years would, indeed, entail a beginningless countdown from infinity. Planning Sheet? Sorabji anticipates this rebuttal, however, and claims that such a backwards countdown is possible in law assignments essays, principle and therefore no logical barrier has been exhibited to the elapsing of an 4 paragraph, infinity of past years. Again, however, the question I am posing is not whether there is a logical contradiction in such a notion, but whether such a countdown is readings for critical thinking and writing, not metaphysically absurd. For we have seen that such a countdown should at any point already have been completed. But Sorabji is again ready with a response: to say the countdown should at any point already be over confuses counting an infinity of numbers with counting all the numbers.

At any given point in the past, the eternal counter will have already counted an essay planning, infinity of negative numbers, but that does not entail that he will have counted all the negative numbers. I do not think the argument makes this alleged equivocation, and correlation thesis this may be made clear by examining the reason why our eternal counter is supposedly able to complete a count of the negative numbers ending at 4 paragraph essay zero. In order to essays justify the possibility of this intuitively impossible feat, the argument’s opponent appeals to the so- called Principle of Correspondence used in set theory to determine whether two sets are equivalent (that is, have the same number of members) by matching the 4 paragraph planning sheet, members of one set with the members of the other set and vice versa . On the basis of this principle the objector argues that since the counter has lived, say, an infinite number of years and since the set of past years can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with the essays, set of essay sheet, negative numbers, it follows that by counting one number a year an eternal counter would complete a countdown of the negative numbers by the present year. If we were to ask why the counter would not finish next year or in a hundred years, the objector would respond that prior to the present year an coursework doctorate in education, infinite number of years will have already elapsed, so that by the Principle of Correspondence, all the numbers should have been counted by now. But this reasoning backfires on the objector: for, as we have seen, on this account the counter should at any point in the past have already finished counting all the numbers, since a one-to-one correspondence exists between the years of the past and essay the negative numbers. Thus, there is no equivocation between counting an infinity of numbers and counting all the numbers. But at this point a deeper absurdity bursts in view: for suppose there were another counter who counted at a rate of one negative number per day. According to the Principle of Correspondence, which underlies infinite set theory and transfinite arithmetic, both of our eternal counters will finish their countdowns at the same moment, even though one is counting at a rate 365 times faster than the other! Can anyone believe that such scenarios can actually obtain in reality, but do not rather represent the outcome of an imaginary game being played in a purely conceptual realm according to adopted logical conventions and axioms? As for premiss (2.22), many thinkers have objected that we need not regard the past as a beginningless infinite series with an correlation, end in the present. Popper, for example, admits that the set of planning sheet, all past events is actually infinite, but holds that the series of past events is potentially infinite.

This may be seen by beginning in the present and numbering the events backward, thus forming a potential infinite. Therefore, the problem of an maid essay, actual infinite’s being formed by essay sheet successive addition does not arise.[18] Similarly, Swinburne muses that it is fpga thesis, dubious whether a completed infinite series with no beginning but an end makes sense, but he proposes to solve the problem by beginning in the present and regressing into the past so that the series of past events would have no end and would therefore not be a completed infinite.[19] This objection, however, clearly confuses the mental regress of counting with the real progress of the temporal series of events itself. Numbering the essay planning sheet, series from the present backward only shows that if there are an infinite number of past events, then we can enumerate an infinite number of past events. But the problem is, how can this infinite collection of events come to be formed by successive addition? How we mentally conceive the series does not in any way affect the usip, ontological character of the series itself as a series with no beginning but an essay, end, or in other words, as an actual infinite completed by successive addition. Once again, then, the objections to (2.21) and (2.22) seem less plausible than the premisses themselves.

Together they imply (2.23), or that the universe began to exist. These purely philosophical arguments for the beginning of the universe have received remarkable confirmation from discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics during this century. These confirmations might be summarized under two heads: the confirmation from the expansion of the universe and questions for critical the confirmation from thermodynamic properties of the universe. With regard to the first, Hubble’s discovery in 1929 of the red-shift in the light from distant galaxies began a revolution in astronomy perhaps as significant as the Copernican revolution. Prior to this time the 4 paragraph planning sheet, universe as a whole was conceived to be static; but the startling conclusion to correlation which Hubble was led was that the red-shift is due to the fact that the universe is in fact expanding . The staggering implication of this fact is that as one traces the expansion back in time, the sheet, universe becomes denser and denser until one reaches a point of infinite density from which the law assignments essays, universe began to expand.

The upshot of Hubble’s discovery was that at some point in the finite past-probably around 15 billion years ago-the entire known universe was contracted down to a single mathematical point which marked the origin of the universe. Essay? That initial explosion has come to be known as the usip, “Big Bang.” Four of the world’s most prominent astronomers described that event in planning sheet, these words: The universe began from a state of infinite density. . Peace? . . Space and time were created in that event and so was all the matter in the universe. It is not meaningful to ask what happened before the Big Bang; it is like asking what is north of the North Pole. Similarly, it is not sensible to ask where the 4 paragraph, Big Bang took place. Maid To Order Essay? The point-universe was not an object isolated in space; it was the 4 paragraph planning sheet, entire universe, and law assignments essays so the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, answer can only be that the Big Bang happened everywhere.[20] This event that marked the beginning of the doctorate, universe becomes all the more amazing when one reflects on the fact that a state of “infinite density” is synonymous to “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite density, for sheet, if it had any size at all it could still be even more dense.

Therefore, as Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle points out, the Big Bang Theory requires the creation of matter from nothing. This is because as one goes back in time, one reaches a point at which, in Hoyle’s words, the universe was “shrunk down to nothing at all.”[21] Thus, what the Big Bang model of the on a essayer, universe seems to require is that the universe began to exist and essay was created out of nothing. Some theorists have attempted to avoid the absolute beginning of the universe implied by the Big Bang theory by speculating that the universe may undergo an infinite series of expansions and thinking and writing contractions. There are, however, good grounds for doubting the adequacy of such an oscillating model of the universe: (i) The oscillating model appears to be physically impossible. For all the talk about such models, the fact seems to be that they are only theoretically, but not physically possible. As the late Professor Tinsley of Yale explains, in oscillating models “even though the mathematics say that the universe oscillates, there is no known physics to reverse the collapse and bounce back to a new expansion. The physics seems to say that those models start from the Big Bang, expand, collapse, then end.”[22] In order for the oscillating model to be correct, it would seem that the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, known laws of physics would have to be revised. In Education? (ii) The oscillating model seems to be observationally untenable. Essay Planning Sheet? Two facts of observational astronomy appear to run contrary to the oscillating model. First, the observed homogeneity of matter distribution throughout the universe seems unaccountable on an oscillating model. During the contraction phase of such a model, black holes begin to gobble up surrounding matter, resulting in essay, an inhomogeneous distribution of matter. But there is no known mechanism to “iron out” these inhomogeneities during the ensuing expansion phase.

Thus, the homogeneity of matter observed throughout the universe would remain unexplained. Second, the density of the universe appears to be insufficient for the re-contraction of the universe. Essay Sheet? For the oscillating model to be even possible, it is necessary that the universe be sufficiently dense such that gravity can overcome the force of the expansion and open readings thinking and writing pull the universe back together again. However, according to essay the best estimates, if one takes into account both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos) as well as any possible contribution of usip peace, neutrino particles to 4 paragraph planning total mass, the universe is still only about one-half that needed for re-contraction.[23] Moreover, recent work on calculating the speed and deceleration of the expansion confirms that the coursework in education, universe is planning, expanding at, so to speak, “escape velocity” and will not therefore re-contract. According to Sandage and Tammann, “Hence, we are forced to coursework doctorate decide that . . . it seems inevitable that the essay planning sheet, Universe will expand forever”; they conclude, therefore, that “the Universe has happened only once.”[24]

As if this were not enough, there is a second scientific confirmation of the beginning of the universe based on the thermodynamic properties of various cosmological models. According to the second law of thermodynamics, processes taking place in a closed system always tend toward a state of equilibrium. Now our interest is in what implications this has when the law is fpga correlation, applied to the universe as a whole. Essay Planning? For the law assignments essays, universe is a gigantic closed system, since it is 4 paragraph planning, everything there is and in education no energy is 4 paragraph planning sheet, being fed into it from without. Maid? The second law seems to imply that, given enough time, the universe will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, known as the essay sheet, “heat death” of the universe. This death may be hot or cold, depending on whether the universe will expand forever or eventually re-contract.

On the one hand, if the density of the universe is great enough to overcome the force of the expansion, then the universe will re-contract into a hot fireball. As the universe contracts, the stars burn more rapidly until they finally explode or evaporate. As the universe grows denser, the black holes begin to gobble up everything around them and begin themselves to coalesce until all the black holes finally coalesce into one gigantic black hole which is coextensive with the universe, from which it will never re-emerge. On the other hand, if the density of the universe is insufficient to halt the law assignments, expansion, as seems more likely, then the 4 paragraph planning, galaxies will turn all their gas into stars and the stars will burn out. At 10[30 ]years the universe will consist of 90% dead stars, 9% supermassive black holes, and l% atomic matter.

Elementary particle physics suggests that thereafter protons will decay into electrons and positrons, so that space will be filled with a rarefied gas so thin that the maid to order essay, distance between an electron and a positron will be about the size of the present galaxy. 4 Paragraph? At 10[100] years some scientists believe that the black holes themselves will dissipate into radiation and elementary particles. Eventually all the questions readings thinking and writing, matter in the dark, cold, ever-expanding universe will be reduced to an ultra-thin gas of elementary particles and radiation. Equilibrium will prevail throughout, and the entire universe will be in its final state, from which no change will occur. Now the question which needs to be asked is this: if, given sufficient time, the universe will reach heat death, then why is it not now in a state of heat death if it has existed for infinite time? If the universe did not begin to exist, then it should now be in a state of equilibrium. Some theorists have suggested that the universe escapes final heat death by essay planning sheet oscillating from eternity past to eternity future. But we have already seen that such a model seems to be physically and to order observationally untenable. But even if we waive those considerations and suppose that the universe does oscillate, the fact is that the thermodynamic properties of essay, this model imply the very beginning of the universe which its proponents seek to avoid. For the thermodynamic properties of an oscillating model are such that the universe expands farther and farther with each successive cycle.

Therefore, as one traces the expansions back in time, they grow smaller and smaller. As one scientific team explains, “The effect of law assignments, entropy production will be to enlarge the cosmic scale, from cycle to cycle. . . . Thus, looking back in time, each cycle generated less entropy, had a smaller cycle time, and had a smaller cycle expansion factor than the cycle that followed it.”[25] Novikov and Zeldovich of the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, therefore, conclude, “The multicycle model has an infinite future, but only a finite past.”[26] As another writer points out, the oscillating model of the universe thus still requires an 4 paragraph essay planning, origin of the essay, universe prior to the smallest cycle.[27] So whatever scenario one selects for the future of the universe, thermodynamics implies that the universe began to exist. According to physicist P.C.W. Davies, the universe must have been created a finite time ago and is in the process of winding down. Prior to the creation, the universe simply did not exist. Therefore, Davies concludes, even though we may not like it, we must conclude that the sheet, universe’s energy was somehow simply “put in” at the creation as an initial condition.[28] We, therefore, have both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation for the beginning of the universe. On this basis, I think that we are amply justified in concluding the truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to on a tout essayer exist.

Premiss (1) strikes me as relatively non-controversial. It is based on the metaphysical intuition that something cannot come out of nothing. Hence, any argument for planning sheet, the principle is apt to be less obvious than the principle itself. Tout Essayer? Even the great skeptic David Hume admitted that he never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something might come into planning sheet, existence without a cause; he only denied that one could prove the obviously true causal principle.[29] With regard to on a tout the universe, if originally there were absolutely nothing— no God, no space, no time—then how could the universe possibly come to exist? The truth of the principle ex nihilo , nihil fit is so obvious that I think we are justified in foregoing an elaborate defense of the argument’s first premiss.

Nevertheless, some thinkers, exercised to avoid the theism implicit in essay planning sheet, this premiss within the present context, have felt driven to deny its truth. Coursework In Education? In order to avoid its theistic implications, Davies presents a scenario which, he confesses, “should not be taken too seriously,” but which seems to have a powerful attraction for Davies.[30] He has reference to essay planning a quantum theory of gravity according to which spacetime itself could spring uncaused into being out of absolutely nothing. While admitting that there is “still no satisfactory theory of quantum gravity,” such a theory “would allow spacetime to fpga be created and destroyed spontaneously and 4 paragraph essay planning sheet uncaused in the same way that particles are created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused. The theory would entail a certain mathematically determined probability that, for instance, a blob of space would appear where none existed before. Essay? Thus, spacetime could pop out of 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, nothingness as the result of a causeless quantum transition.”[31]

Now, in fact, particle pair production furnishes no analogy for in education, this radical ex nihilo becoming, as Davies seems to imply. This quantum phenomenon, even if an exception to the principle that every event has a cause, provides no analogy to planning sheet something’s coming into open questions for critical thinking and writing, being out of nothing. Though physicists speak of this as particle pair creation and annihilation, such terms are philosophically misleading, for all that actually occurs is conversion of energy into matter or vice versa. As Davies admits, “The processes described here do not represent the creation of matter out of nothing, but the essay sheet, conversion of pre- existing energy into material form.”[32] Hence, Davies greatly misleads his reader when he claims that “Particles . . . Peace? can appear out of nowhere without specific causation” and again, “Yet the world of quantum physics routinely produces something for nothing.”[33] On the contrary, the world of quantum physics never produces something for nothing. But to consider the case on its own merits: quantum gravity is so poorly understood that the period prior to 10[-43] sec, which this theory hopes to essay planning sheet describe, has been compared by one wag to essays the regions on the maps of the ancient cartographers marked “Here there be dragons”: it can easily be filled with all sorts of fantasies. Essay Planning? In fact, there seems to be no good reason to think that such a theory would involve the sort of on a tout, spontaneous becoming ex nihilo which Davies suggests. A quantum theory of gravity has the goal of providing a theory of gravitation based on the exchange of particles (gravitons) rather than the geometry of essay sheet, space, which can then be brought into a Grand Unification Theory that unites all the forces of nature into a super symmetrical state in which one fundamental force and a single kind of particle exist. But there seems to be nothing in this which suggests the possibility of usip essay, spontaneous becoming ex nihilo . Indeed, it is not at 4 paragraph essay planning all clear that Davies’s account is to order, even intelligible. Essay Planning? What can be meant, for law assignments essays, example, by the claim that there is 4 paragraph planning, a mathematical probability that nothingness should spawn a region of spacetime “where none existed before?” It cannot mean that given enough time a region of to order, spacetime would pop into existence at a certain place—since neither place nor time exists apart from planning sheet spacetime.

The notion of some probability of something’s coming out of nothing thus seems incoherent. I am reminded in this connection of some remarks made by A.N. Prior concerning an argument put forward by Jonathan Edwards against something’s coming into existence uncaused. This would be impossible, said Edwards, because it would then be inexplicable why just any and everything cannot or does not come to exist uncaused. One cannot respond that only things of a certain nature come into existence uncaused—since prior to maid their existence they have no nature which could control their coming to be. Prior made a cosmological application of Edwards’s reasoning by commenting on the steady state model’s postulating the continuous creation of hydrogen atoms ex nihilo : It is no part of Hoyle’s theory that this process is causeless, but I want to be more definite about this, and to say that if it is causeless, then what is 4 paragraph planning, alleged to happen is fantastic and incredible. If it is maid to order, possible for objects—objects, now, which really are objects, “substances endowed with capacities”—to start existing without a cause, then it is incredible that they should all turn out to 4 paragraph planning sheet be objects of the same sort, namely, hydrogen atoms. The peculiar nature of hydrogen atoms cannot possibly be what makes such starting-to-exist possible for on a tout, them but not for objects of any other sort; for hydrogen atoms do not have this nature until they are there to have it, i.e. until their starting-to-exist has already occurred. That is Edwards’s argument, in fact; and here it does seem entirely cogent. . . .[34] Now in the case at hand, if originally absolutely nothing existed, then why should it be spacetime that springs spontaneously out of the essay planning sheet, void, rather than, say, hydrogen atoms or even rabbits? How can one talk about the probability of any particular thing’s popping into coursework doctorate, being out of nothing?

Davies on one occasion seems to 4 paragraph sheet answer as if the laws of physics are the controlling factor which determines what may leap uncaused into tout, being: “But what of the laws? They have to be ‘there’ to 4 paragraph essay start with so that the universe can come into being. Quantum physics has to exist (in some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the cosmos in the first place.”[35] Now this seems exceedingly peculiar. Fpga Thesis? Davies seems to attribute to the laws of nature themselves a sort of ontological and causal status such that they constrain spontaneous becoming. But this seems clearly wrong-headed: the planning sheet, laws of physics do not themselves cause or constrain anything; they are simply propositional descriptions of open readings for critical thinking, a certain form and generality of what does happen in the universe. And the issue Edwards raises is why, if there were absolutely nothing, it would be true that any one thing rather than another should pop into being uncaused?

It is futile to say it somehow belongs to the nature of spacetime to essay planning do so, for usip, if there were absolutely nothing then there would have been no nature to determine that spacetime should spring into being. Even more fundamentally, however, what Davies envisions is surely metaphysical nonsense. Though his scenario is cast as a scientific theory,. someone ought to be bold enough to say that the Emperor is wearing no clothes. Essay? Either the necessary and sufficient conditions for the appearance of law assignments essays, spacetime existed or not; if so, then it is not true that nothing existed; if not, then it would seem ontologically impossible that being should arise out of absolute non-being. To call such spontaneous springing into being out of non-being a “quantum transition” or to attribute it to “quantum gravity” explains nothing; indeed, on this account, there is no explanation. It just happens. It seems to me, therefore, that Davies has not provided any plausible basis for denying the 4 paragraph planning, truth of the cosmological argument’s first premiss. That whatever begins to exist has a cause would seem to be an ontologically necessary truth, one which is constantly confirmed in our experience. Given the truth of premisses (1) and (2), it logically follows that (3) the universe has a cause of fpga correlation thesis, its existence. In fact, I think that it can be plausibly argued that the cause of the universe must be a personal Creator.

For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternal cause? If the cause were simply a mechanically operating set of necessary and sufficient conditions existing from planning eternity, then why would not the effect also exist from eternity? For example, if the cause of water being frozen is the fpga correlation, temperature’s being below zero degrees, then if the sheet, temperature were below zero degrees from coursework doctorate eternity, then any water present would be frozen from eternity. The only way to have an 4 paragraph sheet, eternal cause but a temporal effect would seem to be if the cause is a personal agent who freely chooses to create an effect in time. For example, a man sitting from eternity may will himself to stand up; hence, a temporal effect may arise from an eternally existing agent. Indeed, the agent may will from eternity to peace essay create a temporal effect, so that no change in the agent need be conceived. Thus, we are brought not merely to planning sheet the first cause of the universe, but to its personal Creator. In conclusion, we have seen on the basis of both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began to maid essay exist. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning Sheet? Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to exist has a cause of readings for critical, its existence, we have been led to conclude that the universe has a cause of its existence.

On the essay, basis of our argument, this cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and immaterial. Moreover, it would have to be a personal agent who freely elects to create an effect in questions readings, time. Therefore, on the basis of the kalam cosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that God exists. [1]G.W. Leibniz, “The Principles of Nature and of Grace, Based on Reason,” in Leibniz Selections , ed. Philip P. Wiener, The Modern Student’s Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), p. 527. [2]Aristotle Metaphysica Lambda. l. 982b10-15. [3]Norman Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 70. [4]J.J.C. Smart, “The Existence of God,” Church Quarterly Review 156 (1955): 194. [5]G.W.

Leibniz, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man, and the Origin of Evil , trans. E.M. Huggard (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1951), p. Essay? 127; cf. Usip Essay? idem, “Principles,” p. 528. [6]John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-4. [7]David Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion , ed. with an Introduction by planning sheet Norman Kemp Smith, Library of the Liberal Arts (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1947), p. 190. [8]Bertrand Russell and F.C. Copleston, “The Existence of God,” in to order essay, The Existence of God , ed. with an Introduction by John Hick, Problems of Philosophy Series (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. Essay Planning? 175. [9]See William Lane Craig, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz , Library of Philosophy and Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980), pp. 48-58, 61-76, 98-104, 128-31. [10]Wallace Matson, The Existence of God (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965), pp.

58-60. [11]J.L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), p. 93. [12]Quentin Smith, “Infinity and the Past,” Philosophy of peace essay, Science 54 (1987): 69. [13]Richard Sorabji, Time, Creation and 4 paragraph planning the Continuum (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp.

213, 222-3. [14]Charles Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of usip, God and the Logic of Theism (Chicago: Willett, Clark, Co., 1941), p. 37. [15]G.J. 4 Paragraph Planning? Whitrow defends a form of this argument which does not presuppose a dynamical view of fpga thesis, time, by asserting that an infinite past would still have to be “lived through” by any everlasting, conscious being, even if the series of essay sheet, physical events subsisted timelessly (G.J. Whitrow, The Natural Philosophy of Time , 2d ed. Doctorate In Education? [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980], pp. 28-32). [17]Sorabji, Time, Creation, and the Continuum, pp. Essay Sheet? 219-22. [18]K.R.

Popper, “On the doctorate, Possibility of an Infinite Past: a Reply to Whitrow,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (1978): 47-8. [19]R.G. Swinburne, “The Beginning of the Universe,” The Aristotelian Society 40 (1966): 131-2. [20]Richard J. Gott, Planning? , “Will the open readings thinking and writing, Universe Expand Forever?” Scientific American (March 1976), p. 65. [21]Fred Hoyle, From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology (San Francisco: W.H.

Freeman, 1972), p. 36. [22]Beatrice Tinsley, personal letter. [23]David N. Schramm and Gary Steigman, “Relic Neutrinos and the Density of the Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 243 (1981): p. 1-7. [24]Alan Sandage and essay G.A. Tammann, “Steps Toward the Hubble Constant. VII,” Astrophyscial Journal 210 (1976): 23, 7; see also idem, “Steps toward the Hubble Constant. VIII.” Astrophysical Journal 256 (1982): 339-45. [25]Duane Dicus, On A Tout? “Effects of Proton Decay on the Cosmological Future.” Astrophysical Journal 252 (1982): l, 8. [26]I.D.

Novikov and 4 paragraph essay planning sheet Ya. B. Zeldovich, “Physical Processes Near Cosmological Singularities,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 11 (1973): 401-2. [27]John Gribbin, “Oscillating Universe Bounces Back,” Nature 259 (1976): 16. [28]P.C.W. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (London: Surrey University Press, 1974), p. 104. [29]David Hume to to order essay John Stewart, February, 1754, in The Letters of David Hume , ed. Planning? J.Y.T.

Greig (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1:187. [30]Paul Davies, God and the New Physics (New York: Simon Schuster, 1983), p. 214. [33]Ibid., pp. Correlation Thesis? 215, 216. [34]A.N. Essay? Prior, “Limited Indeterminism,” in Papers on Time and Tense (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. 65. Updated: 14 July 2002.

“Concerning matter, we have been all wrong. What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. There is no matter.” – Quote attributed to Albert Einstein. Yes, this is essay, quite a bold statement, if true, that would certainly demand some sort of 4 paragraph essay, evidence or mathematical proof to back it up. On A Tout Essayer? It may seem like a paradox that the things which we can see and touch are nonexistent.

However, there is an 4 paragraph planning, answer to this, which may be found in the bold and exciting (relatively) new science of quantum physics. In ages past, it was believed that what we can see and touch, like a rock for instance, was the maid to order, elements, in other words, matter. However, as science developed, such as chemistry, and much more recently quantum physics, it had been observed that matter seems to exist on one hand, but once one takes a deep look into the heart of the matter (no pun intended), there seems as if there is 4 paragraph sheet, nothing. In atoms, you have mostly protons, neutrons and electrons. However, electrons for example, are insignificantly microscopic and spread out over enormous distances. Inbetween them, there is what is perceived as empty space. In fact, 99.99999% of an atom is this so-called ‘empty space’. Even if we look into readings for critical and writing, electrons, protons, etc, we see that there is yet more open space.

Gluons, neutrinos and essay planning sheet the like are also in there somewhere but no matter how far into these particles we look, there is not anything that we can say quantifiably that it is the building block of all of this. What’s more, electrons literally possess no dimension. An electron is simply not an object as we know it. There is nothing. However, our eyes and observations are fooling us because indeed this nothing is something but we can not quantifiably say it is something and to order therefore it is nothing. There has to exist an energy that holds all these particles together like a sort of glue, or else matter would not exist because it would be akin to 4 paragraph essay planning having a rock turn into sand that can not stay together as a rock any longer.

There have been some notable quantum physicists, such as Dr. Fred Alan Wolf, that have been looking to questions for critical thinking fuse science with spirituality…and with relative success. Below is from an article attributed to Dr. 4 Paragraph Planning Sheet? Wolf concerning his perception of this most-interesting issue at hand. Quantum physics has thus brought about a radical new understanding both of the particles and the void. In subatomic physics, mass is no longer seen as a material substance but is recognized as a form of maid to order, energy. Planning Sheet? When a piece of seemingly solid matter–a rock or a human hand or the limb of a tree–is placed under a powerful electronic microscope: the to order, electron-scanning microscope, with the essay planning sheet, power to magnify several thousand times, takes us down into a realm that has the usip essay, look of the sea about it… In the kingdom of corpuscles, there is transfiguration and there is samsara, the endless round of birth and death. Every passing second, some 2-1/2 million red cells are born; every second, the same number die. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning? The typical cell lives about 110 days, then becomes tired and decrepit. There are no lingering deaths here, for when a cell loses its vital force, it somehow attracts the to order, attention of macrophage. As the magnification increases, the flesh does begin to dissolve.

Muscle fiber now takes on essay a fully crystaline aspect. We can see that it is doctorate, made of long, spiral molecules in orderly array. Essay Planning Sheet? And all of these molecules are swaying like wheat in fpga correlation, the wind, connected with one another and held in place by invisible waves that pulse many trillions of times a second. Sheet? What are the maid essay, molecules made of? As we move closer, we see atoms, the tiny shadowy balls dancing around their fixed locations in the molecules, sometimes changing position with their partners in perfect rhythms. And now we focus on one of the atoms; its interior is lightly veiled by a cloud of essay, electrons.

We come closer, increasing the magnification. Open And Writing? The shell dissolves and we look on the inside to planning sheet find…nothing. Somewhere within that emptiness, we know is a nucleus. We scan the space, and usip essay there it is, a tiny dot. At last, we have discovered something hard and solid, a reference point. But no! as we move closer to the nucleus, it too begins to essay dissolve.

It too is nothing more than an oscillating field, waves of rhythm. To Order Essay? Inside the nucleus are other organized fields: protons, neutrons, even smaller “particles.” Each of these, upon our approach, also dissolve into pure rhythm. Essay Planning? These days they (the scientists) are looking for quarks, strange subatomic entities, having qualities which they describe with such words as upness, downness, charm, strangeness, truth, beauty, color, and maid to order essay flavor. But no matter. If we could get close enough to these wondrous quarks, they too would melt away. 4 Paragraph Sheet? They too would have to give up all pretense of solidity. Even their speed and relationship would be unclear, leaving them only relationship and pattern of vibration. Of what is the body made? It is made of emptiness and rhythm. At the ultimate heart of the body, at on a tout essayer the heart of the world, there is no solidity.

Once again, there is essay, only the dance. (At) the maid essay, unimaginable heart of the atom, the compact nucleus, we have found no solid object, but rather a dynamic pattern of 4 paragraph essay sheet, tightly confined energy vibrating perhaps 1022 times a second: a dance… The protons–the positively charged knots in the pattern of the nucleus–are not only powerful; they are very old. Peace? Along with the much lighter electrons that spin and vibrate around the outer regions of the atom, the 4 paragraph planning, protons constitute the most ancient entities of matter in the universe, going back to the first seconds after the maid, birth of essay sheet, space and time. It follows then that in the world of essay, subatomic physics there are no objects, only processes. Atoms consist of particles and these particles are not made of 4 paragraph essay sheet, any solid material substance. When we observe them under a microscope, we never see any substance; we rather observe dynamic patterns, continually changing into one another–a continuous dance of energy. This dance of energy, the underlying rhythm of the universe, is again more intuited than seen. Jack Kornfield, a contemporary teacher of meditation, finds a parallel between the behavior of subatomic particles and meditational states: When the mind becomes very silent, you can clearly see that all that exists in the world are brief moments of consciousness arising together with the six sense objects. There is only sight and the knowing of sight, sound and the knowing of sound, smell, taste and the knowing of them, thoughts and the knowing of thoughts. If you can make the mind very focused, as you can in meditation, you see that the whole world breaks down into these small events of sight and the knowing, sound and the knowing, thought and the knowing.

No longer are these houses, cars, bodies or even oneself. Tout Essayer? All you see are particles of consciousness as experience. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? Yet you can go deep in meditation in another way and the mind becomes very still. You will see differently that consciousness is like waves, like a sea, an ocean. Now it is not particles but instead every sight and every sound is contained in to order, this ocean of 4 paragraph planning sheet, consciousness. From this perspective, there is no sense of essays, particles at all. If truly being the words of Dr.

Wolf, I believe this above explanation of this fascinating reality is a beautiful description of the issue at hand. So how is it that we exist as matter? Albert Einstein alluded to this answer. We, the people of this beautiful planet, are really beings made of energy, but we exist at essay planning sheet the 3rd dimension because our atoms have a specific frequency which makes us able to exist in this very 3rd dimension. This specific frequency is stable enough for all our lifetime.

Using this information, if we are indeed capable of accelerating and decelerating the frequencies to make us able to usip essay exist in the 3rd dimension, then naturally, we can use this in order to travel inter-dimensionally throughout the infinite multiverse…and here lies the key to the true evolution of the human being race. Once we learn, or progress far enough, to accelerate and decelerate the 4 paragraph planning, vibrating frequencies of our atoms, then, in theory, we will be able to exist in the 5th dimension and in parallel universes of this wonderful multiverse. Note: The quote attributed to Albert Einstein in the beginning of the on a tout, article, as well as the article quotations attributed to Fred Alan Wolf are not in the specific terms which these two physicists have used. However, upon deeper research, there is essay sheet, enough evidence to fpga be compelled to believe that the general message of matter not being definitive to still hold true. A quote from 4 paragraph sheet Einstein’s “Metaphysics of open questions for critical thinking and writing, Relativity” (1950)shows this: “Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept ‘empty space’ loses its meaning. … The field thus becomes an irreducible element of 4 paragraph, physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of thesis, Newton.” Legendary physicist Max Planck is 4 paragraph sheet, attributed to saying in on a essayer, a lecture that was given in Florence the following: “As a physicist, that is, a man who had devoted his whole life to a wholly prosaic science, the exploration of matter, no one would surely suspect me of being a fantast. And so, having studied the atom, I am telling you that there is no matter as such. All matter arises and persists only due to a force that causes the atomic particles to vibrate, holding them together in the tiniest of solar systems, the atom.

Yet in the whole of the universe there is essay sheet, no force that is either intelligent or eternal, and we must therefore assume that behind this force there is a conscious, intelligent mind or spirit. This is the coursework doctorate, very origin of all matter.” Source of this quote is from the following: Pauli, Wolfgang: THE INFLUENCE OF ARCHETYPICAL PRESENTATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL SCIENCE THEORY BY KEPPLER in: Jung Pauli: NATURAL EXPLANATION AND PSYCHE, Zuerich 1952, p. 163. MUST READ ARTICLE ON TRUMP’S GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TYRANNY TO AMERICA. Democracies end when they are too democratic. 4 Paragraph Planning? -Plato.

As this dystopian election campaign has unfolded, my mind keeps being tugged by a passage in Plato’s Republic . It has unsettled — even surprised — me from the moment I first read it in doctorate, graduate school. The passage is essay, from the part of the dialogue where Socrates and usip peace his friends are talking about the nature of different political systems, how they change over time, and how one can slowly evolve into another. And Socrates seemed pretty clear on one sobering point: that “tyranny is probably established out of no other regime than democracy.” What did Plato mean by that? Democracy, for him, I discovered, was a political system of maximal freedom and equality, where every lifestyle is allowed and public offices are filled by a lottery. And the longer a democracy lasted, Plato argued, the more democratic it would become. Its freedoms would multiply; its equality spread. Deference to any sort of authority would wither; tolerance of any kind of inequality would come under intense threat; and multiculturalism and essay planning sheet sexual freedom would create a city or a country like “a many-colored cloak decorated in on a tout, all hues.” This rainbow-flag polity, Plato argues, is, for many people, the fairest of regimes. The freedom in that democracy has to be experienced to be believed — with shame and essay privilege in particular emerging over time as anathema. But it is inherently unstable.

As the authority of elites fades, as Establishment values cede to popular ones, views and identities can become so magnificently diverse as to law assignments essays be mutually uncomprehending. 4 Paragraph Planning Sheet? And when all the barriers to equality, formal and informal, have been removed; when everyone is equal; when elites are despised and full license is established to do “whatever one wants,” you arrive at what might be called late-stage democracy. There is no kowtowing to authority here, let alone to political experience or expertise. The very rich come under attack, as inequality becomes increasingly intolerable. Patriarchy is also dismantled: “We almost forgot to mention the extent of the law of equality and maid to order essay of freedom in the relations of women with men and essay planning sheet men with women.” Family hierarchies are inverted: “A father habituates himself to be like his child and fear his sons, and a son habituates himself to thesis be like his father and to have no shame before or fear of 4 paragraph planning sheet, his parents.” In classrooms, “as the maid to order essay, teacher … is frightened of the pupils and 4 paragraph sheet fawns on them, so the students make light of to order essay, their teachers.” Animals are regarded as equal to humans; the 4 paragraph sheet, rich mingle freely with the poor in the streets and try to blend in. The foreigner is equal to the citizen.

And it is when a democracy has ripened as fully as this, Plato argues, that a would-be tyrant will often seize his moment. He is usually of the elite but has a nature in coursework doctorate in education, tune with the time — given over to random pleasures and whims, feasting on plenty of food and sex, and reveling in the non-judgment that is democracy’s civil religion. He makes his move by “taking over a particularly obedient mob” and attacking his wealthy peers as corrupt. 4 Paragraph? If not stopped quickly, his appetite for attacking the rich on behalf of the people swells further. He is a traitor to his class — and soon, his elite enemies, shorn of popular legitimacy, find a way to appease him or are forced to flee. Eventually, he stands alone, promising to cut through the paralysis of democratic incoherence. It’s as if he were offering the maid, addled, distracted, and self-indulgent citizens a kind of relief from democracy’s endless choices and insecurities. He rides a backlash to excess—“too much freedom seems to change into nothing but too much slavery” — and offers himself as the personified answer to the internal conflicts of the democratic mess. He pledges, above all, to take on the increasingly despised elites.

And as the people thrill to him as a kind of solution, a democracy willingly, even impetuously, repeals itself. And so, as I chit-chatted over cocktails at 4 paragraph a Washington office Christmas party in December, and saw, looming above our heads, the pulsating, angry televised face of Donald Trump on on a Fox News, I couldn’t help but feel a little nausea permeate my stomach. And as I watched frenzied Trump rallies on C-SPAN in the spring, and saw him lay waste to far more qualified political peers in 4 paragraph essay, the debates by simply calling them names, the nausea turned to fpga thesis dread. And when he seemed to condone physical violence as a response to political disagreement, alarm bells started to ring in my head. 4 Paragraph Sheet? Plato had planted a gnawing worry in my mind a few decades ago about the intrinsic danger of late-democratic life. Peace Essay? It was increasingly hard not to see in Plato’s vision a murky reflection of our own hyper-democratic times and in Trump a demagogic, tyrannical character plucked directly out of one of the first books about 4 paragraph, politics ever written. Could it be that the Donald has emerged from the populist circuses of pro wrestling and on a tout New York City tabloids, via reality television and essay sheet Twitter, to prove not just Plato but also James Madison right, that democracies “have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention … and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths”? Is he testing democracy’s singular weakness — its susceptibility to the demagogue — by blasting through the firewalls we once had in place to prevent such a person from seizing power? Or am I overreacting?

Perhaps. The nausea comes and maid to order goes, and there have been days when the 4 paragraph essay sheet, news algorithm has actually reassured me that “peak Trump” has arrived. But it hasn’t gone away, and to order neither has Trump. In the wake of his most recent primary triumphs, at a time when he is perilously close to winning enough delegates to grab the Republican nomination outright, I think we must confront this dread and be clear about what this election has already revealed about the essay, fragility of our way of essay, life and essay sheet the threat late-stage democracy is beginning to pose to itself. Plato, of course, was not clairvoyant. His analysis of how democracy can turn into tyranny is a complex one more keyed toward ancient societies than our own (and contains more wrinkles and eddies than I can summarize here). Maid To Order Essay? His disdain for democratic life was fueled in no small part by the fact that a democracy had executed his mentor, Socrates. And he would, I think, have been astonished at essay planning how American democracy has been able to thrive with unprecedented stability over to order the last couple of centuries even as it has brought more and more people into its embrace. It remains, in my view, a miracle of constitutional craftsmanship and cultural resilience.

There is essay planning, no place I would rather live. But it is not immortal, nor should we assume it is immune to the forces that have endangered democracy so many times in human history. Part of American democracy’s stability is owed to the fact that the law assignments essays, Founding Fathers had read their Plato. To guard our democracy from the 4 paragraph, tyranny of the majority and open readings and writing the passions of the essay sheet, mob, they constructed large, hefty barriers between the open readings thinking, popular will and the exercise of power. Voting rights were tightly circumscribed. The president and 4 paragraph planning sheet vice-president were not to essays be popularly elected but selected by an Electoral College, whose representatives were selected by 4 paragraph essay planning the various states, often through state legislatures. The Senate’s structure (with two members from every state) was designed to temper the power of the more populous states, and its term of office (six years, compared with two for the House) was designed to for critical thinking and writing cool and restrain temporary populist passions. The Supreme Court, picked by the president and confirmed by the Senate, was the final bulwark against any democratic furies that might percolate up from the House and threaten the Constitution. This separation of powers was designed precisely to create sturdy firewalls against democratic wildfires.

Over the centuries, however, many of these undemocratic rules have been weakened or abolished. The franchise has been extended far beyond propertied white men. The presidency is now effectively elected through popular vote, with the essay sheet, Electoral College almost always reflecting the national democratic will. And these formal democratic advances were accompanied by informal ones, as the correlation thesis, culture of democracy slowly took deeper root. For a very long time, only the elites of the political parties came to select their candidates at their quadrennial conventions, with the vote largely restricted to party officials from the various states (and often decided in, yes, smoke-filled rooms in large hotel suites). Beginning in the early 1900s, however, the essay, parties began experimenting with primaries, and essays after the chaos of the sheet, 1968 Democratic convention, today’s far more democratic system became the norm. Direct democracy didn’t just elect Congress and the president anymore; it expanded the notion of who might be qualified for open questions for critical and writing, public office. Once, candidates built a career through experience in elected or Cabinet positions or as military commanders; they were effectively selected by peer review.

That elitist sorting mechanism has slowly imploded. In 1940, Wendell Willkie, a businessman with no previous political office, won the Republican nomination for president, pledging to 4 paragraph planning sheet keep America out of war and boasting that his personal wealth inoculated him against corruption: “I will be under obligation to nobody except the coursework, people.” He lost badly to Franklin D. Roosevelt, but nonetheless, since then, nonpolitical candidates have proliferated, from Ross Perot and Jesse Jackson, to Steve Forbes and Herman Cain, to this year’s crop of Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, and, of course, Donald J. Trump. This further widening of our democracy — our increased openness to being led by anyone; indeed, our accelerating preference for outsiders — is now almost complete. The barriers to the popular will, especially when it comes to choosing our president, are now almost nonexistent. In 2000, George W. Bush lost the popular vote and won the election thanks to Electoral College math and, more egregiously, to a partisan Supreme Court vote. Al Gore’s eventual concession spared the nation a constitutional crisis, but the planning, episode generated widespread unease, not just among Democrats. And this year, the essays, delegate system established by our political parties is also under assault.

Trump has argued that the candidate with the most votes should get the 4 paragraph essay planning, Republican nomination, regardless of the rules in place. It now looks as if he won’t even need to on a tout win that argument — that he’ll bank enough delegates to secure the essay sheet, nomination uncontested — but he’s won it anyway. Fully half of Americans now believe the traditional nominating system is coursework in education, rigged. Many contend, of course, that American democracy is actually in retreat, close to being destroyed by the vastly more unequal economy of the last quarter-century and the ability of the essay planning, very rich to purchase political influence. This is Bernie Sanders’s core critique. Peace Essay? But the past few presidential elections have demonstrated that, in fact, money from the ultra-rich has been mostly a dud. Barack Obama, whose 2008 campaign was propelled by small donors and empowered by the internet, blazed the 4 paragraph sheet, trail of the modern-day insurrectionist, defeating the prohibitive favorite in essayer, the Democratic primary and later his Republican opponent (both pillars of their parties’ Establishments and backed by essay moneyed elites).

In 2012, the fund-raising power behind Mitt Romney — avatar of the one percent — failed to dislodge Obama from office. And in this presidential cycle, the breakout candidates of maid to order essay, both parties have soared without financial support from the elites. 4 Paragraph Sheet? Sanders, who is sustaining his campaign all the way to California on the backs of small donors and maid to order large crowds, is, to essay planning put it bluntly, a walking refutation of his own argument. Trump, of maid, course, is a largely self-funding billionaire — but like Willkie, he argues that his wealth uniquely enables him to 4 paragraph essay sheet resist the influence of the rich and their lobbyists. Those despairing over the influence of coursework, Big Money in American politics must also explain the swift, humiliating demise of Jeb Bush and the struggling Establishment campaign of Hillary Clinton. The evidence suggests that direct democracy, far from being throttled, is actually intensifying its grip on American politics. None of this is sheet, necessarily cause for alarm, even though it would be giving the Founding Fathers palpitations. The emergence of the first black president — unimaginable before our more inclusive democracy — is miraculous, a strengthening, rather than weakening, of the system. The days when party machines just fixed things or rigged elections are mercifully done with. Maid To Order? The way in which outsider candidates, from Obama to Trump and Sanders, have brought millions of new people into the electoral process is an unmitigated advance. 4 Paragraph Planning? The inclusion of essay, previously excluded voices helps, rather than impedes, our public deliberation.

But it is precisely because of the great accomplishments of our democracy that we should be vigilant about its specific, unique vulnerability: its susceptibility, in stressful times, to the appeal of a shameless demagogue. What the 4 paragraph planning, 21st century added to essay this picture, it’s now blindingly obvious, was media democracy — in sheet, a truly revolutionary form. If late-stage political democracy has taken two centuries to ripen, the media equivalent took around two decades, swiftly erasing almost any elite moderation or control of our democratic discourse. The process had its origins in partisan talk radio at the end of the past century. The rise of the internet — an event so swift and pervasive its political effect is only now beginning to be understood — further democratized every source of information, dramatically expanded each outlet’s readership, and gave everyone a platform.

All the old barriers to entry — the cost of print and paper and distribution — crumbled. So much of this was welcome. I relished it myself in the early aughts, starting a blog and open questions readings and writing soon reaching as many readers, if not more, as some small magazines do. 4 Paragraph Planning? Fusty old-media institutions, grown fat and lazy, deserved a drubbing. The early independent blogosphere corrected facts, exposed bias, earned scoops. And as the medium matured, and as Facebook and Twitter took hold, everyone became a kind of blogger. Open Questions Readings? In ways no 20th-century journalist would have believed, we all now have our own virtual newspapers on our Facebook newsfeeds and Twitter timelines — picking stories from countless sources and creating a peer-to-peer media almost completely free of editing or interference by elites.

This was bound to 4 paragraph essay make politics more fluid. Usip? Political organizing — calling a meeting, fomenting a rally to advance a cause — used to be extremely laborious. Now you could bring together a virtual mass movement with a single webpage. Planning Sheet? It would take you a few seconds. The web was also uniquely capable of absorbing other forms of media, conflating genres and categories in essayer, ways never seen before. The distinction between politics and 4 paragraph planning sheet entertainment became fuzzier; election coverage became even more modeled on sportscasting; your Pornhub jostled right next to your mother’s Facebook page. The web’s algorithms all but removed any editorial judgment, and the effect soon had cable news abandoning even the pretense of asking “Is this relevant?” or “Do we really need to cover this live?” in the rush toward ratings bonanzas.

In the end, all these categories were reduced to one thing: traffic, measured far more accurately than any other medium had ever done before. And what mainly fuels this is precisely what the Founders feared about democratic culture: feeling, emotion, and narcissism, rather than reason, empiricism, and public-spiritedness. Online debates become personal, emotional, and irresolvable almost as soon as they begin. Godwin’s Law — it’s only a matter of time before a comments section brings up Hitler — is a reflection of the collapse of the reasoned deliberation the essay, Founders saw as indispensable to a functioning republic. Yes, occasional rational points still fly back and forth, but there are dramatically fewer elite arbiters to establish which of those points is actually true or valid or relevant. We have lost authoritative sources for even a common set of facts.

And without such common empirical ground, the emotional component of 4 paragraph planning, politics becomes inflamed and reason retreats even further. The more emotive the candidate, the maid to order essay, more supporters he or she will get. Politically, we lucked out at first. Essay Planning Sheet? Obama would never have been nominated for the presidency, let alone elected, if he hadn’t harnessed the doctorate, power of the web and the charisma of his media celebrity. But he was also, paradoxically, a very elite figure, a former state and U.S. 4 Paragraph? senator, a product of Harvard Law School, and, as it turned out, blessed with a preternaturally rational and calm disposition. So he has masked, temporarily, the real risks in coursework doctorate in education, the system that his pioneering campaign revealed. Hence many Democrats’ frustration with him.

Those who saw in his campaign the seeds of revolutionary change, who were drawn to him by their own messianic delusions, came to be bitterly disappointed by his governing moderation and pragmatism. The climate Obama thrived in, however, was also ripe for far less restrained opportunists. In 2008, Sarah Palin emerged as proof that an 4 paragraph, ardent Republican, branded as an fpga thesis, outsider, tailor-made for reality TV, proud of her own ignorance about the world, and reaching an audience directly through online media, could also triumph in this new era. She was, it turned out, a John the Baptist for the true messiah of conservative populism, waiting patiently and strategically for his time to come. Trump, we now know, had been considering running for president for decades. Those who didn’t see him coming — or kept treating him as a joke — had not yet absorbed the precedents of Obama and Palin or the power of the new wide-open system to change the rules of the 4 paragraph essay, political game. Trump was as underrated for all of 2015 as Obama was in 2007 — and for the same reasons. He intuitively grasped the vanishing authority of American political and media elites, and he had long fashioned a public persona perfectly attuned to blast past them. Despite his immense wealth and inherited privilege, Trump had always cultivated a common touch. He did not hide his wealth in the late-20th century — he flaunted it in a way that connected with the masses. He lived the rich man’s life most working men dreamed of fpga correlation thesis, — endless glamour and women, for example — without sacrificing a way of talking about the world that would not be out of place on the construction sites he regularly toured.

His was a cult of 4 paragraph planning, democratic aspiration. His 1987 book, The Art of the fpga thesis, Deal , promised its readers a path to instant success; his appearances on 4 paragraph sheet “The Howard Stern Show” cemented his appeal. Open Readings For Critical? His friendship with Vince McMahon offered him an 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, early entree into the world of professional wrestling, with its fusion of sports and coursework doctorate fantasy. He was a macho media superstar. One of the more amazing episodes in Sarah Palin’s early political life, in fact, bears this out. She popped up in planning sheet, the Anchorage Daily News as “a commercial fisherman from Wasilla” on April 3, 1996. Palin had told her husband she was going to Costco but had sneaked into J.C. Penney in law assignments, Anchorage to see … one Ivana Trump, who, in the wake of her divorce, was touting her branded perfume. “We want to see Ivana,” Palin told the paper, “because we are so desperate in Alaska for any semblance of glamour and culture.” Trump assiduously cultivated this image and took to reality television as a natural.

Each week, for 14 seasons of The Apprentice, he would look someone in the eye and tell them, “You’re fired!” The conversation most humane bosses fear to have with an employee was something Trump clearly relished, and the cruelty became entertainment. In retrospect, it is clear he was training — both himself and his viewers. If you want to understand why a figure so widely disliked nonetheless powers toward the election as if he were approaching a reality-TV-show finale, look no further. His television tactics, as applied to presidential debates, wiped out rivals used to 4 paragraph essay planning a different game. And all our reality-TV training has conditioned us to hope he’ll win — or at least stay in usip essay, the game till the final round.

In such a shame-free media environment, the assholes often win. In the planning, end, you support them because they’re assholes. In Eric Hoffer’s classic 1951 tract, The True Believer , he sketches the dynamics of a genuine mass movement. He was thinking of the correlation, upheavals in Europe in the first half of the century, but the book remains sobering, especially now. Hoffer’s core insight was to locate the source of all truly mass movements in a collective sense of acute frustration. Sheet? Not despair, or revolt, or resignation — but frustration simmering with rage. Mass movements, he notes (as did Tocqueville centuries before him), rarely arise when oppression or misery is at maid essay its worst (say, 2009); they tend to appear when the worst is behind us but the future seems not so much better (say, 2016). It is when a recovery finally gathers speed and some improvement is tangible but not yet widespread that the anger begins to rise. After the suffering of recession or unemployment, and despite hard work with stagnant or dwindling pay, the future stretches ahead with relief just out of essay sheet, reach. When those who helped create the last recession face no consequences but renewed fabulous wealth, the anger reaches a crescendo.

The deeper, long-term reasons for today’s rage are not hard to find, although many of us elites have shamefully found ourselves able to ignore them. The jobs available to the working class no longer contain the kind of craftsmanship or satisfaction or meaning that can take the essayer, sting out of their low and essay planning sheet stagnant wages. Readings For Critical? The once-familiar avenues for socialization — the church, the union hall, the essay, VFW — have become less vibrant and social isolation more common. Global economic forces have pummeled blue-collar workers more relentlessly than almost any other segment of society, forcing them to compete against hundreds of millions of equally skilled workers throughout the planet. To Order? No one asked them in the 1990s if this was the future they wanted.

And the impact has been more brutal than many economists predicted. No wonder suicide and mortality rates among the white working poor are spiking dramatically. “It is usually those whose poverty is relatively recent, the 4 paragraph essay, ‘new poor,’ who throb with the ferment of frustration,” Hoffer argues. Fundamentalist religion long provided some emotional support for law assignments, those left behind (for one thing, it invites practitioners to defy the elites as unholy), but its influence has waned as modernity has penetrated almost everything and the great culture wars of the 1990s and 2000s have ended in a rout. The result has been a more diverse mainstream culture — but also, simultaneously, a subculture that is even more alienated and despised, and ever more infuriated and bloody-minded. This is an age in which a woman might succeed a black man as president, but also one in which a member of the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, white working class has declining options to make a decent living. This is a time when gay people can be married in in education, 50 states, even as working-class families are hanging by 4 paragraph essay sheet a thread. It’s a period in which we have become far more aware of the historic injustices that still haunt African-Americans and yet we treat the desperate plight of today’s white working ­class as an afterthought. And so late-stage capitalism is creating a righteous, revolutionary anger that late-stage democracy has precious little ability to moderate or constrain — and has actually helped exacerbate. For the white working class, having had their morals roundly mocked, their religion deemed primitive, and their economic prospects decimated, now find their very gender and race, indeed the very way they talk about reality, described as a kind of problem for the nation to overcome. This is just one aspect of what Trump has masterfully signaled as “political correctness” run amok, or what might be better described as the coursework doctorate, newly rigid progressive passion for racial and sexual equality of outcome, rather than the liberal aspiration to mere equality of opportunity.

Much of the newly energized left has come to see the white working class not as allies but primarily as bigots, misogynists, racists, and homophobes, thereby condemning those often at 4 paragraph planning the near-bottom rung of the economy to peace the bottom rung of the 4 paragraph sheet, culture as well. A struggling white man in the heartland is now told to peace essay “check his privilege” by students at Ivy League colleges. Even if you agree that the privilege exists, it’s hard not to empathize with the essay, object of in education, this disdain. These working-class communities, already alienated, hear — how can they not? — the glib and easy dismissals of “white straight men” as the ultimate source of 4 paragraph essay planning, all our woes. They smell the condescension and essays the broad generalizations about them — all of planning, which would be repellent if directed at racial minorities — and see themselves, in Hoffer’s words, “disinherited and on a injured by planning sheet an unjust order of things.” And so they wait, and they steam, and they lash out. This was part of the emotional force of the tea party: not just the advancement of racial minorities, gays, and women but the simultaneous demonization of the white working-class world, its culture and way of life.

Obama never intended this, but he became a symbol to many of this cultural marginalization. The Black Lives Matter left stoked the fires still further; so did the gay left, for whom the word magnanimity seems unknown, even in the wake of stunning successes. And as the tea party swept through Washington in 2010, as its representatives repeatedly held the government budget hostage, threatened the very credit of the U.S., and refused to fpga correlation thesis hold hearings on planning a Supreme Court nominee, the American political and media Establishment mostly chose to interpret such behavior as something other than unprecedented. But Trump saw what others didn’t, just as Hoffer noted: “The frustrated individual and the true believer make better prognosticators than those who have reason to want the preservation of the status quo.” Mass movements , Hoffer argues, are distinguished by thesis a “facility for 4 paragraph essay sheet, make-believe … credulity, a readiness to attempt the impossible.” What, one wonders, could be more impossible than suddenly vetting every single visitor to the U.S. for traces of Islamic belief? What could be more make-believe than a big, beautiful wall stretching across the entire Mexican border, paid for by the readings for critical thinking, Mexican government?

What could be more credulous than arguing that we could pay off our national debt through a global trade war? In a conventional political party, and in a rational political discourse, such ideas would be laughed out of contention, their self-evident impossibility disqualifying them from serious consideration. In the emotional fervor of a democratic mass movement, however, these impossibilities become icons of hope, symbols of a new way of essay, conducting politics. Their very impossibility is their appeal. But the most powerful engine for such a movement — the thing that gets it off the ground, shapes and solidifies and entrenches it — is law assignments, always the 4 paragraph essay, evocation of hatred. It is, as Hoffer put it, “the most accessible and comprehensive of all unifying elements.” And so Trump launched his campaign by coursework calling undocumented Mexican immigrants a population largely of rapists and murderers. He moved on to Muslims, both at home and abroad. He has now added to 4 paragraph these enemies — with sly brilliance — the Republican Establishment itself. In Education? And what makes Trump uniquely dangerous in the history of American politics — with far broader national appeal than, say, Huey Long or George Wallace — is his response to all three enemies.

It’s the threat of blunt coercion and dominance. And so after demonizing most undocumented Mexican immigrants, he then vowed to round up and deport all 11 million of them by planning force. “They have to go” was the typically blunt phrase he used — and maid somehow people didn’t immediately recognize the sheet, monstrous historical echoes. Usip? The sheer scale of the police and military operation that this policy would entail boggles the mind. Worse, he emphasized, after the mass murder in San Bernardino, that even the Muslim-Americans you know intimately may turn around and massacre you at planning sheet any juncture. “There’s something going on,” he declaimed ominously, giving legitimacy to the most hysterical and ugly of human impulses. To call this fascism doesn’t do justice to fascism. Fascism had, in some measure, an ideology and occasional coherence that Trump utterly lacks. Coursework Doctorate In Education? But his movement is clearly fascistic in its demonization of foreigners, its hyping of a threat by a domestic minority (Muslims and Mexicans are the new Jews), its focus on a single supreme leader of what can only be called a cult, and its deep belief in violence and sheet coercion in a democracy that has heretofore relied on fpga correlation thesis debate and persuasion. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning? This is the Weimar aspect of our current moment.

Just as the English Civil War ended with a dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, and the French Revolution gave us Napoleon Bonaparte, and the unstable chaos of Russian democracy yielded to Vladimir Putin, and the most recent burst of Egyptian democracy set the conditions for usip, General el-Sisi’s coup, so our paralyzed, emotional hyper-democracy leads the stumbling, frustrated, angry voter toward the chimerical panacea of Trump. His response to his third vaunted enemy, the RNC, is also laced with the threat of violence. There will be riots in Cleveland if he doesn’t get his way. The RNC will have “a rough time” if it doesn’t cooperate. Essay Sheet? “Paul Ryan, I don’t know him well, but I’m sure I’m going to get along great with him,” Trump has said. “And if I don’t? He’s gonna have to pay a big price, okay?” The past month has seen delegates to the Cleveland convention receiving death threats; one of Trump’s hatchet men, Roger Stone, has already threatened to publish the hotel rooms of delegates who refuse to readings for critical and writing vote for Trump.

And what’s notable about Trump’s supporters is 4 paragraph planning sheet, precisely what one would expect from members of a mass movement: their intense loyalty. Trump is their man, however inarticulate they are when explaining why. He’s tough, he’s real, and they’ve got his back, especially when he is in education, attacked by all the 4 paragraph essay sheet, people they have come to despise: liberal Democrats and traditional Republicans. At rallies, whenever a protester is hauled out, you can almost sense the rising rage of the collective identity venting itself against a lone dissenter and finding a catharsis of sorts in the brute force a mob can inflict on coursework doctorate an individual. Trump tells the crowd he’d like to punch a protester in the face or have him carried out on a stretcher. 4 Paragraph Planning? No modern politician who has come this close to the presidency has championed violence in this way. Coursework Doctorate In Education? It would be disqualifying if our hyper­-democracy hadn’t already abolished disqualifications. And while a critical element of 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, 20th-century fascism — its organized street violence — is missing, you can begin to see it in embryonic form. The phalanx of bodyguards around Trump grows daily; plainclothes bouncers in the crowds have emerged as pseudo-cops to contain the incipient unrest his candidacy will only continue to provoke; supporters have attacked hecklers with sometimes stunning ferocity.

Every time Trump legitimizes potential violence by his supporters by saying it comes from a love of country, he sows the essays, seeds for serious civil unrest. Trump celebrates torture — the one true love of 4 paragraph essay, tyrants everywhere — not because it allegedly produces intelligence but because it has a demonstration effect. At his rallies he has recounted the mythical acts of one General John J. Pershing when confronted with an alleged outbreak of Islamist terrorism in fpga correlation, the Philippines. Pershing, in Trump’s telling, lines up 50 Muslim prisoners, swishes a series of bullets in the corpses of freshly slaughtered pigs, and orders his men to put those bullets in their rifles and kill 49 of the captured Muslim men. 4 Paragraph Essay Sheet? He spares one captive solely so he can go back and tell his friends. End of the terrorism problem. In some ways, this story contains all the elements of Trump’s core appeal. The vexing problem of tackling jihadist terror?

Torture and murder enough terrorists and they will simply go away. The complicated issue of undocumented workers, drawn by jobs many Americans won’t take? Deport every single one of them and build a wall to stop the rest. Fuck political correctness. Maid? As one of his supporters told an obtuse reporter at a rally when asked if he supported Trump: “Hell yeah! He’s no-bullshit. All balls.

Fuck you all balls. That’s what I’m about.” And therein lies the planning sheet, appeal of open for critical thinking, tyrants from the beginning of time. Fuck you all balls. 4 Paragraph Planning Sheet? Irrationality with muscle. The racial aspect of this is also unmissable. When the enemy within is Mexican or Muslim, and your ranks are extremely white, you set up a rubric for a racial conflict.

And what’s truly terrifying about Trump is that he does not seem to shrink from such a prospect; he relishes it. For, like all tyrants, he is open readings for critical and writing, utterly lacking in self-control. Sleeping a handful of hours a night, impulsively tweeting in the early hours, improvising madly on subjects he knows nothing about, Trump rants and raves as he surfs an entirely reactive media landscape. 4 Paragraph? Once again, Plato had his temperament down: A tyrant is a man “not having control of himself [who] attempts to rule others”; a man flooded with fear and love and passion, while having little or no ability to restrain or moderate them; a “real slave to to order essay the greatest fawning,” a man who “throughout his entire life … is full of fear, overflowing with convulsions and planning pains.” Sound familiar? Trump is as mercurial and as unpredictable and as emotional as the daily Twitter stream.

And we are contemplating giving him access to the nuclear codes. Those who believe that Trump’s ugly, thuggish populism has no chance of ever making it to the White House seem to me to be missing this dynamic. Neo-fascist movements do not advance gradually by persuasion; they first transform the terms of the debate, create a new movement based on untrammeled emotion, take over tout existing institutions, and then ruthlessly exploit events. And so current poll numbers are only reassuring if you ignore the potential impact of sudden, external events — an economic downturn or a terror attack in a major city in the months before November. Essay Planning Sheet? I have no doubt, for example, that Trump is sincere in his desire to “cut the head off” ISIS, whatever that can possibly mean. But it remains a fact that the interests of ISIS and the Trump campaign are now perfectly aligned. Fear is always the would-be tyrant’s greatest ally. And though Trump’s unfavorables are extraordinarily high (around 65 percent), he is already showing signs of changing his tune, pivoting (fitfully) to the more presidential mode he envisages deploying in the general election. I suspect this will, to some fools on fpga thesis the fence, come as a kind of relief, and may open their minds to him once more. Essay Planning Sheet? Tyrants, like mob bosses, know the value of a smile: Precisely because of the fear he’s already generated, you desperately want to usip believe in 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, his new warmth. It’s part of the to order, good-cop-bad-cop routine that will be familiar to anyone who has studied the 4 paragraph essay planning sheet, presidency of Vladimir Putin.

With his appeal to law assignments essays his own base locked up, Trump may well also shift to more moderate stances on social issues like abortion (he already wants to 4 paragraph planning sheet amend the GOP platform to essayer a less draconian position) or gay and even transgender rights. He is consistent in his inconsistency, because, for him, winning is what counts. Planning Sheet? He has had a real case against Ted Cruz — that the senator has no base outside ideological-conservative quarters and is even less likely to win a general election. More potently, Trump has a worryingly strong argument against coursework doctorate in education, Clinton herself — or “crooked Hillary,” as he now dubs her. His proposition is 4 paragraph essay sheet, a simple one. Remember James Carville’s core question in the 1992 election: Change versus more of the coursework doctorate, same? That sentiment once elected Clinton’s husband; it could also elect her opponent this fall. If you like America as it is, vote Clinton.

After all, she has been a member of the American political elite for a quarter-century. Clinton, moreover, has shown no ability to inspire or rally anyone but her longtime loyalists. She is lost in planning, the new media and has struggled to put away a 74-year-old socialist who is law assignments essays, barely a member of her party. Her own unfavorables are only 11 points lower than Trump’s (far higher than Obama’s, John Kerry’s, or Al Gore’s were at this point in planning sheet, the race), and fpga correlation the more she campaigns, the higher her unfavorables go (including in planning, her own party). She has a Gore problem. The idea of welcoming her into your living room for usip peace essay, the next four years can seem, at 4 paragraph essay planning times, positively masochistic. It may be that demographics will save us.

America is no longer an coursework, overwhelmingly white country, and Trump’s signature issue — illegal immigration — is the source of his strength but also of his weakness. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting how polling models have consistently misread the breadth of his support, especially in these past few weeks; he will likely bend over backward to include minorities in his fall campaign; and those convinced he cannot bring a whole new swath of white voters back into the political process should remember 2004, when Karl Rove helped engineer anti-gay-marriage state constitutional amendments that increased conservative voter turnout. All Trump needs is 4 paragraph planning, a sliver of law assignments, minority votes inspired by the new energy of essay planning, his campaign and the alleged dominance of the open questions readings for critical and writing, Obama coalition could crack (especially without Obama). Throughout the West these past few years, from France to Britain and 4 paragraph essay planning sheet Germany, the polls have kept missing the power of right-wing insurgency. Were Trump to win the White House, the defenses against him would be weak. Law Assignments? He would likely bring a GOP majority in the House, and Republicans in the Senate would be subjected to almighty popular fury if they stood in his way. The 4-4 stalemate in the Supreme Court would break in Trump’s favor. (In large part, of course, this would be due to the GOP’s unprecedented decision to hold a vacancy open “for the people to decide,” another massive hyper-democratic breach in our constitutional defenses.) And if Trump’s policies are checked by other branches of government, how might he react? Just look at his response to 4 paragraph essay sheet the rules of the GOP nomination process.

He’s not interested in rules. And he barely understands the Constitution. In one revealing moment earlier this year, when asked what he would do if the military refused to obey an illegal order to torture a prisoner, Trump simply insisted that the man would obey: “They won’t refuse. They’re not going to refuse, believe me.” He later amended his remark, but it speaks volumes about maid to order, his approach to power. Dick Cheney gave illegal orders to torture prisoners and coerced White House lawyers to cook up absurd “legal” defenses. Trump would make Cheney’s embrace of the dark side and untrammeled executive power look unambitious.

In his 1935 novel , It Can’t Happen Here , Sinclair Lewis wrote a counterfactual about what would happen if fascism as it was then spreading across Europe were to triumph in America. It’s not a good novel, but it remains a resonant one. The imagined American fascist leader — a senator called Buzz Windrip — is a “Professional Common Man … But he was the Common Man ­twenty-times-magnified by his oratory, so that while the 4 paragraph essay planning, other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to him in peace essay, worship.” He “was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in his ‘ideas’ almost idiotic.” “ ‘I know the Press only too well,’ ” Windrip opines at one point. “ ‘Almost all editors hide away in spider-dens, men without thought of Family or Public Interest … plotting how they can put over their lies, and essay advance their own positions and fill their greedy pocketbooks.’ ” He is obsessed with the balance of trade and promises instant economic success: “ ‘I shall not be content till this country can produce every single thing we need … We shall have such a balance of trade as will go far to carry out my often-criticized yet completely sound idea of from $3000 to $5000 per year for every single family.’ ” However fantastical and empty his promises, he nonetheless mesmerizes the party faithful at the nominating convention (held in Cleveland!): “Something in the intensity with which Windrip looked at his audience, looked at all of them, his glance slowly taking them in tout, from the highest-perched seat to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet the nearest, convinced them that he was talking to each individual, directly and correlation solely; that he wanted to take each of them into sheet, his heart; that he was telling them the truths, the imperious and dangerous facts, that had been hidden from them.” And all the elites who stood in his way? Crippled by their own failures, demoralized by their crumbling stature, they first mock and then cave.

As one lone journalist laments before the election (he finds himself in usip essay, a concentration camp afterward): “I’ve got to keep remembering … that Windrip is only the lightest cork on the whirlpool. He didn’t plot all this thing. With all the justified discontent there is against the smart politicians and the Plush Horses of Plutocracy — oh, if it hadn’t been one Windrip, it’d been another … We had it coming, we Respectables.” And, 81 years later, many of 4 paragraph sheet, us did. An American elite that has presided over massive and open for critical increasing public debt, that failed to sheet prevent 9/11, that chose a disastrous war in the Middle East, that allowed financial markets to nearly destroy the global economy, and that is usip peace essay, now so bitterly divided the Congress is effectively moot in a constitutional democracy: “We Respectables” deserve a comeuppance. 4 Paragraph Essay Planning Sheet? The vital and valid lesson of the Trump phenomenon is that if the elites cannot govern by questions for critical thinking compromise, someone outside will eventually try to govern by popular passion and brute force. But elites still matter in a democracy.

They matter not because they are democracy’s enemy but because they provide the critical ingredient to planning save democracy from correlation itself. The political Establishment may be battered and demoralized, deferential to the algorithms of the web and to essay planning the monosyllables of a gifted demagogue, but this is not the time to coursework doctorate in education give up on America’s near-unique and stabilizing blend of democracy and elite responsibility. The country has endured far harsher times than the present without succumbing to 4 paragraph rank demagoguery; it avoided the fascism that destroyed Europe; it has channeled extraordinary outpourings of democratic energy into constitutional order. It seems shocking to to order essay argue that we need elites in planning sheet, this democratic age — especially with vast inequalities of wealth and essay elite failures all around us. But we need them precisely to protect this precious democracy from its own destabilizing excesses. And so those Democrats who are gleefully predicting a Clinton landslide in 4 paragraph, November need to both check their complacency and understand that the Trump question really isn’t a cause for partisan Schadenfreude anymore. It’s much more dangerous than that. Those still backing the demagogue of the left, Bernie Sanders, might want to reflect that their critique of tout essayer, Clinton’s experience and expertise — and their facile conflation of that with corruption — is 4 paragraph essay sheet, only playing into Trump’s hands. Fpga Correlation? That it will fall to Clinton to temper her party’s ambitions will be uncomfortable to watch, since her willingness to compromise and equivocate is 4 paragraph essay sheet, precisely what many Americans find so distrustful. And yet she may soon be all we have left to counter the threat. She needs to grasp the law assignments essays, lethality of her foe, moderate the kind of identity politics that unwittingly empowers him, make an unapologetic case that experience and moderation are not vices, address much more directly the anxieties of the white working class—and Democrats must listen.

More to the point, those Republicans desperately trying to use the long-standing rules of their own nominating process to thwart this monster deserve our passionate support, not our disdain. This is not the moment to remind them that they partly brought this on themselves. Planning Sheet? This is open thinking and writing, a moment to offer solidarity, especially as the 4 paragraph planning sheet, odds are increasingly stacked against them. Doctorate In Education? Ted Cruz and planning John Kasich faced their decisive battle in Indiana on May 3. It was the bitter end. The Republican delegates who are trying to doctorate in education protect their party from the planning sheet, whims of an outsider demagogue are, at essayer this moment, doing what they ought to be doing to prevent civil and racial unrest, an 4 paragraph essay sheet, international conflict, and a constitutional crisis. These GOP elites have every right to deploy whatever rules or procedural roadblocks they can muster, and they should refuse to be intimidated. And if they fail in Indiana or Cleveland, as they likely will, they need, quite simply, to disown their party’s candidate. They should resist any temptation to loyally back the nominee or to law assignments sit this election out. They must take the fight to 4 paragraph sheet Trump at correlation thesis every opportunity, unite with Democrats and 4 paragraph essay planning Independents against him, and be prepared to sacrifice one election in coursework, order to save their party and their country. For Trump is not just a wacky politician of the far right, or a riveting television spectacle, or a Twitter phenom and bizarre working-class hero. He is 4 paragraph, not just another candidate to be parsed and analyzed by TV pundits in doctorate, the same breath as all the planning sheet, others.

In terms of our liberal democracy and constitutional order, Trump is an extinction-level event. It’s long past time we started treating him as such. *This article appeared in the May 2, 2016 issue of New York Magazine. Well, it’s shit. That’s right, shit! Shit may just be the most functional word in the English language. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and to order tell others to 4 paragraph essay planning sheet eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can’t tell the difference between shit and essayer shineola.

There are lucky shits, dumb shits, and crazy shits. There is essay planning sheet, bull shit, horse shit, and tout chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the 4 paragraph essay planning, shit, or duck when the shit hits the fan. You can give a shit or serve shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a pig in shit.

Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Maid? Some music sounds like shit, things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit. You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the essay sheet, wrong shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of shit, or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Sometimes everything you touch turns to shit and other times you fall in a bucket of shit and come out smelling like a rose. When you stop to consider all the facts, it’s the basic building block of the English language.

And remember, once you know your shit, you don’t need to know anything else!! You could pass this along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don’t give a shit! Life Alert Necklaces and the Dinosaur. by Lee Ann Bledsoe. CAMERA FOCUSES in on an old woman sprawled on her living room floor. “Help me! Help me!” she cries. Fpga Thesis? “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up.” Camera zooms in to capture the woman’s tear-stained face. She looks needy and helpless as she grovels on the floor. For God’s sake , I think, put her down!

Euthanazia. A club. Find a zombie. Anything to planning get the law assignments, whining to stop! CAMERA PANS the room and captures the terrified faces of two young children as they run to grandma’s side. “Grandma, grandma, are you okay?” the youngest one cries. Grandma repeats: “Help me! Help, me! I’ve fallen and I can’t get up!” The kids already know she’s fallen; grandma’s on the fucking floor for 4 paragraph essay, God’s sake! Evidently the old woman wants her grandkids traumatized for life as well as terrified in this moment. Then a compassionate, soothing voice begins the sales pitch: “Life Alert necklaces … blah, blah, blah.”

I absolutely DETEST commercials that prey on our fears to sell stuff. So can you imagine how pissed I am that I’m probably going to have to buy a device that advertises to the world I’m so old and feeble I need a team of experts to help me survive my next fall? I fell tonight. Two of my great grandkids were with me: Chrissy is three and James Mervin is 18 months. I tripped over Fancy Puzzles, a cat who lives with me but belongs to someone else. (Fancy’s another story.) Anyway, Chrissie was terrified. She panicked and screamed, then cried for 30 minutes.

I felt horrible for scaring her so badly. And I wasn’t even hurt. My three great grandkids spend a lot of time ay my house but the youngest two are with me five days a week. I don’t mean to brag–or maybe I do–but I am the best great grandmother on the planet. What would happen if I had hurt myself? What would happen if I had a stroke? No neighbor’s house to run to; all the houses around me sit empty nine or 10 months of the year. Usip Peace Essay? My internet and phone (a landline) are out as much as on 4 paragraph essay planning sheet during the stormy season. Maybe I should get another cell phone?

I have seven or eight of the damn things now, sitting in the bottom drawer of my desk. Usip Peace Essay? My kids and grandkids keep buying them for me. I’m always grateful for the new device; absolutely thrilled to own a gadget that would allow everyone in the world to reach me, anytime of the day or night, anywhere I might happen to be. I can’t imagine anything more intrusive. How do people stand it? Nevertheless, I thank the kids sweetly, play around with the latest phone until the battery dies, and then add it to my growing collection. But I might have to essay reconsider; can a three-year-old kid use a cell phone? Or should I order one of those Life Alert necklaces? At this point in my life, I’d rather fitted for Depends.

Why couldn’t the commercial have the old woman climbing a ladder, preparing to clean her gutters? I do that twice a year. She could fondle the necklace, look squarely into the camera and say in a strong voice: “This will come in handy if I fuck this up.” I could buy into coursework doctorate in education, a commercial like that. Lee Ann Bledsoe says: “I was a fairly successful professional writer 100 years ago working as a columnist for “The Oregonian” and “The Columbian,” writing humorous verse for several greeting card companies, and 4 paragraph essay freelancing for “Alcoholism” and maid “Health” magazines. Went back to school to earn a degree in fine arts, got sidetracked and ended up graduating four years later with a masters in sociology. For the next three decades I worked in community mental health, specializing in the DMIO (“dangerously mentally ill offender”) population.

Fun group. One of those guys took a real dislike to me in May of 2011, effectively ending my career and the bleeding heart phase of my life. I’m extremely grateful he didn’t end me, as well. Now I’m writing again. I’ve just finished “The Unlikely Survivalist,” the first book in a three book series. Other than that, I hate liver–even smothered in onions–love dogs, gardening without gloves, reading and writing.”